Executive Summary In 2000 the world’s consumers spent around • UK based retailers are increasingly specifying US$1 trillion worldwide buying clothes. Around one codes of good practice in labour standards to their third of sales were in Western Europe, one third in suppliers, but there are difficulties in imposing North America and one quarter in Asia. these throughout the supply chain, leading to concerns about working hours, safety and use of • Today, clothing and textiles represent about seven child labour. per cent of world exports. • Most countries in the supply chain have a legal • Globally, the workforce in clothing and textiles minimum wage, but in some cases this is lower production was around 26.5 million in 2000. than a realistic minimum living wage – so while • More than a quarter of the world’s production of the sector offers an opportunity for development clothing and textiles is in China, which has a fast by creating many relatively low skilled jobs, some growing internal market and the largest share of workers are unable to escape from a cycle of world trade. Western countries are still important poverty. exporters of clothing and textiles, particularly • In some countries the right of workers in the sector Germany and Italy in clothing and the USA in to form associations (unions) to represent their textiles. concerns in collective bargaining is suppressed. • Output from the sector is growing in volume, but prices are dropping, as is employment, as new The flow of material through the UK: As part technology and vertically integrated structures of the work described in this report, a clothing and support improved productivity. textiles mass balance for the sector was calculated for the UK. • Growth in volumes is almost entirely associated with polyester – volumes of natural fibre • 3.25 million tonnes of clothing and textiles flow production and use having remained approximately through the UK each year – approximately 55kg constant for several years. per person. • The sector is freer than for many years following • Of this, around half is imported as textile products, the phasing out of international quota agreements a quarter as ‘intermediate products’ (mainly in 2005, but plenty of agreements that distort fabric and yarn) and the rest as fibre (imported or the free-market still exist – with USA government produced in the UK). Approximately two thirds of subsidies of cotton farmers being prominent. the imports of fibres, yarns and fabrics to the UK are man-made. The major environmental impacts of the sector • The UK exports 1.15 million tonnes of clothing and arise from the use of energy and toxic chemicals: textiles each year, comprising fibres, fabric and • The sector’s contribution to climate change is some completed products – mainly clothing and dominated by the requirement for burning fossil carpets. fuel to create electricity for heating water and • One fifth of the UK’s annual consumption air in laundering. Other major energy uses arise (by weight) of clothing and textile products is in providing fuel for agricultural machinery and manufactured in the UK. electricity for production. • Consumers in the UK spend about £780 per head • Toxic chemicals are used widely in cotton per year, purchasing around 2.15 million tonnes agriculture and in many manufacturing stages such (35kg per person) of which one eighth is sent for as pre-treatment, dyeing and printing. re-use through charities and the rest is discarded. • Waste volumes from the sector are high and • The UK clothing and textile industry employed growing in the UK with the advent of ‘fast fashion’. around 182,000 people in 2004 split evenly On average, UK consumers send 30kg of clothing between clothing and textiles. and textiles per capita to landfill each year. • Water consumption – especially the extensive use The future of the sector: in order to anticipate of water in cotton crop cultivation – can also be a likely trends in the sector, we conducted a structured major environmental issue as seen dramatically in ‘Delphi’ study, gathering information from a panel of the Aral Sea region. experts across the sector. Their major predictions are: • Competition in the sector will increase, as skill Social concern has always been a feature of the levels and investment in developing countries sector – and campaigns for improved social conditions continues to grow. Prices in the UK will continue to for low paid workers in developing countries have be driven down. been effective and continue: WELL DRESSED?
• Innovations may include new production sorting procedures will be beneficial in reducing technologies to reduce the labour requirement of waste and providing useable clothes to developing garment completion and development of novel countries. ‘smart’ functions. • Recycling is significant for materials with high• Pressure from consumers and legislation is likely impacts in the production phase. Technology to drive increasing demands for environmentally innovations may provide a means to extract sensitive production. In the short term this is likely longer fibres from used textiles, although a recent to focus on the use of chemicals but may extend innovative business for carpet recycling failed to to include re-use of materials and substitution of achieve profitability. alternative materials. • The globalised structure of the clothing and• International campaigns will continue to drive textile supply chain does not have significant improvement in working conditions for employees environmental disadvantage, as energy used in developing countries. in transport is proportionately low and the UK does not have a supply of relevant raw materials.Developing a more sustainable future: the largest Technology innovations such as 3D knittingpart of the work for this report was a wide-ranging and weaving may lead to economically viablescenario analysis of various possible futures. The production in the UK, with some consumeranalysis included prediction of the environmental, benefits from increased responsiveness. However,economic and social consequences of changes in this will only have environmental benefits ifproduction structure, consumer behaviour, material associated with material recycling.and process innovations and government influence.The main findings of the scenario analysis are: Change in the sector to reduce environmental impact and promote social equity will occur if• Improvement in the environmental performance of driven by consumer choice. According to the analysis the sector is material specific and depends on the of the report, in order to create change, a consumer energy and toxicity life-cycle profile of the material. would: For conventional cotton products, the requirement for energy is driven by laundry, but the use of toxic • Buy second-hand clothing and textiles where chemicals is driven by agriculture. In contrast, for possible. viscose, energy use is dominated by production. • Buy fewer more durable garments and textile• For products in which production dominates products. impacts, process efficiencies should be pursued • When buying new products, choose those made and the impact will be reduced by extending the with least energy and least toxic emissions, made life of the product or by re-using materials by some by workers paid a credible living wage with form of recycling. reasonable employment rights and conditions.• For products in which raw material production • Lease clothes that would otherwise not be worn to dominates, in addition to measures to extend the end of their natural life. product life, alternative processes or materials should be pursued. A switch from conventional to • Wash clothes less often, at lower temperatures and organic cotton growing would eliminate most toxic using eco-detergents, hang-dry them and avoid releases, at the cost of price rises in the UK. ironing where possible.• Energy requirements for cotton garments are • Extend the life of clothing and textile products dominated by washing, drying and ironing. In through repair. response, wash temperatures can be reduced and • Dispose of used clothing and textiles through tumble drying avoided. Novel treatments may recycling businesses who would return them for provide resistance to odours so reducing the total second-hand sale wherever possible, but otherwise number of washes or allow faster drying with less extract and recycle the yarn or fibres. ironing. Several barriers inhibit the adoption of this behaviour.• The UK’s current behaviour in disposing of used In order to overcome these barriers: clothing and textiles to landfill is not sustainable as volumes are growing. Incineration is preferable to • Consumer education is vital – to ensure that fact landfill, as it allows energy recovery and reduces based information on the specific impacts of a final waste volumes. product are available and understood.• The second-hand sector is growing and there • Increased emphasis on durability as a is further demand, so improved collection and component of fashion would support a move EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
towards reduced material flow. • The sector could halve its material flow without economic loss if consumers pay a higher price for a product that lasts twice as long. • New business models with growth in profit decoupled from increased material flow are possible where consumers pay for services – such as repair, novel coatings, other maintenance services, remanufacturing or ‘fashion upgrades’. • Technology development may lead to new means to freshen clothes without washing, efficient sorting of used clothing, new fibre recycling technology and new low temperature detergents. • The infrastructure of clothing collection could be improved. • UK government policy on the environment should be changed to promote reduction of total or embedded impacts in products, not just those arising in the UK. • The UK’s involvement in negotiating international agreements on trade could be used to promote environmental and social responsibility. Biffaward Programme on SuStainaBle reSource uSe Objectives This report forms part of the Biffaward Programme on In order to maximise the programme’s full potential, data has Sustainable Resource Use. The aim of the programme is to been generated and classified in ways that are both consistent provide accessible, well-researched information about the with each other, and with methodologies of the other flows of different resources through the UK economy based generators of resource flow / waste management data. either singly, or on a combination of regions, material streams In addition to the projects having their own means of or industry sectors. dissemination to their own constituencies, their data and Background information has been gathered in a common format to facilitate policy making at corporate, regional and national levels. Information about material resource flows through the UK economy is of fundamental importance to the cost-effective More than 60 different mass balance projects have been management of resource flows, especially at the stage when funded by Biffaward. For more information, please visit the resources become ‘waste’. www.massbalance.org WELL DRESSED?
ContentsExecutive summary ..........................................................................................2The world of clothing and textiles ....................................................................7UK clothing and textiles mass balance ............................................................ 15Scenario analysis:...........................................................................................21 Location of clothing and textiles production ................................................................................... 30 Changes in consumer behaviour ..................................................................................................... 38 New products and material selection ..............................................................................................44 Influence of government decisions on the sector ............................................................................ 56 Gathering the threads ..................................................................................................................... 64Conclusions ...................................................................................................67Footnotes......................................................................................................72
The world of clothing and textiles Introducing the way that clothes and textiles are produced at present and understanding the economic, environmental and social significance of the sector. THE WORLD OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
The world of clothing and textiles We start this report by giving an account of the Rapid change in international clothing and textiles sector as it is now. The next section reports on the flow of materials through the trade agreements UK associated with clothing and textiles, to provide a Because of the size of the sector and the historical macro-economic materials account of the sector. The dependence of clothing manufacture on cheap remainder of the report presents a structured ‘scenario labour, the clothing and textile industry is subject to analysis’ in which we present various possible changes intense political interest and has been significantly to the way we make and use clothing and textile shaped by international trading agreements. From products and explore how these might lead to a more 1974 to 2005, as the skills and infrastructure of sustainable future. Chinese manufacturing developed while retaining an advantageously low wage rate, a series of ‘quotas’ The clothing and textiles sector and tariffs were imposed by developed economies especially on Chinese exports, to attempt to protect is a major part of world trade their own manufacturing interests. These agreements The clothing and textiles sector is a significant part of (which will be discussed in more detail later in the the world’s economy. In 2000 the world’s consumers report) were officially ended on 1 January 2005, but spent around US$1 trillion on clothing – split roughly the rules of trade remain complicated and continue to one third in Western Europe, one third in North change rapidly. Regional trade blocs and preferential America, one quarter in Asia A1. Seven per cent of total trade agreements maintain various distortions to ‘free world exports are in clothing and textiles. Significant trade’ but the ending of the main set of quotas has led parts of the sector are dominated by developing to a rapid rise in Chinese exports and a consequent countries, particularly in Asia, and above all by China. drop in prices for UK consumers. Negotiations over Industrialised countries are still important exporters China’s accession to the WTO continue to give some of clothing and textiles, especially Germany, Italy in protection to those threatened by Chinese growth clothing and the United States in textiles. Developing until 2008. During the period in which quotas were countries now account for half of the world textile phased out, from 1980 to 2000, average tariffs fell exports and almost three quarters of world clothing from 10% to 5% in developed countries and 25% to exports. However, for some materials, processes or 13% in developing. Within developing countries, such products, other countries have an important role. The as China, there is a proliferation of Export Processing figure shows how the USA remains the largest world Zones, where some preferential treatment by the exporter of cotton, despite having only 25,000 cotton domestic government facilitates strong exports. farmers. Australia and New Zealand are the largest suppliers of wool and of carpets – which can be made Market distortion from with efficient machines requiring little manual labour – many countries including the UK are able to serve a subsidies remains significant fraction of their own demand. In addition to protection from low labour cost countries by imposition of quotas and import World cotton exports 200/2 tariffs, exporting countries have also supported their manufacturing industries through allocation Rest of World USA of subsidies A2. The figure shows estimates of the 21% 37% true cost of producing a pound (weight) of cotton in 2001 – at a time when the market price was around US$0.45 per pound. USA costs were highest, but subsidies provided by the USA government brought down the price artificially – creating grave difficulties China 1% for developing countries, for whom cotton could be Brazil 2% a significant fraction of total exports. The USA is the Greece second largest producer of cotton in the World and 4% the largest exporter – and accounts for half of worlds’ production subsidies. Over 26 million people work to Australia 10% produce clothing and textiles Estimating the number of people working in these Africa Uzbekhistan sectors is extremely difficult, due to the number of 12% 13% small firms and subcontractors active in the area Source: ICAC 2001 and the difficulty of drawing boundaries between WELL DRESSED?
sectors. According to the current (2006) statistics of Employment in clothing and textiles by countrythe UNIDO (United Nationals Industrial Development 8Organisation) Industrial Statistics Database (INDSTAT)around 26.5 million people work within the clothingand textiles sector worldwide A3. The data basecontains the most recent estimates of employment 6within each country, typically using data between1998 and 2002 – so more recent studies (for instancea 2005 ILO report A4) quote different figures, with 4Market and producer prices for cotton 2000/00.8 20.6 0 China Pakistan Bangladesh India Indonesia EU + Med. Americas Other Asia Market price 0.450.4 Million employees Textiles Clothing Source: UNIDO INDSTAT database 2006 higher labour costs tend to have more employment in0.2 textiles. The ILO estimates that employment in the sector fell from 34.2 million in 1990 to 26.5 million in 2000 0 – a decline of around 20% A3. However, these losses China Benin Pakistan Trukey Australia USA were unevenly distributed – with rapid decline of the sector in the USA and EU but growth in several Asian US$ per pound of cotton countries. Direct employment in both sectors leads indirectly to further employment – in services and Source: ICAC, Survey of the cost of production of raw cotton, 2001 associated industries and by the ‘multiplier effect’ – as those earning in this sector will spend their earningsestimates of employment in China as high as 19 on other goods.million. Of these 26.5 million employees, 13 millionare employed in the clothing sector and 13.5 million Around 70% of clothing workers are women A5. Inin the textiles sector A3. These figures are only people the garment industry, women typically sew, finishemployed in manufacturing – not retail or other and pack clothes. Supervisors, machine operatorssupporting sectors. Thirty six countries employ more and technicians tend to be men – who earnthan 100,000 people in the sector, of which China (at more. Conditions for workers vary. Employment7.5 million employees) is clearly dominant. Four other opportunities have generally been concentrated atcountries employ more than one million people and the bottom of the supply chain, in the lower range30 of the remaining 31 countries are grouped into of qualifications and, very often, in countries withthree regions and shown in the figure. South Africa is limited alternative job opportunities. These factorsexcluded, as it doesn’t fit the geographical grouping, have contributed towards maintaining wages in theseand data for other sub-Saharan African countries are sectors at relatively low rates.uncertain, but estimates of employment in Frenchspeaking Africa are as high as two million. (The In some areas – such as Export Processing ZonesINDSTAT database contains no figures for Pakistan and around the world – credible work policies prevail.the estimates given here are taken from an ILO report.) However there are still millions of people at the end of the supply chains employed precariously. A box storyBrazil, the Russian Federation, the USA, Vietnam, Italy in a later section of this report describes particularand Japan all employ more than half a million people conditions in Bangladesh, where the clothing sectorin manufacturing in the clothing and textiles sector. accounts for more than 70% of their total exports.The distribution of employment between clothing andtextiles varies by country, but generally countries with THE WORLD OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
The sector is increasingly India is the second largest exporter of textiles, but various analysts have referred to the need to dominated by Asian countries modernise textile machinery in India before businesses In the past five to ten years, employment in the sector in the sector can compete effectively with those in has increasingly been concentrated in China, Pakistan, China. Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Romania, Cambodia and Turkey. All of these countries, apart from India, have Developing countries account for almost three shown increases in clothing and textile employment quarters of world clothing exports and for half of from 1997 to 2002 – the global decline in employment world textile exports. Many Asian garment investors in the sector is equally marked in countries such as the drawn by the African Growth and Opportunity Act USA, Europe and the Philippines. Employment in the (AGOA), a preferential trade agreement signed with clothing and textile sector in EU25 countries fell by one the USA, have set up garment factories in Kenya, million to 2.7 million from 1995 to 2005. A further Lesotho and Swaziland. However, Africa has seen the one million job losses in the sector are anticipated in worst job losses since the end of the Agreement of the next five years. Textiles and Clothing (ATC). However, for many smaller developing countries, Despite the dominance of the Asian countries, around which are small exporters on a global scale, clothing six million people are employed in the European and and textiles exports are their dominant form of Mediterranean area. Mainly this is due to the trade- external earnings. In Bangladesh, Haiti and Cambodia off between low labour costs (Asia) and proximity clothing and textiles account for more than 80% to developed markets (European-Mediterranean) of total exports. Similar high figures apply to the and companies such as Inditex have developed new proportion of the country’s manufacturing workers models for clothing supply based on rapid response employed within the clothing and textiles sector. to changes in fashion with clothing sourced near to purchase. In Bulgaria the clothing and textiles The figure below shows typical earnings in the industry, which has a history spanning two centuries, clothing sector in different countries. Strikingly, wage retains a competitive advantage over neighbouring rates in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan are lower than countries through cheaper labour A6. However, this in China. However, China continues to dominate advantage may be eroded once Bulgaria joins the EU, the sector because of a build up of competitive as imposition of EU rules on employment and trade advantages including short lead times, efficient may increase costs as has happened in Hungary and logistics, a more experienced and skilled labour force, Poland. Bulgaria is also likely to see an increase in a better power infrastructure (with fewer power imports of cheaper Chinese apparel and textiles as has outages) and more investment in capital equipment. occurred in Romania since the phasing out of quotas. Economies where clothing and textiles account Hourly wages in clothing industry for a significant part of exports earnings from the export of goods in 200 Pakistan 0.23 Tunisia 41 Sri Lanka 0.57 Sri Lanka 55 India 0.71 Mauritius 57 China 0.86 Lesotho 70 Mexico 1.75 Pakistan 70 Hong Kong 5.13 Bangladesh 83 Germany 10.03 Haiti 84 USA 11.16 Cambodia 85 US$ per hour % of export goods earnings from clothing and textiles Source: ILO 2003 Source: UNCTAD10 WELL DRESSED?
The sector is becoming manufacture of technical textiles A8, such as those for protective clothing and medical use.more integratedSetup and switch-over times and costs have Despite the exit of manufacturing in clothing andtraditionally led to large batch manufacture of clothing textiles from the UK, the sector continues to be highlywith long lead times – fashion shows for summer valuable, as the biggest profits in the sector are at theclothing are held in the autumn to allow six months end of the supply chain – in retail and branding. Thefor manufacture. However, this pattern is rapidly cost and price structure of the sector globally is nowchanging – with customer demand for so called characterised by there being the potential for high“fast fashion” where stores change the designs on profit from innovation, marketing and retailing but lowshow every few weeks, rather than twice per year. profit from sourcing, production, assembly, finishing,This emphasis on speeding up production has led packaging and distribution.to concentration in the industry with fewer largersuppliers – to take advantage of economies of scale In supplying finished goods to end consumers,(for instance in purchasing) and to simplify the number multiple store retailers dominate this sector – sellingof relationships that must be maintained by retailers. 70% of clothing in Western Europe and 85% in the USA. The top five department stores in the USAThis trend is now more noticeable in the clothing delivered about half of its total sales A9 .sector with the growth of ‘full package’ companiesthat are able to supply quick time delivery orders Consumers are accustomed to to big retailers. Downstream textile finishing anddyeing processes are being integrated into textile increasing variety at low pricesweaving factories and further integrated with clothing In the UK in 2004 we spent on average £780 permanufacture and the distribution networks. Such head on clothing and textiles, of which around £625integration supports rapid servicing of the demand was on clothes. Total spending on clothes in the UKfor ‘fast fashion’ by avoiding the build up of stock in 2005 was £38.4 billion of which £24 billion wascharacteristic of long supply chains and providing on women’s, girls and infants clothing, £12 billionshorter lead times. There is also a trend towards on men’s and boys’ clothing and £2.4 billion oninvesting in increased capacity and introducing “new accessories, hire, cleaning, tailoring, etc.industrial robotics” – substituting expensive labourwith novel technologies. A variant of such single From 2001 to 2005 spending on women’s clothingcompany vertical integration also in evidence is the grew by 21% and that on men’s by 14%. During thedevelopment of clusters of businesses supporting each same time – as the end of the quota arrangementother through Regional Integration A7. approached in 2005 – prices actually dropped by 14%Despite rising fuel prices, distribution costs throughout UK retail sales of clothingthe sector are dropping, as logistics companies 700 10%become more efficient at managing the flow of goodsacross wide distances. 600 8%UK production is increasingly Annual increase in spending [%] 500 Per capita spend [£GBP]focused on niche products 6% 400The UK had a dominant role in the clothing and Average increasetextiles sector in the early 19th Century but has seen = 4.8%a steady decline – with a symbolic withdrawal of 300 4%Marks and Spencers’ demand from UK clothing andtextile manufacturers in the 1990’s. Activity in the 200sector in the UK is now focused on design more than 2%production – but potentially the UK may also serve 100as a source of innovation, particularly for niche orhigh quality products. An example of this is the UK’s 0 0%strength in wool production which has traditionally 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004been recognised for delivering state of the art goodsto international market such as Japan and the USA. Per capita spend [£GDP]The UK is also developing competitiveness in novel Annual increase in spending [%]‘nanotechnology’ coatings and smart functions to be Source: ONSapplied to clothing and textiles and in the design and THE WORLD OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
in real terms, so sales by volume increased by 37%. Thus, over four years, the number of garments bought per person in the UK increased by over one third A10. Price indices for consumer goods and services 160 Price indicies [1995 price = 100] 140 120 manufactured to add value and sold as fashionable items. However, most are baled and shipped for resale in Eastern Europe, the Middle-East or Africa. Second- hand garments bales are sold via a commodity market 100 to traders and then to stall merchants for resale at local markets. 80 A small fraction of the collected textiles is shredded and converted into wipes or carded and mixed with other fibres to be re-spun into yarn. An example of 60 such a yarn is that developed by Annie Sherburne with 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 50% recycled 50% virgin wool. Food Housing The second-hand clothes trade in developing countries Alcoholic drinks Transport creates some employment A11 and is an important Clothing Communications Source: ONS [1995 prices = 100] Second-hand clothing is worth $1 billion per year After the consumer use phase the life of a garment or textile product is not over. Some clothes and textiles are taken to recycling clothes banks operated for example by the Salvation Army (which also has door to door collection), Traid, Oxfam, or many other members of the Textile Recycling Association. The goods are transported to recycling plants to be source of low cost clothing. The trade is only a small sorted. The best quality garments are sent for resale fraction of global trade in clothing (about 0.5% of at charity shops and a small number of items are re- the total value) but in many African countries it has a significant proportion of the market, up to 30% of the total value of imports and 50% in volume A10. This raises a concern that second-hand clothes inhibit the development of local industry. However, at present trade in second-hand clothing is falling as a share of total clothing imports due to the increase of cheap imports from Asia.1 WELL DRESSED?
Clothes and textiles come for human hands able to handle and sew all kinds of fabrics, a task that is still complex for robots. Instead,from oil or natural fibres the industry has relocated in pursuit of cheap labourClothing and textiles products begin as fibres – which (often women) – for whom a low paid job performingare either natural (e.g. cotton, silk, wool), man-made repetitive tasks in a factory is more attractive than any(made from cellulosics, e.g. viscose) or synthetic (oil of their other options.used to create polymers, e.g. polyester, acrylic andnylon). The figure shows the breakdown of world However, due to innovations in knitting machines,demand for these two types of fibre over 15 years knitwear is increasingly made by machines – delivering– showing that demand for natural fibres has been seamless whole garments. Some other productionapproximately constant, while demand for man-made technology innovations include laser cutting of fabric,fibres has nearly doubled A12. The second figure shows automated sewing machines that ‘learn’ operationsthat within this man-made category, growth has been from humans and ink jet printing of fabric or made-updriven by demand for polyester. garments.Manufacture of textiles begins with spinning the Integration of computer aided design andoriginal fibres, which are relatively short and thin, into manufacture in the whole supply chain is beingyarns. These yarns are converted into fabrics (often flat developed to reduce lead times and improve thesheets), by one of two processes: weaving or knitting. quality and performance of products. Recent researchThe ‘flat’ fabric must then be formed into a ‘3D shell’ in the industry has aimed to transfer technologiesto be useful as clothing. from the automotive industry to use ‘new industrial robotics’ to reduce the need for expensive labour.From the design of a garment to the pressing and This is economically attractive for manufacturers inpackaging of a finished product a range of processes developed countries with high costs – but potentiallyare required – each with different requirements for will remove important employment opportunities incapital, technology and labour: designing, pattern developing countries.making, grading, nesting and marking, cutting,sewing, quality inspection, pressing and packaging. The sector has also seen a rapid adoption of novel ITThere is continuous development of technology at solutions for production system control and virtualall levels of these activities aiming at reduced labour design, stock control, replenishment and real-timeintensity and quicker delivery. However, in 300 years monitoring of fashion trends.of innovation, no technical substitute has been found Man-made fibre production by type over timeWorld demand for natural and man-made fibres 4080 3060 2040 1020 0 1979 1982 1998 2000 2002 2004 0 1990 1995 2001 2004 Million tonnes per year Million tonnes per year Polyester Other natural fibres Nylon Cotton, wool and silk Acryllic Man-made fibres Cellulosics Source: Textiles Intelligence 2005 Source: Textiles Intelligence 2003 THE WORLD OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
and textiles have a legally defined minimum Major environmental impacts wage, but social campaigners assert that there are related to energy use is a difference between such a ‘minimum legal wage’ and a ‘minimum living wage’ – it may not and use of toxic chemicals be possible to escape from a cycle of poverty with only the minimum legal wage. Companies face three forms of pressure from their consumers: shareholder expectations, customer loyalty • Precarious employment: use of repeated temporary and ethical pressure. There is considerable evidence contracts or the absence of any employment in the UK that consumer interest in ‘ethics’ is growing contracts combined with delayed payment and – and so business interest in developing and managing the absence of employment benefits, is common ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ is also growing. practice in some countries. • Sexual harassment: campaigners for women’s The major environmental issues associated with the labour worldwide report cases in which women sector are . are threatened by their superiors and unable to • Energy use in laundry, production of primary complain A1, without risk of losing their jobs. materials especially man-made fibres and in yarn manufacturing of natural fibres. The major occupational health issues associated with • Use of toxic chemicals which may harm human the sector are exposure to: health and the environment – in particular in • Hazardous chemicals particularly in cotton conventional cotton production.A13 production, wet pre-treatment, dyeing, finishing • Release of chemicals in waste water and making up. – especially in wet pre-treatment, dyeing, finishing • Fibre dust, especially when processing cotton, and laundry – which may harm water based life. giving rise to the respiratory disease termed • Solid waste arising from yarn manufacturing of byssinosis. natural fibres, making up and disposal of products • Noise associated with yarn manufacturing, knitting at the end of their life. and weaving. Social implications for the • Monotonous repetitive processes in making up, leading to injuries amongst sewing machinists. clothing and textiles industry In both sectors there are still many concerns about the quality of the jobs they create and their social consequences. • Children: even though the elimination of child labour is one of the goals of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) it remains a challenge in the clothing and textiles industry mostly due to the difficulty of monitoring subcontractors, indirect workers and home workers. • The industry workforce is largely made up of young women, who are “low skilled” or “unskilled” and may be migrants. Such workers are vulnerable to various forms of abuse and may not know or be able to claim their rights as employees A14. Some UK retailers are working to impose ethical conditions on their suppliers in an attempt to protect such workers, but the success depends upon rigorous implementation which is costly. A particular problem at present is that many subcontractors deny the right of workers to form an association (or trade union) to assert their rights to appropriate working conditions, pay and training and promotion. • Pay: most countries supplying the UK’s clothing1 WELL DRESSED?
UK clothing and textiles mass balance In 00 the total UK consumer expenditure on clothing and textiles amounted to £ .7 billion (or £70 per capita) of which 0% was spent on clothing and 0% on textiles. UK CLOTHING AND TEXTILES MASS BALANCE 5
The United Kingdom 2004 clothing and textiles mass balance The overall mass flow of clothing and textile materials The UK clothing and textile and products (excluding shoes and leather) in the sector and industry United Kingdom in 2004 is shown in the double-page spread overleaf. The primary data sources used in Several key indicators and findings for the sector and preparing the figure are: the industry can be extracted from the figure to the right B4 B5 B6: • Detailed HM Revenue Customs 2004 trade data by value and quantity covering chapters 50 to 63 • About 0.6kg of oil equivalent primary energy is in the “Combined Nomenclature” classification used in the industry per kg of output (about 0.4% system B1. of the UK total). • Detailed UK 2004 production data by value and • About two kilograms of CO2 equivalent is emitted quantity provided by the British Apparel Textile to air per kg output (about 0.4% of the UK total). Confederation (BATC) and using the PRODCOM • Approximately 60kg of water is used (about 0.5% classification system (PRODucts of the European of UK total) and about 45kg of waste water is COMmunity) B2. discharged per kg of output. The difference is lost as evaporation during textile wet processes (e.g. Further details of the methodology and assumptions dyeing). made in preparing this mass balance are given in the technical annex B3. • About one kg of solid waste arises per kg of output (about 0.5% of UK total). Major material and product • About half of the UK consumption of products mass balance findings is clothing (about one million tonnes). The major clothing product categories (both by value and From the flowchart it can be seen that: mass) are “Trousers (woven) etc.”, “Pullovers etc.” • 3.25 million tonnes of textiles flow through the UK and “T-shirt etc.”. Combined these three clothing each year – approximately 55kg per person. categories represent about half of the total consumption by mass. • Of this, half (52%) is imported as textile products, 25% as ‘intermediate products’ mainly fabric, yarn • One fifth of the UK’s annual consumption and non-wovens. The rest is imported fibre and by weight of clothing and textile products is fibre created in the UK – about 10% each. The manufactured in the UK (about 0.4 million tonnes). total import of textile materials and products is Of this about one third is carpet alone. about 2.9 million tonnes. • About two-thirds of the UK import of basic textile • The UK exports 1.15 million tonnes of clothing and materials (fibres, yarns and fabrics) by mass to the textiles each year, comprising fibres, fabric and industry is man-made, the rest is of natural origin some completed products (mainly clothing and (primarily cotton and wool – about 15% and 10% carpets). This includes about 200 thousand tonnes respectively). of products for reuse, recycling and final waste • Total employment in the industry amounted to 182 disposal abroad. thousand people in 2004 (47% in textiles and 53% • The total UK consumption of textile products is in clothing). This is equivalent to a productivity of approximately 2.15 million tonnes equivalent to about £50 thousand of sales per employee. approximately 35kg per UK capita. The average consumer expenditure can therefore be estimated to be around £20 per kg. • The combined waste from clothing and textiles in the UK is about 2.35 million tonnes (0.7% of UK total B4), 13% going to material recovery (about 300 thousand tonnes), 13% to incineration and 74% (1.8 million tonnes) to landfill.1 WELL DRESSED?
Essential inputs and outputs for the UKclothing and textiles industry 2004 INPUTS OUTPUTSPrimary energy consumption Carbon dioxide emissions 989 thousand tonnes of oil equivalent 3.1 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent 0.4% of total UK consumption The UK 0.4% of total UK emissionsWater consumption 90 million tonnes clothing Waste water 70 million tonnes 0.5% of total UK consumption and textile Solid wasteEmployment industry 1.5 million tonnes 182 thousand people 0.5% of total UK waste 47% in textiles, 53% in clothing Exports of bres andImports of bres and intermediate productsintermediate products Total exports: 677 thousand tonnes Total imports: 1,214 thousand tonnes 215 thousand tonnes of bres 117 thousand tonnes of yarn 361 thousand tonnes of bres UK production of clothing 277 thousand tonnes of fabric 251 thousand tonnes of yarn 325 thousand tonnes of fabric and textile products 68 thousand tonnes of intermediate products 277 thousand tonnes of intermediate products Total production: 697 thousand tonnes Fibres, yarns and fabrics: Fibres, yarns and fabrics: Total value of clothing: £3,925 million 19% natural, 64% man-made, 17% unspeci ed 29% natural, 60% man-made, 11% unspeci ed Trousers: £308 million Work-wear: £232 million Pullovers: £214 million Exports of clothing and textile products Total value of textiles: £5,657 million Carpets: £754 million Total exports: 281 thousand tonnes Total value of clothing: £2,719 million T-shirts: £336 million Trousers: £322 million Pullovers: £220 million Total value of textiles: £3,359 million Carpets: £205 millionImports of clothing andtextile products UK Total imports: 1,700 thousand tonnes Total value of clothing: £10,859 million consumption Trousers: £1,894 million T-shirts: £1,518 million Pullovers: £1,021 million of clothing Total value of textiles: £4,657 million Carpets: £824 million and textiles UK consumption of clothing and textile products Total consumption: 2,156 thousand tonnes About 50% clothing and 50% textiles The major products consumed were: 420 thousand tonnes of trousers, T-shirts and pullovers 530 thousand tonnes of carpets UK CLOTHING AND TEXTILES MASS BALANCE
Textile flows in the United Kingdom TOTAL 3,244 EXTRACTION PRODUCTION TOTAL = 300 UK extraction of 300 OF FIBRES 300 raw materials UK 300 Flow = 300 Fibres 361 215 300 462 361 MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES 281 Intermediate Flow = 1,574 textile products 853 200 853 416 TEXTILE IMPORTS Total = 2,914 Recycling 60 416 CO 1,683 F Textile products 1,700 1,700 Reuse TOTAL = 30 IMPORTS WASTE 40 Textile waste 301 WELL DRESSED?
Key: Raw materials Intermediate textile products Waste Fibres Textile products Material recovery Units: Flows [thousand tonnes per year] (for assumptions and quality of data see technical annex) TOTAL 3,244 Fibres 215 TEXTILE EXPORTS Intermediate TOTAL = 958 textile products 462 Textile products 281 Textile production INCINERATION waste (ENERGY Atmospheric 200 335 RECOVERY) emissions 300 Flow = 308 8 200 308 TOTAL = 2,086 UK WASTE COLLECTION,ONSUMPTION TRANSPORT, AND SORTING Land llFlow = 2,156 1,748 1,786 2,156 Flow = 2,356 300 30 MATERIAL TOTAL = 200 Recycling and RECOVERY EXPORTS reuse abroad WASTE 200 Flow = 330 UK recycling and reuse 100 UK CLOTHING AND TEXTILES MASS BALANCE
Scenario analysis The scenario analysis looks at three standard products: a T-shirt, a blouse and a carpet. These products are made with contrasting materials, in different countries and using different technologies. What would happen if they were made or used in quite a different way? SCENARIO ANALYSIS 2