Story related with Bastille Prison- 1789 July 14 Causes for the outbreak of the French Revolution 1. Political Causes a. Absolute Monarchy b. Financial Crisis due to wars c. Interference of Queen in administration d. Corrupt and Cruel Administration 2. Social Causes (Social condition in 18th century) a. Inequality in Society b. Privileges based on birth
3. Economical causes a. Financial Crisis b. High Tax c. Subsistence Crisis 4. Rise of Middleclass People 5. Role of Philosophers a. Rousseau b. Voltaire c. Montesquieu d. John Lock Short Notes- Absolute Monarchy and Constitutional Monarchy, Livre, Clergy, Tithe, Taille, Subsistence Crisis
The Outbreak of the Revolution 1. major events 2. National Assembly 3. Tennis Court Oath 4. Time Line France- from A.M to C.M The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens Political Symbols France from Constitutional Monarchy to Republic 1. Reign of Terror 2. A Directory rules in France The Role of Woman in French Revolution
Impacts of the French Revolution 1. Abolition of Slavery 2. Contribution to the World Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte Short Notes
The French Revolution had broke out in the year 1789. Various factors contributed for the outbreak of the French revolution like 1. Political Causes 2. Social causes 3. Economical causes 4. Rise of Middle Class People 5. Role of Philosophers.
Political Causes (a) Absolute Monarchy In absolute Monarchy king is the supreme power In 1774, King Louis XVI from bourbon dynasty ascended the throne of France at the age of 20. His regime was inefficient and unpopular He believed in the Divine Rights of King It means the right to rule comes from God and Kings are answerable to God Only. The will of King was the Law of the Land
(b) Financial Crisis due to the wars. France had engaged lot of wars in long period of time. Under Louis XVI France assisted the American colonies in their war against Britain. France had provided the Americans Naval Forces and Soldiers. As a result the treasury became empty after this wars.
(C ) Queen’s Interference in administration Louis XVI has married Queen Mary Antoinette an Austrian princes. She led a luxurious life without knowing the miserable conditions of the poor people. The public money lavishly spent by the queen The queen interfered in state appointments in order to promote her favorites.(d)Cruel and Corrupt Administration The prisoners were treated with extreme severity Many of the prisoners died because of tortures. Breaking the bones was the common punishments Nobles were appointed as judges and they imposed heavy fines
Social Causes (Social Condition in 18th century)(a ) Inequality in Society The French society had mainly divided into three Estates CLERGY (First Estate) NOBILITY (Second Estate) Third Estate 1. Big Business men, merchants, Judges and Lawyers 2. Peasants and Artisans 3. Small Peasants, landless labour, Servants
First Estate: Clergy It included the Archbishops, Bishops and Priests. They enjoyed many privileges They were exempted from taxes One fifth of the land was owned by the churchSecond Estate: Noble Class They enjoyed all important positions in the French administration. They led very luxury life and they were exempted from taxes They enjoyed feudal privileges and they were collected dues from peasants.
Third Estate : Underprivileged Section Three different categories of people. The largest section of the Third Estate consisted of the peasants almost 90 percent of the population. The burden of the tax fell chiefly on the Third estate They cultivated the land owned by Churches, Nobles and Richer section in the third estate.
(b) Privileges Based on Birth• The first two estates enjoyed lot of privileges in the society.• They were exempted from the tax system• The burden of the taxes carried by the third estates especially peasants.• They were forced to work in the houses and fields of the noble class, army and construction of the roads etc…
Economic Causes( a) Financial Crisis As a result of the long years of the war had drained the financial resources of France. Lenders who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans. These factors led a huge financial crisis in France(b) High tax System For to overcome the financial crisis and meet the expenses like- maintaining court, maintain army and running government office and university the state decided to increase the tax system.
The churches had collected the taxes from the peasants called- Tithes All the members of the third estate had to pay the tax to the state. These included two types of tax- Direct and Indirect tax The Direct tax, called- Taille The indirect tax imposed for the use of salt and tobacco. The burden of the tax system mainly carried by the peasant community
(C ) Subsistence Crisis The population of France increased from 1715 to 1789 (23 million to 28million) It increased the demand of the food grains As a result of the bad harvest the prices of the bread also increased. But the labourers in the workshops has got very less and fixed wages. The gap between the rich and poor had increased. All these factors led a subsistence crisis in France
Bad The poorest can harvest no longer buy bread Disease epidemicsFood riots, scarcity of grain, increased number of deaths, risingfood prices, weaker bodies
Rising The poorest can Bad Scarcity Food no longer buy harvest of Grains Prices bread Disease epidemics Increased Weaker Food Number of Bodies Riots DeathsFood riots, scarcity of grain, increased number of deaths, risingfood prices, weaker bodies
Rise of Middle Class People• The peasants and workers were participated in revolts against the increasing in taxes and food scarcity.• But they were failed to carry long term measures to change in the social and economic order.• The 18th century, witnessed the emergence of new social groups called middle class• They earned the wealth from overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods like woolen and silk textiles.• They were also included in the profession like lawyers and administrative officials.• All of these were educated and believed no group in the society should be privileged by birth, rather the social position of a person depends on his merit.
Role of Philosophers• The philosophers had dreamed a society based on freedom and equal laws and equal opportunities to all the people.• They were put forward this idea towards the people through their writings.• The ideas of the philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee houses and spread among the people through books and newspapers.• These were frequently read aloud in groups for the benefit of those who could not read and write• The some of the important philosophers of that period are following.
John Lock : Book- (Two Treatises of Government), he has refused the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of monarch. Jean Jacques Rousseau: Book- (Social Contract), he has proposed a form of government based on a social contract between the people and their representatives. His important contribution to the world was the idea of Equality, Liberty and Fraternity Montesquieu: Book (The Spirit of the Law), he has proposed a division of power within the government between the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
This model of government was put into force in the USA, after the 13 colonies declared independence from Britain.The American constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example for political thinkers in France.
Louis XVI, called an assembly of the Estates General on 5 May 1789. The aim of the meeting was to pass the proposals of new taxes. From First and Second Estate 300 representatives each, who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides and 600 members from third estate had to stand at the back. The third estate was represented by the prosperous and educated middle class and they were carried 40,000 letters related with the grievances and demands of the peasants and women because they were denied the entry
The voting in the Estates General was based on each estate had one vote. But third estate demanded that voting now conducted by the assembly as whole, where each member would have one vote. This Democratic idea was put forwarded by Rousseau. But Louis XVI rejected this proposal , the members of the third estate walked out of the assembly On June 20, 1789 they were assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared, National Assembly should prepare a constitution for France that would limit the power of the monarch They were led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes
When the national assembly held at the Tennis Court, Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes gave the leadership for the Third estate. Mirabeau- born in a Noble family and he stood for the abolition of the feudal privilege. He brought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles. Abbe Sieyes- Originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’
National Assembly has prepared a constitution. Louis XVI finally accepted the demand of the National Assembly and his power from now on be checked by a constitution. On August 4,1789e- the assembly passed a decree abolishing the feudal system and taxes. The Clergy too were forced to give up their privileges. Tithes were abolished and the lands owned by the Church were confiscated As a result government acquired assets worth 2 billion livres.
Features of the Constitution preparedby the National Assembly in 1791. (Or)To prepare a note about the politicalsystem of France after the adoption ofConstitution (Or)To Prepare a note about how theFrance shifted from AbsoluteMonarchy to Constitutional Monarchy
The National Assembly completed the draft of the Constitution in 1791. Its main object was to limit the power of the Monarch. The power separated and assigned to different institutions- the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. The citizens voted for a group of electors and they had to choose the National Assembly. Only Men 25 years of age, who paid taxes equal to at least three days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, they were only enjoyed voting right. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens.
To qualify as an elector a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers. The Constitution began with a Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were established as ‘natural and inalienable rights’ The duty of the state is to protect each citizen’s natural rights.
Judiciary Executive Legislature Control National King Assembly (745 VETO Judge members) Control VOTE Electors (50,000 V Ministers men) O T E VOTEActive Citizens: entitled to vote. About 4 million of a population of 28 millionPassive Citizens (No voting right, About 3 million) Women, Children and Youth below 25
He was a revolutionary journalist. He commented in his news paper L’Ami du peuple (The friend of the people) on the constitution prepared by the National Assembly. The task of representing the people has been given to the rich The lot of poor and oppressed will never be improved by peaceful means alone. Here we have absolute proof of how wealth influences the law.
Men are born and remain free and equal in rights The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these are liberty, property, security. Liberty consists of the power to do whatever not injurious to others. The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society. No man may be accused, arrested or detained, except in cases determined by law.
The majority of men and women in the 18th century could not read or write. So images were used instead of printed words for to communicate important ideas. Le Barbier uses many such symbols to convey the content of the Declaration of Rights.
Chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.
One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle. Strength lies in unity
The all seeing eye stands for knowledge. The raysof the sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance
The law is the same for all, and all are equal before it.
The King Louis XVI had signed the Constitution but he secretly entered an agreement with Prussia The rulers of the neighboring countries decided to put down the revolutions in France. But National Assembly voted in April 1792 and had declared war against Austria and Prussia. Thousands of volunteers had joined in the army, they considered that this war of the people against the King and aristocracies in all over Europe. This revolutionary wars brought losses and economic difficulties to the people.
Politicalclubs were formed to convince the people about government policies and actions. One of the important political club was Jacobin Club On August 10 1792, they stormed the palace of the Toiletries, massacred the King’s guard and held king himself as hostage for several hours, later Assembly voted to imprison the Royal family Elections were held and all the men above the age of 21, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote. This newly elected assembly was called the Convention On 1792, September 21st it abolished the monarchy and declared France a Republic On 1793, January 21st Louis XVI was executed publically at Concorde. The Queen Mary Antoinette met with the same fate shortly later
Along with the patriotic song the people sung the song Marseillaise composed by the poet Robert de Isle. It was sung for the first time when they marched from Marseillaise to Paris and got its name Later it had become the national anthem of France
The most important political club formed in France during the time of revolution was Jacobin Club, which got its name from the former convent of St.Jacob in Paris. The members mainly from the less prosperous section of society like small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch makers, printers as well as servants and workers. The leader was Maximilian Robespierre. They decided to wear the long striped trousers similar to the dock workers This was to set apart from the fashionable section of society, especially nobles, who wore knee breeches
The Jacobin Clubs came to be known as the Sans- culotte, its means ‘those without knee breeches. The men wore a red cap that symbolized liberty. Women were not allowed to do so.
Robespierre followed the policy of severe control and punishment. The ex- nobles and clergy, members of other political party and members of his own party those who are not agreed his method were considered as enemies and they were arrested and imprisoned. If the court found them guilty they were guillotined. Meat and bread were rationed Peasants were forced to sell their product at a fixed price only to the government
The use of white flour was forbidden and all citizens were to eat the pain d’egalite (equality bread), made of whole wheat. Instead of traditional Monsieur (Sir) and Madame (Madam) all French men and women henceforth Citoyen and Citoyenne means Citizen. Churches were shut down and buildings converted in to barracks or offices. Finally, he was convicted by a court in July 1794 arrested and on the next day sent to the guillotine
Is a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded. It was named after Dr.Guillotin who invented it.
After the fall of the Jacobin clubs the wealthier middle class captured the power. A new constitution introduced and it denied the voting right of the non propertied section It provided for two elected legislative councils. Appointed a Directory an executive made up of five members It was a safeguard against the concentration of power in one man
But the directors often clashed with legislative councils The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a Military Dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte
Women were actively participated in the revolution because they were considered that their involvement would pressurize the government to introduce some measures to improve their lives. The third estate women worked as seamstresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market or employed like a domestic servants. Most women did not have access to education or job training the wealthier class women only got the right for education Working women had to care for their family- cooking, fetch water, queue up for bread and look after their children. Their wages were lower than men
The women started their own political clubs and news papers Nearly 60 political clubs were formed- The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women was the most famous of them. The main demand was to get the same political rights as men. Women were disappointed that the constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizen They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Early years of revolutionary government opened some state schools and schooling was made compulsory for all girls
Marriage was made in to contract entered into freely and registered under civil law and Divorce made legal During the reign of terror the new government issued the law for to close the women’s club and banned their political activities Many prominent women were arrested and executed. The fight for the vote was carried out through an international suffrage movement during the 19th and 20th century. Finally in 1946 the women in France won the right to vote.
Important politically active women in revolutionary France She protested against the Declaration of Rights of man and citizen and she wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen, she addressed the queen and the members of national assembly. But Jacobin government forcibly closed the women’s club and finally she was executed
Woman is born in free and remains equal to man in rights. The aim of the political institutions should be the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of women. The source of sovereignty must be the union of woman and man No woman is an exception, she is accused, arrested, and detained in cases determined by law
One of the most revolutionary social reform of the Jacobin regime was the abolition of slavery The colonies like Caribbean, Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo were the important suppliers of commodities like tobacco, sugar, indigo and coffee. Because of the shortage of the slaves caused a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and America The slave trade started in the 17th century
The French merchants bought the slaves from local chieftains in Africa The slaves were packed tightly and were sold to the plantation owners As a result of the availability of the slaves made possible to meet the growing demand in European markets like sugar, coffee and indigo The port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes owed the economic prosperity trough the slave trade The national assembly held long debates about whether the rights of man should be extended to all the people included the Slaves but they didi not pass any law because of the opposition from business man their income was based on the slave trade
In 1794, the Convention passed a law to free all slaves But ten years later Napoleon reintroduced the slavery The slavery was finally abolished in 1848.
During the Old Regime all written material and cultural activities- books, newspapers, plays could published only after they had been approved by the censors of king But the Declaration of Rights of man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded all over the country The freedom of press helped to express the opposing views Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large numbers of the people This was the one way to understand the meaning of liberty and justice
In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of France He conquered the neighbouring countries and placed the members of his family He considered that his role in France as a moderniser He introduced many administrative reforms like Protection of Private Property, Uniform weights and measures Initially he was a liberator and brought freedom to the people Finally, he was defeated at Waterloo in 1815
Ideas of Liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of French Revolution It had spread from France to other European countries Feudal system abolished Slavery abolished Tippu Sultan and Rajaram Mohan Roy are the two examples who responded the ideas coming from revolutionary France