Stress and well being at work


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  • Stress and well being at work

    1. 1. Stress and Well-Being at Work
    2. 2. What is Stress?Stress – the unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demandStressor – the person or event that triggers the stress responseDistress – the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful eventsStrain – distress
    3. 3. What is Homeostasis?Homeostasis – a steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium
    4. 4. 4 Stress Approaches:Homeostatic/Medical Approach Homeostasis + External environmental demand =Fight Flight
    5. 5. 4 Stress Approaches:Cognitive Appraisal Approach• Individuals differ in their appraisal of events and people• What is stressful for one person is not for another• Perception and cognitive appraisal determines what is stressful
    6. 6. 4 Stress Approaches:Cognitive Appraisal Approach Problem-focused coping emphasizes managing the stressor Emotion-focused coping emphasizes managing your response
    7. 7. 4 Stress Approaches:Person–Environment Fit Approach • No undue stress Good person-environment fit: a person’s skills and abilities match a clearly defined, consistent set of role expectations • Stress, strain, and depression occur when role expectations are confusing and/or conflicting, or when the person’s skills and abilities do not meet the demands of the social role
    8. 8. 4 Stress Approaches: Psychoanalytic Approach Ego Ideal – the Self-Image – how a embodiment of a person sees oneself,person’s perfect self both positively & (imaginable) negatively = the difference between ego ideal and self-image
    9. 9. Sources of Stress at Work Work DemandsTask Demands Role Demands Change & uncertainty Role conflict: Lack of control • Interrole Career progress • Intrarole New technologies • Person–role Work overload/underload Role ambiguityInterpersonal Demands Physical Demands Abrasive personalities Extreme environments Sexual harassment Strenuous activities Leadership styles Hazardous substances
    10. 10. Stress Sources at Work Nonwork DemandsFamily Demands Personal Demands Marital expectations Religious activities Child-rearing/day care Self-improvement arrangements tasks Parental care Traumatic events
    11. 11. Stress Benefits and Costs Benefits of Healthy, Normal Stress (Eustress) Performance HealthIncreased arousal CardiovascularBursts of physical strength efficiency Enhanced focus in an emergency Costs of Distress Individual OrganizationalPsychological disorders Participation problemsMedical illnesses PerformanceBehavioral problems decrements Compensation awards
    12. 12. Individual Distress Beh avi o s (sub ral pro al illnes es, Medic se, strok viole stance a blems a(hea rt dise ackaches) nce, b acci use, ches, b dent heada s) Work-related psychological disorders (depression, burnout, psychosomatic disorders)
    13. 13. Organizational DistressParticipative Problems – a cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnoverPerformance Decrement – a cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair
    14. 14. Positive Stress• Stress response itself is neutral• Some stressful activities (aerobic exercise, etc.) can enhance a person’s ability to manage stressful demands or situations• Stress can provide a needed energy boost
    15. 15. Negative StressNegative stress results from – a prolonged activation of the stress response – mismanagement of the energy induced by the response – unique personal vulnerabilities
    16. 16. Individual differences Dealing with Stress Achilles’ heel phenomenon – a person breaks down at his or her weakest point e iseas Heart D s Headache Backach Dep es ress ion
    17. 17. Are ThereGender-Related Stressors? Sexual harassment Early age fatal health problems Long term disabling health problems Violence
    18. 18. Type A Behavior PatternsType A Behavior Patterns – a complex of personality and behavior characteristics – sense of time urgency “hurry sickness” – quest for numbers (of achievements) – status insecurity – aggression & hostility expressed in response to frustration & conflict
    19. 19. Personality HardinessPersonality Hardiness – a personality resistant to distress and characterized by – challenge (versus threat) – commitment (versus alienation) – control (versus powerlessness)Transformational Coping – a way of managing stressful events by changing them into subjectively less stressful events (versus regressive coping – passive avoidance of events by decreasing interaction with the environment)
    20. 20. Self-RelianceSelf-Reliance – a healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others (social relation ship)Counterdependence – an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other peopleBecome rigid, denial of need of peopleOverdependence – an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships., cling to other people.
    21. 21. Preventative Stress ManagementPreventative Stress Management – an organizational philosophy that holds that people & organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain
    22. 22. Preventative Stress ManagementPrimary Prevention – designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stressSecondary Prevention – designed to alter or modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressorTertiary Prevention – designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain (healing , therapy)
    23. 23. Organizational Stress Prevention• Focuses on people’s work demands• Focuses on ways to reduce distress at work• Most organizational prevention is primary – job redesign – goal setting – role negotiation – social support systems
    24. 24. Individual Preventive Stress ManagementPrimary Prevention Learned optimism: Alters the person’s internal self-talk and reduces depression Time management: Improves planning and prioritizes activities Leisure time activities: Balance work and non-work activitiesSecondary Prevention Physical exercise: Improves cardiovascular function and muscular flexibility Relaxation training: Lowers all indicators of the stress response Diet: Lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves overall physical healthTertiary Prevention Opening up: Releases internalized traumas and emotional tensions Professional help: Provides information, emotional support, and therapeutic guidance
    25. 25. What Can Managers Do?• Learn how to create healthy stress without distress• Help employees adjust to new technologies• Be sensitive to early signs of distress• Be aware of gender, personality, and behavioral differences• Use principles and methods of preventive stress management