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  1. 1. Research MethodologyByDr Joy Mukhopadhyay
  2. 2. Introduction to BusinessResearch Research in Business Thinking Like a Researcher The Research Process: An Overview Business Research Requests and Proposals Ethics in Business Research
  3. 3. Objectives of Research To obtain familiarity of a phenomenon To determine the association or independence of an activity To determine the characteristics of an individual or a group of activities and the frequency of occurrence
  4. 4. Features of Good ResearchStudy Objectivity Control Generalisability Free from personal Bias Systematic Reproducible
  5. 5. Points to be Considered Purpose clearly detailed Research Design thoroughly planned High ethical standards applied Limitations frankly revealed A complete and proper analysis Findings presented unambiguously Decision based conclusions
  6. 6. Types of ResearchStudies Fundamental or Basic Research Applied Research Descriptive Research Historical Research Formulative or Exploratory Research Experimental Research Ex-Post-Facto Research Case Study Approach
  7. 7. Importance of Research inManagement Decisions The manager’s increased need for more and better information The availability of improved techniques and tools to meet this need The resulting information overload
  8. 8. Role of Research inIndustry and Business Marketing Research Government Policies and Economic Systems Solving Various Operational and Planning Problems Social Relationships
  9. 9. Marketing Research Product Research Market Characteristics Size of Market Competitive Position and Trend Sales Distribution Advertising and Promotion
  10. 10. Limitations of Research
  11. 11. Steps in Defining aResearch Problem Statement of the problem in a general way Understanding the nature of the problem Surveying the available literature Developing the idea through discussions Rephrasing the research problem into a working proposition
  12. 12. Concept of Hypothesis A Hypothesis is a proposition – a tentative assumption which a researcher wants to test for its logical or empirical consequences. A hypothesis is generally concerned with the causes of a certain phenomenon or a relationship between two or more variables under investigation.
  13. 13. Hypothesis Testing Formulate a Hypothesis Set up a suitable significance level Choose a test criterion Compute the statistics Make decision
  14. 14. Formulate a Hypothesis
  15. 15. Setting up SignificanceLevel Type I Error Type II Error
  16. 16. Choose a Test Criterion Normal distribution: Z – test T – test F – test Chi Square – test
  17. 17. Types of ResearchDesign Exploratory research Descriptive Research Causal Research
  18. 18. Exploratory research Sample size is small Non-probability sampling designs Data requirements are vague Objective is general not specific No definite recommendations are made as a result of the analysis
  19. 19. Descriptive Research Describes phenomena under study Sample size is large Probability sampling designs Data may relate to demographic / behavioural variables of the respondents Objective is specific Recommendations are definite
  20. 20. Causal Research Resign design is used to provide a stronger basis for the existence of causal relationship between the variables
  21. 21. Natural Experiments Simple Time-Series experiment Recurrent Time-Series Design Before-After with Control Group Design
  22. 22. Formal Experiments Completely Randomised Design Randomised Block Design Latin Square Design Factoral Design
  23. 23. Conducting Experiment Select relevant variables Specify levels of treatment Control experimental design Choos experimental design Select and assign subjects Pilot-test, revise and test Analyse data
  24. 24. Advantages Uncover causal relationship Provision for controlling variables
  25. 25. Methods and Techniques ofData Collection Methods and Techniques of Data Collection Sampling and Sampling Distribution Attitude Measurement and Scales
  26. 26. Types of Data Primary data Secondary data
  27. 27. DistinctionDescription Primary SecondarySource Original SecondaryMethod Observation Published Questionnair eStatistical Process Not done DoneUse Specific Decision-makingMethod Given Not given
  28. 28. DistinctionDescription Primary SecondaryDescription of Given Not givensample selectionTime Long ShorterCost Expensive CheaperEfforts More LessAccuracy More LessPersonnel Trained Less trained
  29. 29. Different Types ofSampling Random Purposive Stratified
  30. 30. Sampling Process Define the population Identify the Sampling Frame Specify the Sampling Unit Specify the Sampling Method Determine the Sample Size Specify the Sampling Plan Select the Sample
  31. 31. Types of Sampling Probability Sampling Method Non-probability Sampling Method
  32. 32. Probability SamplingMethod Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling
  33. 33. Non-probability SamplingMethod Convenience sampling Judgement sampling Quota Sampling
  34. 34. Convenience sampling
  35. 35. Judgement sampling
  36. 36. Quota Sampling
  37. 37. Good Sample Design Goal Orientation Measurability Usability Cost Factor
  38. 38. Attitude
  39. 39. Attitude Survey To compare results with other survey results To measure the effect of change that occurs To determine the nature and extent of employee feelings regarding specific organisational issues and the organisation in general
  40. 40. Data Presentation andAnalysis Data Presentation and Preliminary Analysis Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Data: Non-Parametric Tests Multivariate Analysis of Data Model Building and Decision Making
  41. 41. Report Writing andPresentation Writing and Formatting of Reports Additional Statistics in Research Statistical Tests in Management Research