Definition of MotivationMotivation – the process of arousing and sustaining goal- directed behavior
3 Groups of Motivational Theories• Internal – Suggest that variables within the individual give rise to motivation and behavior – Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory• Process – Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment – Example: Expectancy theory• External – Focus on environmental elements to explain behavior – Example: Two-factor theory
Early Philosophers of Motivational TheoriesMax Weber work contributes to salvation Protestant work ethicSigmund Freud delve into the unconscious mind to better understand a person’s motives and needs
Early Philosophers of Motivational TheoriesAdam Smith “enlightened” self-interest; that which is in the best interest and benefit to the individual and to other peopleFrederick Taylor founder of scientific management; emphasized cooperation between management and labor to enlarge company profits
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SA er Esteem rd o st he hig Love (Social) o tt es Safety and Security wLo Physiological
Motivational Theories X and Y Theory X A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs Theory Y A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs
Theories Applied to Needs Hierarchy SA Theory Y – a set of assumptions of how to Esteem manage individuals motivated by higher Love (Social) order needs Theory X – a set ofSafety and Security assumptions of how to manage individuals Physiological motivated by lower order needs
McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory X • Naturally indolent • Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led • Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs • Naturally resistant to change • Gullible, not bright, ready dupesAdapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957. Copyright 1957American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved.http://www.amanet.org.
McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y • Passive and resistant behaviors not inherent; result of organizational experience • People possess – Motivation – Development potential – Capacity for assuming responsibility – Readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goalsAdapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957.Copyright 1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York,NY. All rights reserved. http://www.amanet.org.
McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y Management’s task Individual Organization —arrange conditions Goals Goals and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing efforts to organizational goalsAdapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957.Copyright 1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York,NY. All rights reserved. http://www.amanet.org.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory SA Growth Esteem Love (Social) RelatednessSafety and Security Existence Physiological
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AchievementNeed for Achievement –a manifest (easilyperceived) need thatconcerns individuals’issues of excellence,competition, challenginggoals, persistence, andovercoming difficulties
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for PowerNeed for Power – amanifest (easilyperceived) need thatconcerns an individual’sneed to make an impacton others, influenceothers, change people orevents, and make adifference in life
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation – amanifest (easilyperceived) needthat concerns anindividual’s needto establish and maintain warm,close, intimate relationshipswith other people
3 Motivational Need Theories Maslow McGregor Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Theory Y Growth Need for Achievement EsteemHigher self Need forOrderNeeds interpersonal Power Belongingness (social and love) Relatedness Need for Affiliation Safety and Security Theory XLower interpersonalOrder physicalNeeds Existence Physiological
Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHygiene Factor – work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain – maintenance factor – contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied – contributes to absence of complaints
Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryMotivation Factor – work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth – job enrichment – leads to superior performance & effort
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation• Company policy and Motivation factors administration increase job satisfaction• Supervision• Interpersonal relations• Working conditions • Achievement• Salary • Achievement recognition• Status • Work itself• Security • Responsibility • Advancement • GrowthHygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Salary? SOURCE: Adapted from Frederick Herzberg, The Managerial Choice: To be Efficient or to Be Human. (Salt Lake City: Olympus, 1982). Reprinted by permission.
Motivation–Hygiene Combinations High M Low MHigh Hhigh motivation low motivation few complaints few complaintsLow H high motivation low motivation many complaints many complaints (Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)
Questions on Herzberg’s Theory• Is salary a hygiene or a motivational factor?• What role do individual differences (age, sex, social status, education) play?• What role do intrinsic job factors (work flow process) play?
New Ideas in Human Motivation: Eustress, Strength, Hope• Eustress – healthy, normal stress Opportunities Obstacles Challenges Barriers Energy Frustration
New Ideas in Human Motivation:Positive Energy and Full Engagement Management of EnergyBuild Positive Expend Energy Energy Renewal and Recovery
Social Exchange & Equity Theory• Equity theory focuses on individual– environment interaction• Concerned with social processes• Etzioni—calculated working relationships – Both parties have demands – Both parties make contributions – Expect fair, equitable, ethical treatment
Individual–Organizational Exchange Relationship Organization IndividualContributions Demands • Organizational goals • Physiological needs • Departmental objectives • Security needs • Job tasks • Physical needs • Developmental potential • Company status • Employee knowledge • Benefits • Employee skills and • Income abilities SOURCE: J. P. Campbell, M. D. Dunnette, E. E. Lawler, III. And K. E. Weick, Jr. Managerial Behavior. Performance and Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1970. Reproduced with permission from McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Adam’s Theory of InequityInequity – the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving
Equity and Inequity at Work Person Comparison otherEquity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs InputsNegative Outcomes < Outcomes Equity Inputs InputsPositive Outcomes > Outcomes Equity Inputs Inputs
Strategies for Resolution of Inequity• Alter the person’s outcomes• Alter the person’s inputs• Alter the comparison other’s outputs• Alter the comparison other’s inputs• Change who is used as a comparison other• Rationalize the inequity• Leave the organizational situation
New Perspectiveson Equity Theory I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other Equity Sensitive
New Perspectiveson Equity Theory I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other Benevolent
New Perspectives on Equity TheoryEntitledI am comfortablewith an equity ratiogreater than that ofmy comparisonother
Expectancy Theory ofMotivation: Key ConstructsValence – value or importance placed on a particular rewardExpectancy – belief that effort leads to performanceInstrumentality – belief that performance is related to rewards
Expectancy Model of Motivation Effort Effort Performance RewardPerceived effort – Perceived Perceivedperformance performance – value of rewardprobability reward probability“What are my “What are my “What rewardschances of getting chances of getting do I value?”the job done if I the rewards I valueput forth the if I satisfactorilynecessary effort?” complete the job?”
3 Causes of Motivational Problems• Belief that effort will not result in performance• Belief that performance will not result in rewards• The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards
Moral MaturityMoral Maturity – the measure of a person’s cognitive moral development Morally mature Morally immaturepeople behave and people behave and act based on act based on universal ethical egocentric principles. motivations.
Cultural Differences• Motivational theories are culturally bound• Research results differ among cultures U.S. Results = Other Cultural Results
Ways to Motivate People• Training• Coaching• Task assignments• Rewards contingent on good performance• Valued rewards available