Conflict and negotiation new


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  • Conflict and negotiation new

    1. 1. Nature of Organizational ConflictConflict – any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more partiesFunctional Conflict – a healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more peopleDysfunctional Conflict – an unhealthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people
    2. 2. Emotional Intelligence (EI)Emotional intelligence –• the power to control one’s emotions• perceive emotions in others• adapt to change• manage adversity
    3. 3. Importance of Conflict Management Skills “As managers we spend about 21% of our time dealing with conflict.”• Conflict management skills predict managerial success• High Emotional Intelligence (EI) needed to manage conflict• EI is valid across cultures
    4. 4. Consequences of Conflict Positive Negative Consequences ConsequencesLeads to new ideas Diverts energy from work Threatens psychologicalStimulates creativity well-beingMotivates change Wastes resourcesPromotes organizational Creates a negative climatevitalityHelps individuals and groups Breaks down group cohesionestablish identitiesServes as a safety valve to Can increase hostility andindicate problems aggressive behaviors
    5. 5. Diagnosing Conflict• Examine the issue• Analyze the context• Know the parties involved
    6. 6. Causes of Conflict in OrganizationsStructural Factors Personal Factors• Specialization • Skills and abilities• Interdependence • Personalities• Common resources • Perceptions• Goal differences • Values and ethics• Authority relationships • Emotions• Status inconsistencies • Communication barriers• Jurisdictional ambiguities • Cultural differences
    7. 7. Forms of Conflict in OrganizationsInterorganizational Conflict – conflict that occurs between two or more organizationsIntergroup Conflict – conflict that occurs between groups or teams in an organizationIntragroup Conflict – conflict that occurs within groups or teams
    8. 8. Forms of Conflict in OrganizationsInterpersonal Conflict – conflict thatoccurs between two or more individualsIntrapersonal Conflict – conflict thatoccurs within an individual
    9. 9. Managing Interpersonal Conflict• Understand power networks• Recognize defense mechanisms• Develop strategies to deal with difficult people
    10. 10. Forms of Intrapersonal ConflictInterrole Conflict – a person’s experience of conflict among the multiple roles in his/her lifeIntrarole Conflict – conflict that occurs within a single role, such as when a person receives conflicting messages from role senders about how to perform a certain rolePerson–role Conflict – conflict that occurs when an individual is expected to perform behaviors in a certain role that conflict with his/her personal values
    11. 11. Resolving Intrapersonal Conflict• Use self-analysis• Diagnose the situation; ask • Does the organization values match my own? • Ask role senders what is expected• Use political skills to buffer negative effects of role conflict stress
    12. 12. An Organizational Member’s Role SetOutside theorganization Inside the organization Superior Client Supervisor Superior role senders Peer Supplier Focal Colleague role Role senders Potential Employee Employee Employee Employee’s Employee employee 1 2 3 colleagues role senders Boundary of the organization SOURCE: J. C. Quick, J. D. Quick, D. L. Nelson, & J. J. Hurrell, Jr. Preventative Stress Management in Organizations, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission.
    13. 13. Power Relationships in OrganizationsTypes of Power Behavioral Tendencies Examples of Relationships and Problems InterventionsEqual vs. equal Suboptimization Define demarcation lines Competition Integrate units Covert fighting Teach negotiating skills Constant friction High vs. low Control vs. autonomy Bureaucratize power Resistance to change through rules Motivation problems Use a different leadership styleHigh vs. middle Role conflict, role Improve communication vs. low ambiguity, stress Clarify tasks Concessions Teach power strategies Doubletalk SOURCE: W. F. G. Mastenbroek, Conflict Management and Use of sanctions and Organizational Development, 1987. Copyright John Wiley & Sons Limited. Reproduced with permission. rewards
    14. 14. Defense Mechanisms Aggressive MechanismsFixation – an individual keeps up a dysfunctional behavior that obviously will not solve the conflictDisplacement – an individual directs his or her anger toward someone who is not the source of the conflictNegativism – a person responds with pessimism to any attempt at solving a problem
    15. 15. Defense Mechanisms Compromise MechanismsCompensation – an individual attempts to make up for a negative situation by devoting himself/herself to another pursuit with increased vigorIdentification – an individual patterns his or her behavior after another’sRationalization – a compromise mechanism characterized by trying to justify one’s behavior by constructing bogus reasons for it
    16. 16. Defense Mechanisms Withdrawal MechanismsFlight/Withdrawal – entails physically escaping a conflict (flight) or psychologically escaping (withdrawal)Conversion – emotional conflicts are expressed in physical symptomsFantasy – provides an escape from a conflict through daydreaming
    17. 17. Win–Lose versus Win–Win Strategies Strategy Dept. A Dept. B OrganizationCompetitive Lose Lose Lose Lose Win Lose Win Lose LoseCooperative Win– Win– Win
    18. 18. Ineffective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict Nonaction CharacterAssassination Secrecy Conflict Due Process Nonaction Administrative Orbiting
    19. 19. Effective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict Superordinate GoalsConfronting Expanding and ResourcesNegotiating Conflict Changing Changing Structure Personnel
    20. 20. Negotiation• Negotiation – a joint process of finding a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict• Two or more people involved• Conflict of interest exists• Willing to negotiate for a better outcome• Parties prefer to work together
    21. 21. Approaches to Negotiation Distributive Bargaining – the goals of the parties are in conflict, and each party seeks to maximize its resources
    22. 22. Approaches to Negotiation Integrative Negotiation – focuses on the merits of the issues and seeks a win–win solution
    23. 23. Conflict Management StylesAvoiding – deliberate decision to take no action on a conflict or to stay out of a conflictAccommodating – concern that the other party’s goals be met but relatively unconcerned with getting own wayCompeting – satisfying own interests; willing to do so at other party’s expense
    24. 24. Conflict Management StylesCompromising – each party gives up something to reach a solutionCollaborating – arriving at a solution agreeable to all through open and thorough discussion
    25. 25. Conflict Management Styles Assertive Competing Collaborating Assertiveness(Desire to satisfy one’s own concerns) Compromising Unassertive Avoiding Accommodating Uncooperative Cooperative Cooperativeness (Desire to satisfy another’s concerns) SOURCE: K. W. Thomas, “Conflict and Conflict Management,” in M. D. Dunnette, Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), 900. Used with permission of M. D. Dunnette.
    26. 26. Creating aConflict-Positive Organization Value diversity and confront differences Seek mutual Take stock to benefits, and unitereward success Conflict behind and learn from Positive cooperative goals mistakes Empower employees to feel confident and skillful
    27. 27. 3 Organizational Views of ConflictCompetitive conflict Belittle differences Seek Suspect win–lose situation Blame SOURCE: The Conflict-Positive Organization by Tjsovold, © 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
    28. 28. 3 Organizational Views of ConflictAvoidance of conflict Evade differences Reduce Despair risks Withdraw SOURCE: The Conflict-Positive Organization by Tjsovold, © 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
    29. 29. 3 Organizational Views of ConflictPositiveconflict Value diversity Seek Take mutual Stock benefit EmpowerSOURCE: The Conflict-Positive Organization by Tjsovold, © 1991. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
    30. 30. Conflict Management Tools d uce s t o re toxin l i ty l Abi ationa aniz org l m otiona High e ence intellig Negotiation skills