● Why it so powerful?
● IEEE Paper Abstract
● Robotic Surgery is the latest technological advancement that introduces the robotic
technology in the field of surgery.
● The surgeon views the patient via a terminal and manipulates robotic surgical
instruments via a control panel.
● Views of the organs being worked on are transmitted from tiny cameras inserted into
● We've already seen how robots have changed the manufacturing of cars and other
consumer goods by streamlining and speeding up the assembly line.
● In the coming decades, we may see robots that have artificial intelligence.
●When we talk about robots doing the tasks of humans, we often talk about the future,
but robotic surgery is already a reality.
●Doctors around the world are using sophisticated robots to perform surgical
procedures on patients.
●While robotic surgery systems are still relatively uncommon, several hospitals around
the world have bought robotic surgical systems.
●These systems have the potential to improve the safety and effectiveness of surgeries.
●Three major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally
invasive surgery and unmanned surgery.
● In 1985 a robot, the PUMA 560, was used to place a needle for
a brain biopsy using CT guidance.
● In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London.
● The ROBODOC from Integrated Surgical Systems was
introduced in 1992 for hip replacement.
● The first unmanned robotic surgery took place in May 2006 in
WHY IT SO POWERFUL
The Laparoscopic surgery—in which instruments are inserted through small incisions—
has been used by surgeons whenever possible. Laparoscopic instruments are mainly limited
to scissors and staplers to close incisions or attach blood vessels.
The instruments enter the body through a long tube; a video image from a tiny camera
called an endoscope poked through another incision guides the surgeon. But surgeons can't
use the instruments to perform complicated tasks like suturing and knot tying. Because of
these limitations, most operations can't be performed endoscopically.
Robotic surgery uses laparoscopic tools—including miniature robotic hands with the
dexterity to tie knots. The reason the surgeons have to cut a person open is to get their hands
in there. The surgeons like to get their hands around the organs, to palpate them. Robotic
surgery provides with little instruments in there that let the surgeons feel as if they are
working with their hands in a normal procedure, and hence avoiding a bigger incision.
The surgery is completely anthropomorphic. If the hand moves in, the instrument moves
in; if the hand moves to the right, the instrument moves to the right. The system also has
force feedback, which relays to doctors the response of muscles and other tissues to their
actions. The feedback makes the procedure feel more like normal surgery. The system also
has tactile sensors that will transmit the feel of tissue to the surgeon's fingertips.
●Supervisory controlled robotic surgery system
●Tele surgical system
Da Vinci surgical system
ZEUS robotic surgical system
AESOP robotic surgical system
●Shared control robotic surgical system
●Follows specific set of instructions.
●Surgeon should program the robot.
●Surgeon should map the body of the patient in 3 different ways .
●Precise in nature and reduces trauma.
●commonly used in hip and knee replacement procedures.
TELE SURGERY SYSTEM
Also called remote surgery performed by a surgeon at a site
removed from the patient.Surgical tasks are directly performed
by a robotic system controlled by the surgeon at the remove site
DA VINCI ROBOTIC SYSTEM
●Provides 7 degree of freedoms in instruments.
●Surgeon directs motin of robots.
ZEUS ROBOTIC SYSTEM
●Made up of ergonomic surgical control console and 3 table
mounted robotic arms.
●Voice control and touch screen interfaces with 2 monitors.
●User friendly to operate.
●Used in endoscopic surgeries.
AESOP ROBOTIC SYSTEM
●1st robot to be cleared by FDA for assisting surgery in
●Provides surgeon with intensive operating controls.
●Endowrist instruments are used in these surgical systems.
SHARED CONTROLLED SYSTEM
●Surgeons most of the work.
●Surgeons must operate surgical instruments themselves.
●Robot’s does not work unless surgeons give data to robot.
• Cardiac surgery
• Gastrointestinal surgery
• Radio surgery
● Less pain
● Faster recovery time
● Tiny incisions
● Significantly shorter return to normal activities (
1-2 weeks )
● Less post operative pain
● The Question of Safety
● The Cost
This paper provides a broad overview of medical robotic systems used
in surgery.After introducing basic concepts compurt-intergrated
surgery,it discusses some of the major deign issues particular to
Robotic surgery has the potential to expand surgical treatment
modalities beyond the limits of human ability.
Further research must evaluate cost effectiveness or a true benefit
over conventional therapy for robotic surgery to take full root.
● IEEE Transaction on Robotics and Transformation