Digital Human Modelling (DHM)


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Digital Human Modelling (DHM)

  1. 1. Digital Human Modeling and Simulation in Product & Workstation Design Kanika Gupta M.Des 10 -12’ 10420525
  2. 2. Contents 1. Basics of CAD 2. Virtual Reality 3. Simulation 4. DHM Basics 5.Development of DHM 6. Construction of DHM 7. DHM softwares in market 8. Basic functionality of DHM & simulation software in ergonomic evaluation 9. DHM in scientific research fields 10. Benefits and limitations of DHMs
  3. 3. CAD Computer Aided Design (CAD) is a form of design in which people work with computers to create ideas, models, and prototypes. CAD was originally developed to assist people with technical drawing and drafting, but it has expanded to include numerous other potential uses. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  4. 4. Virtual Reality Virtual : Not real Virtual Reality : 3D computer aided graphics environment where real human being can interact intutively with that environment and feel immersed into it. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  5. 5. Simulation Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected physical or abstract system or process [Accessed 24 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  6. 6. Digtal Human Modeling - Definition Digital Human Modeling is the process of developing digital human models using anthropometric and biomechanical database, for ergonomic evaluation of product and workstation in virtual environment, using 2D or 3D CAD softwares. Method: 1. Make human model. 2. Make workstation. 3. Fit human model into workstation.[Accessed 24 March 2012].
  7. 7. Development of DHM 1. Started with only stick figures. 2. Robot like appearance (Geometric primitives - sphere, rectangle). 3. More complex representation of body segments with finer details. 4. Surface Modeling - applying smoothing algorithms. 5. Now, realistic skin deformation and contracting muscles. [Accessed 24 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  8. 8. Construction of DHM 1. Stick figure 2. Skeletal Model 3. Wireframe Model 4. Shaded Model 5. Presentation Model [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  9. 9. DHM Softwares in Market (Popular) JACK RAMSIS DELMIA SANTOS [Accessed 25 March 2012].
  11. 11. Types of DHM Softwares 1. Physical : It includes anatomical shape or reaction/performance under different conditions. Eg:- Reach, interference, Collision Detection. Softwares : JACK, RAMSIS 2. Cognitive : It includes human behavioral aspect, artificial intelligence, interactivity of synthetic agents. Softwares : REBA, CASHE
  12. 12. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Creating a virtual human. [Accessed 25 March 2012].
  13. 13. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Building a virtual environment. [Accessed 28 March 2012].
  14. 14. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Giving appropriate posture to the models and interface them with the product or workstation model. [Accessed 28 March 2012].
  15. 15. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Vision Analysis 1. View Cone 2. Analysis of blind spot 3. Reflection zone 4. Eye view window 5. Obscuration zone [Accessed 28 March 2012]. [Accessed 28 March 2012].
  16. 16. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares View Cone To provide good visibility while minimizing fatigue due to poor neck and head posture, regular viewing tasks should be within a 30-degree cone around the normal line of sight (Grandjean, 1988). The normal line of sight is 10-15 degrees below the horizontal plane. [Accessed 28 March 2012]. [Accessed 28 March 2012].
  17. 17. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Reach Analysis 1. Horizontal Reach zone 2. Vertical Reach zone [Accessed 28 March 2012].
  18. 18. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Clearance/interference Head Clearance Legroom Lateral Clearance [Accessed 28 March 2012].
  19. 19. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Seating Accomodation Seat height Seat depth Seat width Position of headrest[Accessed 28 March 2012].
  20. 20. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Seating Accomodation for workstations SRP (Seat Reference Point) - For Bikes SgRP (Seating Reference Point) - SRP of 95th percentile NSRP (Neutral Seat Reference Point) - SRP of 50th percentile AHP (Accelerator Heel Point) - For Car design DEP (Design Eye Point) - For Cockpit design[Accessed 28 March 2012].
  21. 21. Basic Functionality of DHM softwares Other functions of DHM softwares include: - Comfort/discomfort analysis - Fatigue analysis - Posture analysis - Lower Back analysis - Metabolic energy expenditure - Predetermined time standards - Static strength prediction
  22. 22. DHM in Scientific Research Fields 3D Visualisation for Homeland Defence Training and Simulation - Human Modelling and Simulation 3D visualisation - Hazardous Material Safety Training - Emergency and Incident Response Training - Real-time simulated environment - Chemical and Biological Dispersion - Shared Real-Time Virtual Environment - Maritime Security Training - Intelligent Systems Research - Multi Wall Stereoscopic VR Systems - Crisis Management - Weapons of Mass Destruction[Accessed 26 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  23. 23. DHM in Scientific Research Fields Automobile Industry As a driving force for DHM development, the automotive industry has traditionally used human models in the manufacturing sector (production ergonomics, e.g. assembly) and the engineering sector (product ergonomics, e.g. safety, packaging). These models are optimised for a seated posture, interface to a vehicle seat through standardised methods and provide linkages to vehicle controls. [Accessed 26 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  24. 24. DHM in Scientific Research Fields Textile DHM is used to set up the dimensions of human bodies, the color of the skin and hair, shapes thereof, etc., to create original 3D models. By fixing patterns in three dimensions on the model, considering the characteristics of the material and synthesizing the materials on it, real finished images, including the silhouette of the product, etc. can be examined by rotating the image 360 degrees. [Accessed 26 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012].
  25. 25. DHM in Scientific Research Fields Sports DHM forms a very useful tool for sports performance analysis. [Accessed 26 March 2012]. [Accessed 24 March 2012]. %3Fid%3DRRG05e+&hl=en&gl=in&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESieowvuMcxlR5Y53emef6DwzqOKyh_mTduaa35FLo6tzKNYJQmMrjRln- r54h8JszO9c8AmqWIaUpBpTgAVw442Rrh6LDgKLltrwpWMVfAk1SK2E1nt8AvtMXIGYRSZ-X49g15ET&sig=AHIEtbRN16Tqh2qlAt gE-8eDphw3g39fiA
  26. 26. DHM in Scientific Research Fields Human Anatomy DHM helps in understanding the complex structure of human body in an easy and descriptive manner. [Accessed 26 March 2012].
  27. 27. Advantages of DHM softwares - Provides strong anthropometric evaluation to the product. - Evaluation of product with huge anthropometric variations. - Repeated trial possible. - Hazardous environment can be analysed, where actual human being reaches by difficulty. - Inaccessible workplace can be evaluated (eg; Space, Sun) - Low cost of ergonomic evaluation. - Low time investment. - Loopholes and errors can be identified before making costly physical prototypes. - Design for any percentile population. - Improved quality and increased productivity. print.pdf+&hl=en&gl=in&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiQI6L4vkhtg3F8EmyJoO4ENJspZsFDR08jhJY_k3AgkJVGfVOYwNQv- jASYEQ5wNA0pyITu6fC7-5fqRfZp0pJepSejsFa9HxNbhGcmSUyiSWGD4paqSXMx25GxFPREN-OWVsrE&sig=AHIEtbQS7e9x YpiahdxcwwFQgfTn8u4f5A [Accessed 28 March 2012]
  28. 28. Limitations of DHM softwares - Virtual study, no subjective evaluation. - Effect of physical factors like temperature, vibration etc. on human performance in the workplace can’t be studied. - All analysis are based upon different algorithm which are derived from statistical model. - Contextual knowledge is important for successful ergonomic evaluation (Duke et al. 2002, 2003) - Positioning manikin with appropriate posture is difficult and time consuming. - Accuracy not only differ between real human subject and manikin but also manikins generated by different softwares. - A frequently faced problem is the prolonged duration for file conversion and on the building of virtual environment,. - Incapability of analyzing multiple manikin activities at a time such as in case of assembly process.
  29. 29. Thank You Kanika Gupta M.Des 10 -12’ 10420525