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Ancient History 01 _ Daily Notes __ (Sankalp (UPSC 2024)).pdf

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1
Lecture - 1
Prehistory – I
DAILY
CLASS NOTES
2
Quotes -
"All history must be treated geographically, and all geography must be treated historically."
- Herodotus
Basic...
3
 Dendro-Chronology: It is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact
year they ...
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Ancient History 01 _ Daily Notes __ (Sankalp (UPSC 2024)).pdf

  1. 1. 1 Lecture - 1 Prehistory – I DAILY CLASS NOTES
  2. 2. 2 Quotes - "All history must be treated geographically, and all geography must be treated historically." - Herodotus Basics of Prehistory, Protohistory and History:  Prehistory: It is the time period before the invention of writing systems. E.g., Stone Age (Paleolithic).  Consisting of 5 period: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic & Iron Age.  Protohistory: It refers to the phase of human life during which script was known but this script has not been deciphered yet. E.g., Harappan civilization.  History: The word history is derived from a Greek word ‘historía’, it means the 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation' and the documentation of the past in writings. (E.g., Vedic Age). Background Understanding (How it started) Africa is the cradle of Mankind:  Started from Equatorial Forest  Moved towards the grasslands  Flow of knowledge Grasslands:  Increased cranial capacity  Biped  Fire  Cooked Meat  Change in dental structure Movement towards NORTH:  Sahara  Nile  Asia Sources of Prehistory:  Prehistory depends on Archaeological sources and excavations especially stone tools, pottery, artefacts, and metal implements used by prehistoric people.  Various Methods:  Radio-Carbon Dating: It is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. (E.g., C-14).
  3. 3. 3  Dendro-Chronology: It is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed.  Tracing DNA.  Dependency more on: Tools (In terms of Indian Prehistory) + Fossils. About Archaeological Survey of India:  It is the premier organization for the archaeological research and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation.  It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham - the first Director-General of ASI. Alexander Cunningham is also known as the “Father of Indian Archaeology”. Timeline:  4600 million years ago: Formation of Earth (Hot)  540 million years ago: Varieties of life (Invertebrates, amphibians, fishes, etc.)  250 million years ago: Supercontinent Pangea  66 million years ago: Cenozoic Era start (Early primates) Cenozoic Era Period Epoch Events Quaternary (2mya) Holocene Climate change, Extinction of large mammals and birds, Modern humans Pleistocene Ice Age Evolution of Human:  The Origin of Species Theory (Natural Selection): Charles Darwin  Natural Selection: Survival of the fittest  Australopithecus ⇒ Homo Habilis ⇒ Homo Erectus ⇒ Homo Neanderthalensis ⇒ Homo Sapiens ⇒ Homo Sapiens Sapiens
  4. 4. 4 Australopithecus Homo Habilis Homo Erectus Homo Neanderthal ensis Homo Sapien s Homo Sapiens Sapiens • 5.5 mya • Ape + human like feature • Small brain case (400 cm3 ) • Bipedal, Potbellied. • Protohuman • Africa • 2.2 mya • Skillful • Medium Brain case (500 - 700 cm3 ) • Stone pieces and stone tool making. • Africa • 1.8 – 1.6 mya • Strong brain case (800 – 1200 cm3) • New Stone tool like hand axe • Use of Fire • Travelling long distance • Migrated: Africa, South Asia, South East Asia, China. • Not that important • Found in Germany but got extinct. • Thinkin g Man • Europe • 1.5 mya • Forehead • Brain Case (1200 – 2000 cm3 ) • Advanced Stone tools Early Human Exploration:  Movement in all directions  Various land discovered  Concentration at rivers and mountains  Great Civilization at Rivers: Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indus, Hwang Ho Indian Context:  First human settlement: middle Pleistocene i.e., 5,00,000 B.C.  Only few fossils discovered, earliest Shivalik Hills in Potwar plateau of Punjab (Now Pakistan)  Skulls Found: Ramapithecus and Sivapithecus (Brahmapithecus)  Some hominid features but were mostly like apes.
  5. 5. 5  Dated between 10-14 mya  God apes of Shivaliks  Came to a dead end and extinct.  Early man is traced from stone tools obtained from deposits of second glaciation.  Recent artefacts from Bori in Maharashtra (1.4 mya)  Arun Sonakia in 1982 found fossilized fragment of women cranium at Hathnora.  Advanced variety because of large skull (1155 – 1420 cc)  Few late Acheulean tools About Acheulean Tools:  It is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by the distinctive oval and pear- shaped "hand axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species.  One famous site of the Acheulian tradition in South India is Attirampakkam or Athirampakkam near Chennai. Palaeolithic Period:  The earliest age in history is called Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic.  It is an early stage in human technological evolution that is defined by the production and usage of primitive stone tools.  This period is divided into three stages in accordance with the type of stone tools used by the people and also according to the nature of climatic change:  Lower Palaeolithic culture: Between 600,000 and 150,000 BC.  Middle Palaeolithic culture: Between150,000 and 35,000 BC  Upper Palaeolithic culture: Between 35,000 BC and 10,000 BC. Things to Remember:  In 1863, John Lubbock coined the terms “Paleolithic” and “Neolithic” to denote the Old Stone and New Stone Ages, respectively.  Robert Bruce Foote discovered what was probably the first Paleolithic tool discovered in India the “Pallavaram hand axe”. R. B Foote is known as the “father of Pre-historic Archaeology”.  Recent Development: Khangkhui cave in Manipur had yielded Paleolithic artefacts and also was a shelter for locals during World War – II.  Few important Paleolithic Sites: Kalpi, Isampur, Patne, Attirampakkam.     PW Mobile APP: https://physicswala.page.link/?type=contact-us&data=open For PW Website: https://www.physicswallah.live/contact-us

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