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DR. SHAGUFTA RIAZ
Introduction to Garment Manufacturing
(TE- 2114)
Sewing machine fundametals
CONTENTS
 Sewing machine fundamentals:
 The casting
 Lubrication systems
 Stitch forming systems
 Feeding systems
SEWING MACHINE FUNDAMENTALS
 The parts of a sewing machine which are required to form
a stitch, sew a seam, or perform a specific sewing
operation are known as sewing machine fundamentals.
 Sewing machine fundamentals include:
• Casting
• Lubrication system
• Stitch forming system
• Feed system
CASTING
 The machine casting is the metal form that provides the
exterior shape to the machine.
 Shapes of machine can vary according to the type of bed
and the sewing function.
 The casting houses the internal workings that operate
the sewing and feeding mechanism.
• Gears
• Shafts
• Cams
CASTING (BED TYPE)
 The casting determines the bed type and location of the
cloth plate.
1. Flat-bed machine
2. Raised bed machine
3. Post bed machine
4. Side bed machine
5. Cylinder bed
FLAT BED SEWING MACHINE
Features:
 Flatbed/ Fully Submerged Bed Types ideal for small parts
and where positioning parts to the needle is a "slide" from
the tabletop.
 The large working area allows a wide range of application;
the material can easily be guided around the needle and
the pressure foot.
 The basic type is used for all kinds of flat sewing work.
Stitch type:
 Lock stitch
 Chain stitch
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GM NTU W8-1.pptx

  • 1. DR. SHAGUFTA RIAZ Introduction to Garment Manufacturing (TE- 2114) Sewing machine fundametals
  • 2. CONTENTS  Sewing machine fundamentals:  The casting  Lubrication systems  Stitch forming systems  Feeding systems
  • 3. SEWING MACHINE FUNDAMENTALS  The parts of a sewing machine which are required to form a stitch, sew a seam, or perform a specific sewing operation are known as sewing machine fundamentals.  Sewing machine fundamentals include: • Casting • Lubrication system • Stitch forming system • Feed system
  • 4. CASTING  The machine casting is the metal form that provides the exterior shape to the machine.  Shapes of machine can vary according to the type of bed and the sewing function.  The casting houses the internal workings that operate the sewing and feeding mechanism. • Gears • Shafts • Cams
  • 5. CASTING (BED TYPE)  The casting determines the bed type and location of the cloth plate. 1. Flat-bed machine 2. Raised bed machine 3. Post bed machine 4. Side bed machine 5. Cylinder bed
  • 6. FLAT BED SEWING MACHINE Features:  Flatbed/ Fully Submerged Bed Types ideal for small parts and where positioning parts to the needle is a "slide" from the tabletop.  The large working area allows a wide range of application; the material can easily be guided around the needle and the pressure foot.  The basic type is used for all kinds of flat sewing work. Stitch type:  Lock stitch  Chain stitch
  • 7. FLAT BED SEWING MACHINE
  • 8. RAISED BED SEWING MACHINE Features:  The entire machine is mounted on the top of the table.  It is used when the garment to drape away from the needle for better handling is needed.  It facilitates the assembly of pre sewn parts and is especially suitable for the fitting of trims and special attachment . Stitch type:  Lock stitch  Chain stitch (Single and multi-thread)
  • 10. POST BED SEWING MACHINE Features:  The needle plate and foot are mounted on a tall post that facilitates sewing in tight spaces like inside sleeve, cap, or shoes.  It is also suitable for button sewing and bar tacking.  It is used extensively in the making of clothing for knitted fabrics. Stitch type:  Lock stitch  Chain stitch
  • 11. POST BED SEWING MACHINE
  • 12. SIDE BED (FEED OF THE ARM) SEWING MACHINE Features:  This type of machines are specialized for sewing at edges need only a small working area.  It is used for sewing sleeve seams, inseams, or out seams on pant legs, or other long seams in tight places. Stitch type:  Over-edge  Chain stitch
  • 13. SIDE BED (FEED OF THE ARM) SEWING MACHINE
  • 14. CYLINDRICAL SEWING MACHINE Features:  Cylinder bed machines is used for sewing around the end of Tubular Shapes such as cuffs, armholes and round neck openings. Stitch type:  Lock stitch  Chain stitch
  • 15. LUBRICATING SYSTEM  Lubrication factors are the prime factors for: • Maintenance • Downtime • Efficient operations • Long life time of various parts of the machine.  The mechanical parts of sewing machine like any other mechanical parts are need to be lubricated (oiled) to reduce friction and keep mechanical parts moving freely.
  • 16. LUBRICATING SYSTEM  High speed and temperature increase the need for lubrication because of increased friction. There are two types of lubrication systems available. • Manual • Automatic
  • 17. AUTOMATIC LUBRICATION  In automatic oiling systems different parts work in combination with each other to ensure the effective supply of oil to the required parts like-  Oil pump  Wick felt  Oil gauge and oil sight window  Oil distribution network (oil pipes)
  • 18. AUTOMATIC LUBRICATION Oil pump Oil sight window Wick felt
  • 19. STITCH FORMING SYSTEM  Stitch forming system are the mechanical parts that when correctly synchronized forms stitches, seams and then stitching.  Various stitch forming mechanisms are: • Thread control devices ( thread guides and thread tensions). • Needles • Bobbin case, bobbin and hooks • Loppers • Spreaders
  • 20. STITCH FORMING SYSTEM Thread control devices  Thread control devices include thread guides, thread tensioners and take- up.  They are necessary to provide uniform thread flow.
  • 21. STITCH FORMING SYSTEM Needles  Needles carry the thread through the fabric so a stitch can be sewn. Hook  A hook is a rotating device encompassing the bobbin case that picks up the needle thread loop to form a lock stitch.
  • 22. STITCH FORMING SYSTEM Loopers  Loopers are available in different shapes respective of their machines.  Looper may or may not carry the lower thread in the formation of stitch.  As in case of flat lock lopper holds the lower thread but in case of single needle chain stitch it holds the needle thread.
  • 23. STITCH FORMING SYSTEM Spreader  Spreader works in conjunction with a looper to assist in the loop formation.  They in fact move the thread but did not carry the thread.
  • 24. FEED SYSTEM  The material handling components of machine are also called as the feeding system.  For a precise line of stitches to be formed fabric must be moved through the stitch forming area of the machine with accuracy and precession.  The feeding system usually consists of the following parts: • The presser foot • The throat plate • Feeding mechanism
  • 25. FEED SYSTEM Presser foot  It is the upper part of the feeding mechanism. It is mainly responsible for applying pressure and proper holding of the fabric.  The presser foot also controls the amount of pressure  Light fabrics more pressure.  Heavy fabrics less pressure.
  • 26. FEED SYSTEM Throat plate  Throat plate is a metal plate that is present directly under the needle.  Throat plate has openings for needle and feed dogs.
  • 27. FEED SYSTEM Feed mechanism  Feed mechanism control the direction of fabric movement and the amount of fabric movement for each stitch.  Feed mechanism affect stitch length and the rate of travel.
  • 28. FEED SYSTEM  Feeding mechanisms are of 8 types: • Drop Feed • Differential feed • Needle Feed • Adjustable Top Feed • Compound Feed • Puller Feed • Walking Foot Feed • Manual Feed (A manual feed is used primarily in freehand embroidery, quilting, and shoe repair.)
  • 29. DROP FEED SYSTEM  When the needle is withdrawn from the material being sewn, a set of “Feed Dogs" is pushed up through slots in the machine surface, then dragged horizontally past the needle.  The dogs are serrated to grip the material, and a "presser foot" is used to keep the material in contact with the dogs.
  • 30. DROP FEED SYSTEM  At the end of their horizontal motion, the dogs are lowered again and returned to their original position while the needle makes its next pass through the material.  While the needle is in the material, there is no feed action.
  • 32. DIFFERENTIAL FEED SYSTEM  Differential feed is a variation of drop feed with two independent sets of dogs, one before and one after the needle.  By changing their relative motions, these sets of dogs can be used to stretch or compress the material in the vicinity of the needle.  This is extremely useful when sewing stretchy material, and overlock machines (heavily used for such materials) frequently have differential feed.
  • 34. NEEDLE FEED SYSTEM  A needle feed, used only in industrial machines, moves the material while the needle is in the material.  In fact, the needle may be the primary feeding force.  There is no feed action while the needle is out of the material.  Needle feed is often used in conjunction with a modified drop feed, and is very common on industrial two needle machines.  Used mainly for Quilting purposes
  • 36. PULLER FEED SYSTEM  Usually accomplished by feed rollers. Material passes between rolls, between upper roll and bed, or between lower roll and presser foot.  Commonly used in association with any other feed system.  Generally suitable for straight run or large radius curves purposes.