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Gentrification and regeneration


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Gentrification and regeneration

  1. 1. Gentrification Presented by: Kamiar YazdaniGentrify(v): renovate so as to make it conform to middle-class aspirations; "gentrify a row of old houses"; "gentrify the old center of town"
  2. 2. Definitions: • The process by which an area of a city where poor people live becomes an area where middle-class people live, as they buy the houses and repair them. Before After  The buying and renovation of houses and near Mount Morris Park in Harlem, before and after renovation stores in deteriorated urban neighborhoods by Under the program, buyers received subsidies and low-cost homes on free city land, with the upper- or middle-income families or stipulation that they will live in the houses for at least six years, paying penalties if they break individuals, thus improving property values but their agreements. often displacing low-income families and small businesses.
  3. 3. Definitions:  The process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middleclass or affluent people into deteriorating areas that often displaces earlier usually poorer residents.  Two discrete, sociologic theories explain and justify gentrification as: I. an economic process (production-side theory) II. a social process (consumption-side theory)  Gentrification was first defined as ―a process of class succession and displacement of classes in areas broadly characterized by working-class and unskilled households‖ by Ruth Glass in 1964 (Glass, 1964).
  4. 4. Definitions:  Then, it was generally defined as the rehabilitation of working-class and derelict housing and the consequent transformation of an area into a middle-class neighborhood (Smith & Williams, 1986).  With social transformation and the organization of industrial structures, starting in the 1970s in western countries, and the deep on-going economic globalization, its meaning has been progressively broadened (Butler, 1997),  which now mainly includes that: • a. the high-income groups outside urban neighborhoods replace the low- income ones inside and the latter gradually move out; • b. the material conditions of urban neighborhoods are correspondingly improved and the environment of urban downtown and public facilities are notably advanced; • c. the characteristics of urban neighborhoods (ethnic composition, faith, income level, cultural background, way of working and recreation, etc.)
  5. 5. Definitions:  The question as to whether gentrification is desirable or destructive is part of a political discussion. Answers to the question are sensitive on ideological assumptions and depend on the viewpoint of the researcher.  Some authors focus on the exclusion process and the emerging social costs if long-established but underprivileged people are driven out of their neighborhoods (Blasius and Dangschadt, 1990; Friedrichs, 1996).  Others, mostly economists argue that the benefits from gentrification .trickle down. to the poor (e.g. Eekhoff, 1987).  Policy-makers develop strategies to regulate gentrification, to avoid decline or to revitalize deprived city neighborhoods and initialize gentrification. Recent research investigated the influence of the welfare state on urban segregation (e.g. Mustered and Ostendorf 1998).
  6. 6. Definitions:1. gentrification requires the displacement of lower income residents from their neighborhoods. We are most concerned about involuntary displacement, that is, the displacement of those ―original‖ residents who would prefer to stay in their neighborhood, but because of non-just-cause evictions, rapidly rising rents or increases in their property tax bills, cannot afford to do so. In addition to families that are directly displaced from changes in their neighborhood, researchers identify a form of exclusionary displacement, where changes in the neighborhood prevent future lower income households from moving in.2. gentrification has a physical as well as socioeconomic component that results in the upgrading of housing stock in the neighborhood.3. gentrification results in the changed character of the neighborhood. This is a much more subjective feature of the definition, but one that is critical.
  7. 7. Definitions:What can be done about the disadvantages brought on by gentrification? Provide tax relief for long term home owners Promote mixed income and non-profit development for housing and community space Support neighborhood organizations rooted in local history and ethnic traditions Establish Community Land Trusts: A (CLT) is a non-profit organization that seeks to own and preserve that benefits the whole community as opposed to private landowners. This land can be used to develop public space for parks or used to provide low-income housing in a neighborhood
  8. 8. Why do people resent gentrification?Ethnic means connected with different racial or cultural groups of people.
  9. 9. Definitions and Results : • The restoration and upgrading of deteriorated urban property by middle- class or affluent people, often resulting in displacement of lower-income people. • Brit a process by which middle-class people take up residence in a traditionally working-class area of a city, changing the character of the area. (Sociology) • The restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class. (resulting in the displacement of low-income residents) Displacement of low-income residents?!!!
  10. 10. Gentrification and Justification • We want to consume the traditional values of our neighborhoods precisely at the moment that we have become the sorts of selves who cant exist in traditional settings.
  11. 11. Definitions and Results :• The process of wealthier residents moving to an area, and the changes that occur due to the influx of wealth. As wealthier inhabitants move into an area that is already populated with lower-income residents, the neighborhood begins to change as well. Often this will spark an urban renewal process, which cleans up the town, but often leads to an increase in rent, taxes, and other items. Sometimes this change means that the previous residents can no longer afford to live in that neighborhood, which is why gentrification can sometimes be used in a negative context. However, many good changes also historically accompany gentrification, such as decreased crime rates and increased economic longer afford to live in that neighborhoodan increase in rent, taxes, and other items
  12. 12. The Best Examples of GentrificationNew YorkNew York City strives to maintain a prominent reputation. In order to maintain it, gentrification is necessary. In 2003 alone, 225,000 renters were forced to move out of their neighborhood for financial reasons. Of those 225,000 renters, 96,000 of them were directly displaced either by their landlord or a government official. New York City is an interesting example because its neighborhoods have been experiencing gentrification for over 30 years. Those neighborhoods are now some of the nicest in the city but people are no longer thinking about those that were displaced decades ago. Many of the original residents of areas that have become gentrified in New York City have managed to stay. Those residents often seem appreciative of the new environment. They now can raise their family in a nicer, safer neighborhood without having to move. While they may struggle to stay in the area for financial reasons, they feel in the long run their children will benefit from growing up in the gentrified area and will also be able to one day afford living in the gentrified neighborhood.
  13. 13. Heres the advance of gentrification in Manhattan, as illustrated by the distribution of Starbucks branches. Harlem, Tribeca, Far Chelsea and the Lower East Side are the only uncontaminated neighborhoods. Upper West Side, Landmark District Charlton-King-VanDam, Manhattan Midtown Manhattan Greenwich Village, Manhattan
  14. 14. Greenwich Village, Manhattan
  15. 15. Greenwich Village, Manhattan
  16. 16. The Best Examples of GentrificationDetroitSigns have been described as being "everywhere" in Detroit. These are signs informing others that houses will be for sale, and new improvements will be made to the neighborhood. Detroit has come on hard economic times, and its residents are being forced out of their communities. Residents in Detroit doubt that wealthier families will be looking to buy property in Detroit. Despite the signs, the run down neighborhood are still not attractive to potential buyers. The city seems to be resisting gentrification more than other cities. The combination of resistance of the residents from moving out and the lack of investors has substantially slowed down the gentrification process.
  17. 17. The Best Examples of GentrificationPhiladelphiaNorth Philadelphia has undergone gentrification in recent years. The blighted blocks, one after another, make the gentrified blocks stand out and seem out of place. Locals describe the blocks as "fake nice." It is known as "fake nice" because the appearance is nice, but the people in the homes as well as the next block over are still just as deprived and suffering economically as their neighbors. Families who are placed in the fixed-up home still have trouble making money and keeping their kids in school. In the neighborhood surrounding Temple University, for instance, there has been community development resistance. The residents are trying to keep the University from buying their land and creating homes for more students. The neighborhoods residents do not get along well with the students, and gentrification is met with resistance.
  18. 18. D.C.’s Historic Districts and the Architecture of Gentrification
  19. 19.  The District of Columbia has some of the strongest historic preservation laws of any major U.S. city with thousands of structures preserved either as individual sites or part of historic districts. In the city’s 27 historic districts, construction of any type must be approved by the city’s Historic Preservation Office. Major projects or new construction in Historic Districts must receive approval by the city’s Historic Preservation Review Board which includes citizens, architects, historians, and even an archeologist. According to their annual report for FY 2004 (the most recent available), the office reviewed 4,313 permit applications and issued 224 stop work orders for work commenced without proper approval in that year. Since I could find no good map illustrating the city’s historic districts, I created one using city GIS data. Shown above, the map shows the districts cover large swaths of the city including Georgetown, portions of downtown, Cleveland Park, Mount Pleasant, DuPont Circle, Legal Circle, U Street, and Capitol Hill. I also created this map of the Mendacity neighborhoods near where I live:
  20. 20.  The city’s design guidelines for new construction in Historic Districts urges builders to design structures “compatible with the existing environment without exactly duplicating existing buildings,” meaning many new structures within historic districts generally re-use existing historic facades or carefully blend in with their surroundings. This project, located off 14th Street in the Greater U Street Historic District provides a good example of the impact of city law. Although clearly contemporary, the new structure to the right is clad in decorative brick and contains other elements linking it with the surrounding structures, and developers have preserved the facade of one row home:
  21. 21.  Just a few blocks away, just north of the Historic District boundary, many new luxury condo projects show quite different design. Thanks to high density zoning, the presence of empty lots, and a strong incentive for developers to convey excitement to condo buyers, a series of striking contemporary residential structures are rising just north of the U Street corridor. Here on Belmont Street just steps from Meridian Hill Park, the clean lines of City Overlook nestles between 19th century brick row homes:
  22. 22.  Farther east, just off U Street near the 9:30 Club, the Floridian and Rhapsody (pictured here) rise amid modest brick row homes:
  23. 23.  This project on V Street also shows the contrasting scale of some of the new projects in the neighborhood:
  24. 24.  The neighborhood also includes a number of smaller projects in contemporary stylea. The W Street Residence, at the corner of W and 11th Streets, caught my eye:
  25. 25.  Although such architecturally incongruous construction may offend preservation purists, it injects into the urban fabric an architectural variety and vitality I find lacking from many of the closely policed Historic Districts. What seems most important to me is not the specific architectural styles but how these new structures relate to the sidewalk, streets, and buildings around them.
  26. 26. Urban Regeneration Urban Renewal Presented by: Kamiar Yazdani
  27. 27. Definition: Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of reconstruction. The process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, and has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world. Melbourne Docklands urban renewal project, a transformation of a large disused docks into a new residential and commercial precinct for 25,000 people.
  28. 28.  Urban renewal may involve:a. the relocation of businesses.b. the demolition of structures.c. the relocation of people.d. the use of eminent domain- (government purchase of property for public use) as a legal instrument to take private property for city-initiated development projects.e. In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl and less congestion when areas of cities receive freeways and expressways.
  29. 29.  Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, and by critics as a mechanism for control. It may enhance existing communities, and in some cases result in the demolition of neighborhoods. Many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs. Over time, urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and big business incentives.
  30. 30.  Historya. The concept of urban renewal can be traced back to the earliest days of urban development, and often stems from an expansive style of governance. Its potential value as a process was noted by those who witnessed the overcrowded conditions of 19th century London, New York, Paris and other major cities of the developed world affected by the industrial revolution.b. From this, a reform agenda emerged, using a progressive doctrine of that renewal would reform its residents. Such reform could be argued on moral, economic, and many other grounds.c. Another style of reform – for reasons of aesthetics and efficiency – could be said to have begun in 1853, with the recruitment of Baron Haussmann by Louis Napoleon for the redevelopment of Paris.d. Both strands of slum abolition valued the destruction of degraded housing and other structures above the welfare of slum-dwellers who, then as now, are often dispersed and might well discover themselves to be less well-off than before a slum clearance program.
  31. 31.  THE FIRST WAVE OF REGENERATION: One of the first cities to enforce an urban renewal policy was Paris. Between 1852 and 1870, under the direction of Eugène Haussmann, the Boulevards were cut throughout the city. Along with the Boulevards came water pipes, sewers and public transports, and police was finally able to patrol the city. Paris, quartier des Halles. Boulevards cut the pre-existing urban fabric
  32. 32. Paris: a typical pre-Haussmann street. Note the building height/road width ratio
  33. 33. Paris: a typical pre-Haussmann street. Note the building height/road width ratio
  34. 34.  In Rome, a similar policy was followed in Rome between 1925 and 1950. New roads were opened through the center, causing the displacement of a significative part of Rome’s population in small boroughs (borgate) in the outskirts of the city. These interventions changed the city so dramatically that they were named Sventramenti (slaughters). Rome, Trastevere. The ancient urban fabric
  35. 35. Rome. A half-demolished district in the city center, near Via della Conciliazione
  36. 36. Rome, via della Conciliazione. completed in 1950, it’s Rome’s last boulevard to be cut through the city center
  37. 37. Rome, Il Trullo: a typical Borgata
  38. 38.  THE SECOND WAVE OF REGENERATION: A second wave of urban renewal came after WWII. Living standards became higher, and projects became more radical. Their manifesto was Le Corbusier’s Plan Voisin (1925), which proposed the destruction of most of Paris city center (seen just as a big slum) and its replacement with an entirely new urban fabric, made of high-rises and gardens. And most of times, the people who were displaced in these new wave of urban renewal projects were the same who were affected by the first wave.
  39. 39. Le Corbusier’s Plan Voisin
  40. 40. Drancy, one of the first examples of the Plan Voisin, portrayed as ―the first parisian Skyscraper‖
  41. 41. Roma, the borgata of Tiburtino III, in 1935
  42. 42. The same place in 2008. Few building survived to a major renewalmade in the 80′s. All new buildings follow Le Corbusier standards.
  43. 43.  Reactionsa. In 1961, Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities, one of the first—and strongest—critiques of contemporary large- scale urban renewal. However, it would still be a few years before organized movements began to oppose urban renewal.b. In 1964, the Civil Rights Act removed racial deed restrictions on housing. This began desegregation of residential neighborhoods, but redlining continued to mean that real estate agents continued to steer ethnic minorities to certain areas. The riots that swept cities across the country from 1965 to 1967 damaged or destroyed additional areas of major cities— most drastically in Detroit during the 12th Street Riot.c. By the 1970s many major cities developed opposition to the sweeping urban-renewal plans for their cities. In Boston, community activists halted construction of the proposed Southwest Expressway—but only after a three-mile long stretch of land had been cleared. In San Francisco, Joseph Alioto was the first mayor to publicly repudiate the policy of urban renewal, and with the backing of community groups, forced the state to end construction of highways through the heart of the city. Atlanta lost over 60,000 people between 1960 and 1970 because of urban renewal and expressway construction, but a downtown building boom turned the city into the showcase of the New South in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1970s in Toronto Jacobs was heavily involved in a group which halted the construction of the Spadina Expressway and altered transport policy in that city.
  44. 44. Temple Bar, Dublin
  45. 45.  During the 1990s the concept of culture-led regeneration gained ground. Examples most often cited as successes include Temple Bar in Dublin where tourism was attracted to a bohemian ―cultural quarter‖.
  47. 47. New layer of radical regenerated urban spaces in Northern avenue (in progress)
  48. 48. Empty housing units and commercial spaces after a decade
  49. 49. Varied layers of urban regeneration in Avenue’s body
  50. 50. 1960s and 1970s housing in historic urban pattern
  51. 51. 1960s and 1970s housing in historic urban pattern
  52. 52. Gentrified residential building in Yerevan
  53. 53. Combination of gentrified and regenerated urban spaces