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Green Mobile Communications


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Are Mobile Communications safe?
“Insufficiently protective of public health” Inter Ministerial Committee of India (Dec 2010)
“Harmful to human health and environment” Council of Europe (May 2011)
“Possibly carcinogenic” WHO (May 2011)
“Carbon emission of 12 million tons” Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Feb 2011)
Green Mobile Communications is a solution to the above concerns with a proof-of-concept pilot at Auroville.

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
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Green Mobile Communications

  1. 1. GMCGreen Mobile Communications A joint project between Auroville & IIIT, Bangalore In partnership with Telecom Centers of ExcellenceJawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research TCOE, JIPMER and Pondicherry Engineering College
  2. 2. Agenda• Introduction• Concerns about EMR• Motivation for GMC• GMC Zone at Auroville• Coverage and deployment• Specifications and goals• Stake holders• Concluding remarks26 July 2011 2
  3. 3. Wireless miracle?26 July 2011 3
  4. 4. Electromagnetic Radiation• Cell Towers – Safe limit for radiation – Cell size• Cell phones – Radiated power ( proportional to R2) – Proximity• Electromagnetic pollution – Depends on the total energy from BTS and cell phones: function of safe limit/cell size, BTS, active cell phones, range and call duration26 July 2011 4
  5. 5. Safe exposure limits of EMR μW/m2 SourceO 4,700,000 ICNIRP 1998U 1,000 AustriaT 1,000 BioInitiative Working Group (2007)DO 170 Seletun Consensus Statement (2010)O 10 Health Department , Salzburg (2002)RI 100 BioInitiative Working Group (2007)N 1 Health Department , Salzburg (2002) < 0.1 Building Biology /’No concern’ Sleeping areas (2008)26 July 2011 5
  6. 6. Increasing concerns about EMR• 1998, ICNIRP - No long term effects•2010, Inter Ministerial Committee - Currentlimits not sufficiently protective of public health• May 2011, Council of Europe - Reconsider thescientific basis and apply precautionaryprinciple, Protect children, Potentially harmfulto environment• May 2011, WHO- Possibly carcinogenic tohumans (Group 2B)26 July 2011 6
  7. 7. Carbon foot print• As per TRAI Consultation paper 3 Feb 2011, the carbon foot print due to the electrical power and diesel generators used for cell towers used is estimated to be 13 million tons.• The cost is ~ Rs15,000 crores• Mobile towers are expected to double in the coming 5-7 years26 July 2011 7
  8. 8. Why GMC?• Beyond carbon footprint• Apply ‘Precautionary Principle’ to EMR in experimenting with ‘safe limits’• Minimize electromagnetic pollution• Practical research in electromagnetic pollution26 July 2011 8
  9. 9. Goals of GMC• Provide basic mobile communication services while addressing all factors contributing to electromagnetic pollution.• Reduce cell size down to 0.5 – 1 Km (20 to 30dB)• Reduce over-the-public-air radiated energy – Public /private air spaces (10 to30 dB) – Strategies to reduce call density and energy26 July 2011 9
  10. 10. Approach• Lower limits of EMR, in a phased manner, and eventually operate at levels considered to be ‘completely safe’ for humans, flora and fauna.• Use Solar/Fuel Cell Power to minimize carbon foot print• Practical research – Modeling, reducing and minimizing EM pollution – Quantify health of the population, flora and fauna in GMC zone as a control group – Transparently record, monitor, analyze and publish results objectively and credibly.26 July 2011 10
  11. 11. GMC Target SpecificationsPhase Radiation limits in micro Watts/ m2 Outdoor Indoor1 100 102* 10 13* 1 0.1 * Review specs for phase 2 and 3 after phase 126 July 2011 11
  12. 12. µW/m2 Link Budget µW/m2 • Free space model • Pt=50mW • 1 Km Max Range • -102dBm Rx sensitivity • 20 dB losses • 10 dB link margin Received signal is 13dB above the receiver sensitivity at 1Km Meters 26 July 2011 12
  13. 13. GMC Architecture SIP Server IP Phones PSTN Service Provider CAN POTS Exchange Phones Low Power BTS Mobile Switch Femto/pico Mobile PLMN cells Phones & BSC26 July 2011 13
  14. 14. Auroville Founded by The Mother in 1968 International city of human unity• Goals Human Unity Education, Spiritual & Material Research Integral Development• UNESCO endorsed the goals and directions on many occasions• Current population 2,250 from 46 countries; projected to grow to 50,000 by 202526 July 2011 14
  15. 15. 1968 15
  16. 16. 2010 16
  17. 17. Eco friendly transportation
  18. 18. Renewable EnergySolar cooker 18
  19. 19. Initiatives to reduce EMR• Highly EMR conscious society as part of the commitment to sustainable development• Green Waves (Radiation Awareness Group)• Prevented installation of antennas in the township area till November 2010• ICITI (Integrated Communications and IT Infrastructure) – convergence, eco- friendliness, ICT4D to reverse urban migration• Annular shape caters to ‘buffer zone’26 July 2011 19
  20. 20. ICITI ArchitectureINTERNET Mobile Switch Servers DSLAM PSTN BSNL PLMN Exchange Core 10G Router SIP Server Distribution 1G Access 100M Bioregion26 July 2011 20
  21. 21. Required Coverage
  22. 22. Deployment26 July 2011 22
  23. 23. Partnerships• International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore• Pondicherry Engineering College• Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry• Pondicherry University• Low Power GSM Equipment vendor (VNL)• Centre for Scientific Research• Telecom Centers of Excellence26 July 2011 23
  24. 24. Challenges in wider deployment• Increase in number of BTS – Equipment cost, Cell sites, Aesthetics• Wired backhaul• Mini cell handover and QoS• New sites may be easier• Timeline issues (?) as public health issues are involved26 July 2011 24
  25. 25. Grey areas• Shared infrastructure to reduce capital cost as well as EM pollution• Roaming• Workable and cost effective convergence solution26 July 2011 25
  26. 26. What GMC Needs• Recognize and endorse the goals & objectives• A cooperative model with all stake holders leading to formulation of Auroville as a pilot GMC Zone with phase 1 specs• Partnership with a service provider• ICITI as a platform for convergence• Funding26 July 2011 26
  27. 27. Conclusion• A unique, timely, ‘True Green’ Mobile Communications Zone to address health and environmental concerns & demonstrate that mobile communications can be provided with low electromagnetic & carbon footprints• Experimental research in the field of EM pollution and share the knowledge/wisdom• First phase cost ~ Rs 1.25 crores26 July 2011 27
  28. 28. THANK YOU26 July 2011 28