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DarkNet
AND THE INVISIBLE WEB …!!
Contents :
 The iceberg illustration.
 Internet – World Wide Web.
 How Search Engines work.
 Indexing and the Visible Web.
 Indexing and the Invisible Web.
 Content found on the Invisible Web.
 The Invisible Web.
 INFOGRAPHIC: Networks form Deep Web.
 Why go for Darknet?
 Going to the Dark Land.
Contents :
 What is TOR.
 How does TOR works.
 The Onion Routing – Working.
 News Splash.
 The I2P : Invisible Internet Project.
 Silk Road.
 BitCoin.
 Tard’s Library.
 What is SHODAN?
 How SHODAN Searches.
Contents :
 Legality.
 Tour of SHODAN.
 Narrowing the search.
 What SHODAN finds.
 Advantages
 You might be deeply vulnerable.
 Future scope.
 Directories to search the invisible web.
 References
The iceberg illustration of invisible web
Surface Web
Invisible Web
INTERNET – WORLD WIDE WEB
 VISIBLE WEB
 INVISIBLE WEB
 All information that cannot be indexed using general web search engines.
 Also known as the deep internet, deepnet, or the hidden web
(INDEXED)
(UNINDEXED)
How Search Engines Work
Indexing & the Visible Web
Search engine spider crawls Web starting
with already indexed seed URL’s
Spider encounters link to
a new Web page
Spider follows link
Spider adds new Web page to search engine’s index
Content rendered “visible”
Webmaster registers
new static Web page
with search engine
Indexing & the Invisible Web
Spider encounters database
Query is required to access “dynamic” data
Spider incapable of generating query
Spider stops and cannot index data in database
Content rendered “invisible”
Spider crawls Web starting with
already indexed seed URL’s
Content Found On The Invisible Web
 Webpages with no links on them, called disconnected pages.
 Password protected webpages.
 Webpages generated from databases.
 Dynamically generated webpages.
 Webpages that require a registration form to access.
 Webpages with non-html text, or any coding that a spider program can not
understand.
 Other types of Invisible Web Contents include very recent static pages
which haven’t yet been indexed.
The Invisible Web
Database
Your search results
Author Title
Publication
Searching
Smarter
Wisconsin
Lawyer
J. Doe Common
Law
Marquette
Law Review
B. Shucha
1. B. Shucha, “Searching Smarter,”
Wisconsin Lawyer.
2. J.Q. Public, “Legal Tech Tips,”
ABA Journal.
J.Q. Public Legal
Tech Tips
ABA
Journal
Dynamic Web Page
INFOGRAPHIC:networksformdeepweb
INFOGRAPHIC:networksformdeepweb
Why go for darknet..?
 Internet surveillance like traffic analysis reveals users privacy.
 NSA: PRISM
 Encryption does not work, since packet headers still reveal a great deal
about users.
 End-to-end anonymity is needed.
 Solution: a distributed, anonymous network
Going to the dark land…
 THE onion network (TOR)
 The garlic network –I2P
 Search Engines: SHODAN
What is Tor
 Tor is a distributed anonymous communication service
using an overlay network that allows people and groups
to improve their privacy and security on the Internet.
 Individuals use Tor to keep websites from tracking them,
or to connect to those internet services blocked by their
local Internet providers.
 Tor's hidden services let users publish web sites and
other services without needing to reveal the location of
the site.
How does Tor work?
How Tor Works? --- Onion Routing
Alice Bob
OR2
OR1
M
√M
 A circuit is built incrementally one hop by one hop
 Onion-like encryption
 Alice negotiates an AES key with each router
 Messages are divided into equal sized cells
 Each router knows only its predecessor and successor
 Only the Exit router (OR3) can see the message, however it does
not know where the message is from
M
OR3
M
C1 C2
C2 C3
C3 Port
News Splash
What is I2P?
 I2P stands for Invisible Internet Project.
 An anonymizing P2P network providing end to end encryption*.
 Utilizes decentralized structure to protect the identity of both the sender
and receiver.
 It is built for use with multiple applications including email, torrents, web
browsing, IM and more.
 UDP based (unlike Tor’s TCP streams)
 There exists more like MAIDSAFE ,MALESTORM,ZERONET, and many
more bitorrent based networks in internet.
This is an example of one of the many online black markets. This one did not require a
paid membership. There are many different ways to spend bit coins, such as on apparel,
money transfers, drugs, books, and even digital goods.
Oops.. No Barter Here
 A digital currency that is created and exchanged independently of any
government or bank. The currency is generated through a computer
program and can be converted into cash after being deposited into virtual
wallets.
 -Participants begin using Bitcoin by first acquiring a Bitcoin wallet and
one or more Bitcoin addresses. Bitcoin addresses are used for receiving
Bitcoins, similar to how e-mail addresses are used for receiving e-mail.
This is an example of someone’s own personal page, with content picked out due to it’s
controversial nature. Here you can find anything from banned readings, to trefelling.
There is content on making one’s own explosives, and many different military type
documents and guidebooks.
Another scholarly database, this .onion site is a compilation of financial, business, real
estate, and even marketing tools and texts free to anyone who wants to download them.
The Deep Web is a great archive for educational material.
What is Shodan?
 Search engine
 http://www.shodan.io/
 Finds anything connected to the internet
 Named after AI in System Shock 2 (1999)
“Sentient Hyper-Optimized
Data Access Network “
 Developed by John Matherly.
 Went live in 2009
 Currently indexes over 500 million
connected devices monthly
 10,000 Industrial Control Systems
What is Shodan?
 Rather than to locate specific content on a particular search term,
SHODAN is designed to help the user find specific
 nodes (desktops, servers, routers, switches, etc.) with specific content in
their banners
 Optimizing search results requires some basic knowledge of banners.
How Shodan Searches
 Web search engines index websites
 Shodan indexes metadata and banners
 Port 21/TCP (FTP)
 Port 22/TCP (SSH)
 Port 23/TCP (Telnet)
 Port 80/TCP (HTTP)
 “Tell me what you can tell me about yourself.”
Legality
 Publicly available data
 “public” in that it is unprotected
 “Once that data is made public…it’s unclear whether it’s still protected by
data security laws.” – John Matherly
Tour of Shodan
Narrowing the Search
 Search Filters
 city apache city:"Zürich“
 country nginx country:DE
 geo apache geo:42.9693,-74.1224
 hostname "Server: gws" hostname:google
 net net:216.219.143.0/24
 os microsoft-iis os:"windows 2003"
 port 21 (FTP), 22 (SSH), 23 (Telnet)
What Shodan Finds
Breakdown of Port Distribution (2012)
What Shodan Finds
 Cameras
 Webcams
 Security cameras
 Home security systems
 Printers
 Refrigerators
 Caterpillar tractor control panels
 Medical Devices
 Car Washes
 Hospital fetal monitoring
 Critical infrastructure
(water, sewage, dams,
 Automobile assembly lines
 High School lighting systems
 HVAC
 Power Dam
 Baby Monitors
 Traffic Control Systems
What Shodan Finds
 WebCams
Advantages
 Dynamic content
 Unlinked content
 Private Web
 Limited access content
 Scripted content
 Non-HTML/text content
 Text content using the Gopher protocol and files hosted on FTP that
are not indexed by most search engines. Engines such as Google do
not index pages outside of HTTP or HTTPS.
You might be deeply vulnerable…
 If you decide to look into the Deep Web on your own volition, make sure to
be careful.
 -Have anti-virus protection.
 -Be intelligent about what links you click. The Deep Web is a haven for
Phishers.
 -If you don’t want to see any disturbing images or content, simply
browse as text-only.
Future Scope
Directories to search the
Invisible Web
 Big Hub
 http://www.thebighub.com/
 Complete Planet: The Deep Web Directory
 70,000 searchable databases and specialty search engines
 http://www.completeplanet.com
 Digital Librarian: A Librarian’s Choice of the Best of the Web
 www.digital-librarian.com
References
1. Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_web
2. Bergman, Michael K , "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value". The
Journal of Electronic Publishing , August 2001
3. Alex Wright, "Exploring a 'Deep Web' That Google Can’t Grasp". The New
York Times. Sept 23, 2009.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/23/technology/internet/23search.html?th
&emc=th
4. Jesse Alpert & Nissan Hajaj, “We knew the web was big…”, 2008
http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2008/07/we-knew-web-was-big.html
References
 Bergman, Michael K. “The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value.”
http://www.beta.brightplanet.com/deepcontent/tutorials/DeepWeb/index.asp (8 November 2004).
 Cadwallader, Joy. “Searching the Invisible Web.”
http://www.inf.aber.ac.uk/academicliaison/internet/invisible.asp (4 November 2004).
 Chillingworth, Mark. “Internet archive to build alternative to Google.” Information World.
http://www.iwr.co.uk/IWR/1160176. (30 December 2004).
 Cohen, Laura. “How to Choose a Search Engine or Directory.”
http://library.albany.edu/internet/choose.html (4 November 2004).
 “Does Google move augur commericalization of libraries?”
http://www.freep.com/news/statewire/sw108716_20041214.htm (15 December 2004).
 Grimes, Brad. “Expand your Web search horizons: six tips for finding the info you want by
searching hidden corners of the Web.” PC World. June, 2002.
 “Invisible Web: What it is, Why it exists, How to find it, and Its inherent ambiguity.”
http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/InvisibleWeb.html (4 November 2004).
 Lessig, Lawrence. “Let a Thousand Googles Bloom.”
http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-lesig12Jan12,1,1292618.story?ctrack=1
(13 January 2005).
 McLaughlin, Laurianne. “Beyond Google: the web is so full of useful info that no search engine can
find it all. But a multitude of specialty sites deliver shopping advice, reference databases, leisure-
time ideas, and more – fast.” PC World. April, 2004.
Thank You…!!
Any Queries….?

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Darknet

  • 2. Contents :  The iceberg illustration.  Internet – World Wide Web.  How Search Engines work.  Indexing and the Visible Web.  Indexing and the Invisible Web.  Content found on the Invisible Web.  The Invisible Web.  INFOGRAPHIC: Networks form Deep Web.  Why go for Darknet?  Going to the Dark Land.
  • 3. Contents :  What is TOR.  How does TOR works.  The Onion Routing – Working.  News Splash.  The I2P : Invisible Internet Project.  Silk Road.  BitCoin.  Tard’s Library.  What is SHODAN?  How SHODAN Searches.
  • 4. Contents :  Legality.  Tour of SHODAN.  Narrowing the search.  What SHODAN finds.  Advantages  You might be deeply vulnerable.  Future scope.  Directories to search the invisible web.  References
  • 5. The iceberg illustration of invisible web Surface Web Invisible Web
  • 6. INTERNET – WORLD WIDE WEB  VISIBLE WEB  INVISIBLE WEB  All information that cannot be indexed using general web search engines.  Also known as the deep internet, deepnet, or the hidden web (INDEXED) (UNINDEXED)
  • 8. Indexing & the Visible Web Search engine spider crawls Web starting with already indexed seed URL’s Spider encounters link to a new Web page Spider follows link Spider adds new Web page to search engine’s index Content rendered “visible” Webmaster registers new static Web page with search engine
  • 9. Indexing & the Invisible Web Spider encounters database Query is required to access “dynamic” data Spider incapable of generating query Spider stops and cannot index data in database Content rendered “invisible” Spider crawls Web starting with already indexed seed URL’s
  • 10. Content Found On The Invisible Web  Webpages with no links on them, called disconnected pages.  Password protected webpages.  Webpages generated from databases.  Dynamically generated webpages.  Webpages that require a registration form to access.  Webpages with non-html text, or any coding that a spider program can not understand.  Other types of Invisible Web Contents include very recent static pages which haven’t yet been indexed.
  • 11. The Invisible Web Database Your search results Author Title Publication Searching Smarter Wisconsin Lawyer J. Doe Common Law Marquette Law Review B. Shucha 1. B. Shucha, “Searching Smarter,” Wisconsin Lawyer. 2. J.Q. Public, “Legal Tech Tips,” ABA Journal. J.Q. Public Legal Tech Tips ABA Journal Dynamic Web Page
  • 14. Why go for darknet..?  Internet surveillance like traffic analysis reveals users privacy.  NSA: PRISM  Encryption does not work, since packet headers still reveal a great deal about users.  End-to-end anonymity is needed.  Solution: a distributed, anonymous network
  • 15. Going to the dark land…  THE onion network (TOR)  The garlic network –I2P  Search Engines: SHODAN
  • 16. What is Tor  Tor is a distributed anonymous communication service using an overlay network that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet.  Individuals use Tor to keep websites from tracking them, or to connect to those internet services blocked by their local Internet providers.  Tor's hidden services let users publish web sites and other services without needing to reveal the location of the site.
  • 17. How does Tor work?
  • 18. How Tor Works? --- Onion Routing Alice Bob OR2 OR1 M √M  A circuit is built incrementally one hop by one hop  Onion-like encryption  Alice negotiates an AES key with each router  Messages are divided into equal sized cells  Each router knows only its predecessor and successor  Only the Exit router (OR3) can see the message, however it does not know where the message is from M OR3 M C1 C2 C2 C3 C3 Port
  • 20. What is I2P?  I2P stands for Invisible Internet Project.  An anonymizing P2P network providing end to end encryption*.  Utilizes decentralized structure to protect the identity of both the sender and receiver.  It is built for use with multiple applications including email, torrents, web browsing, IM and more.  UDP based (unlike Tor’s TCP streams)  There exists more like MAIDSAFE ,MALESTORM,ZERONET, and many more bitorrent based networks in internet.
  • 21. This is an example of one of the many online black markets. This one did not require a paid membership. There are many different ways to spend bit coins, such as on apparel, money transfers, drugs, books, and even digital goods.
  • 22. Oops.. No Barter Here  A digital currency that is created and exchanged independently of any government or bank. The currency is generated through a computer program and can be converted into cash after being deposited into virtual wallets.  -Participants begin using Bitcoin by first acquiring a Bitcoin wallet and one or more Bitcoin addresses. Bitcoin addresses are used for receiving Bitcoins, similar to how e-mail addresses are used for receiving e-mail.
  • 23. This is an example of someone’s own personal page, with content picked out due to it’s controversial nature. Here you can find anything from banned readings, to trefelling. There is content on making one’s own explosives, and many different military type documents and guidebooks.
  • 24. Another scholarly database, this .onion site is a compilation of financial, business, real estate, and even marketing tools and texts free to anyone who wants to download them. The Deep Web is a great archive for educational material.
  • 25. What is Shodan?  Search engine  http://www.shodan.io/  Finds anything connected to the internet  Named after AI in System Shock 2 (1999) “Sentient Hyper-Optimized Data Access Network “  Developed by John Matherly.  Went live in 2009  Currently indexes over 500 million connected devices monthly  10,000 Industrial Control Systems
  • 26. What is Shodan?  Rather than to locate specific content on a particular search term, SHODAN is designed to help the user find specific  nodes (desktops, servers, routers, switches, etc.) with specific content in their banners  Optimizing search results requires some basic knowledge of banners.
  • 27. How Shodan Searches  Web search engines index websites  Shodan indexes metadata and banners  Port 21/TCP (FTP)  Port 22/TCP (SSH)  Port 23/TCP (Telnet)  Port 80/TCP (HTTP)  “Tell me what you can tell me about yourself.”
  • 28. Legality  Publicly available data  “public” in that it is unprotected  “Once that data is made public…it’s unclear whether it’s still protected by data security laws.” – John Matherly
  • 30. Narrowing the Search  Search Filters  city apache city:"Zürich“  country nginx country:DE  geo apache geo:42.9693,-74.1224  hostname "Server: gws" hostname:google  net net:216.219.143.0/24  os microsoft-iis os:"windows 2003"  port 21 (FTP), 22 (SSH), 23 (Telnet)
  • 31. What Shodan Finds Breakdown of Port Distribution (2012)
  • 32. What Shodan Finds  Cameras  Webcams  Security cameras  Home security systems  Printers  Refrigerators  Caterpillar tractor control panels  Medical Devices  Car Washes  Hospital fetal monitoring  Critical infrastructure (water, sewage, dams,  Automobile assembly lines  High School lighting systems  HVAC  Power Dam  Baby Monitors  Traffic Control Systems
  • 34. Advantages  Dynamic content  Unlinked content  Private Web  Limited access content  Scripted content  Non-HTML/text content  Text content using the Gopher protocol and files hosted on FTP that are not indexed by most search engines. Engines such as Google do not index pages outside of HTTP or HTTPS.
  • 35. You might be deeply vulnerable…  If you decide to look into the Deep Web on your own volition, make sure to be careful.  -Have anti-virus protection.  -Be intelligent about what links you click. The Deep Web is a haven for Phishers.  -If you don’t want to see any disturbing images or content, simply browse as text-only.
  • 37. Directories to search the Invisible Web  Big Hub  http://www.thebighub.com/  Complete Planet: The Deep Web Directory  70,000 searchable databases and specialty search engines  http://www.completeplanet.com  Digital Librarian: A Librarian’s Choice of the Best of the Web  www.digital-librarian.com
  • 38. References 1. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_web 2. Bergman, Michael K , "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value". The Journal of Electronic Publishing , August 2001 3. Alex Wright, "Exploring a 'Deep Web' That Google Can’t Grasp". The New York Times. Sept 23, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/23/technology/internet/23search.html?th &emc=th 4. Jesse Alpert & Nissan Hajaj, “We knew the web was big…”, 2008 http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2008/07/we-knew-web-was-big.html
  • 39. References  Bergman, Michael K. “The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value.” http://www.beta.brightplanet.com/deepcontent/tutorials/DeepWeb/index.asp (8 November 2004).  Cadwallader, Joy. “Searching the Invisible Web.” http://www.inf.aber.ac.uk/academicliaison/internet/invisible.asp (4 November 2004).  Chillingworth, Mark. “Internet archive to build alternative to Google.” Information World. http://www.iwr.co.uk/IWR/1160176. (30 December 2004).  Cohen, Laura. “How to Choose a Search Engine or Directory.” http://library.albany.edu/internet/choose.html (4 November 2004).  “Does Google move augur commericalization of libraries?” http://www.freep.com/news/statewire/sw108716_20041214.htm (15 December 2004).  Grimes, Brad. “Expand your Web search horizons: six tips for finding the info you want by searching hidden corners of the Web.” PC World. June, 2002.  “Invisible Web: What it is, Why it exists, How to find it, and Its inherent ambiguity.” http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/InvisibleWeb.html (4 November 2004).  Lessig, Lawrence. “Let a Thousand Googles Bloom.” http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-lesig12Jan12,1,1292618.story?ctrack=1 (13 January 2005).  McLaughlin, Laurianne. “Beyond Google: the web is so full of useful info that no search engine can find it all. But a multitude of specialty sites deliver shopping advice, reference databases, leisure- time ideas, and more – fast.” PC World. April, 2004.