Working with layers
Introduction
To be successful with Adobe Photoshop, you need to be in
control. You need to control col...
Understanding the Layers Panel
Link Layers. Hold down the Shift key and
click to select two or more layers, and then
click...
Defining Layer Designations and Attributes
Not only does Photoshop give you the ability
to generate layers, it allows you ...
Creating a New Layer
Add Layers to an Active
Document
oSelect the layers panel.
• Click the layers Options button,
and the...
Add Layers and Select Options
oSelect the layers panel.
• Hold down the Alt (Win) or Option
(Mac) key, and then click the
...
Selecting Layers
Select Layers
oOpen a multi-layered document.
o Select multiple layers in the Layers
panel using the foll...
Creating a Layer
Group
Create a Layer Group or Nested
Layer Group
oOpen a document.
oSelect the Layers panel.
oIf the docu...
Creating a Selection
from a Layer
Create a Selection from a Layer
o Select the Layers panel.
o Hold down the Ctrl (Win) or...
On the previous page, you learned how to create a selection based on
the image information within a layer. In addition to ...
Converting a
Background into
a Layer
Convert a Background
• Select the Layers panel.
oDouble-click on the Background to
op...
Convert a Multi-Layered
Document into a Background
oSelect the Layers panel.
oClick the Layers Options button,
and then cl...
Controlling Image
Information Using the
Layers Panel
Control Image Information
oSelect the Layers panel, and then
use one ...
Filtering Layers
Filter Layers in the Layers Panel
o Select the layers panel.
• To turn on layer filtering, drag the
On/Of...
Isolating layers
Isolate Layers in the Layers
Panel
oSelect the Layers panel.
• Select the layers you want to
isolate.
o C...
Moving and Copying
Layers
Move/Copy Layers Between
Documents
• Open the documents in which you
want to move layers.
oTo ha...
Duplicating a Layer
Duplicate a Layer
o Select the Layers panel.
o Select the layer you want to
duplicate.
•• Enter a name...
Deleting Layers
Delete Layers
o Select the layers panel.
oSelect the layers you want to
delete.
o Click the Delete layer b...
Using Merge
Layer Options
The Merge Down option lets you merge one selected layer into the
layer directly below it in the ...
Linking and Unlinking
Layers
Link Layers
• Open a multi-layered document.
• Select the Layers panel.
Select two or more la...
Aligning and
Combining Layers
Align Layers
oOpen a document.
o Duplicate or place the images you
want to align on differen...
• Spherical. Transforms images
spherically using wide fields of
view.
• Reposition. Aligns the layers
and matches overlapp...
Aligning layers with
Smart Guides
Use Smart Guides to Align
Layers
o Open or create a multi-layered
document.
•o
Select a ...
Working with Layer
Blending Modes
Mix layer Information with
Blending Modes
o Open a multi-layered document.
Select the La...
Setting Layer Opacity
Set Layer Opacity and Fill
Opacity
oSelect the Layers panel.
• Select the layers you want to
change;...
Working with the
layer Comps Panel
Work with the Layer
Comps Panel
Open a document.
oClick the Window menu, and then
click...
Exporting Layers
as Files
Export layers as Files
o Open a document.
o Click the File menu, point to
Scripts, and then clic...
Copying CSS from
Layers
Copy CSS from Layers
o Select the Layers panel.
• Select the layers you want to copy
the generated...
Setting Layers Panel
Options
Set Layers Panel Options
o Select the Layers panel.
• Click the Layers Options button,
and th...
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Adobe photoshop cc on demand 8

  1. 1. Working with layers Introduction To be successful with Adobe Photoshop, you need to be in control. You need to control color, to control elements of the design, and you even need to control the order of design ele- ments. If control is what you crave, then layers, more than any other feature, help you achieve that control. Layers give you the ability to separate individual elements of your design, and then control how those elements appear.You can think of layers as a group of transparent sheets stacked on top of each other. Through the creative use of these electronic sheets, you can blend the elements of two or more layers, and create layers to adjust and control contrast, brightness, and color balance. You can even group layers together to help organize and manage your design. Layers are a digital designer's canvas, and they are just as real as a stretched canvas is to a natural media designer. The strokes you apply to a real canvas, using a brush, are equiva- lent to strokes in a Photoshop layer when you use any of the painting tools. The natural artist may use oils or watercolor in the design while the Photoshop artist uses electronic ink.The Layers panel allows you to view the image almost as if you were actually painting or designing with natural media. However, our canvas-the Layers panel-goes far beyond anything possible in the "real" world. In Photoshop, using multiple layers is the way to control the information within a document. There are times when you will create several layers; each layer will contain a sepa- rate aspect of the total design. Having multiple layers allows you to adjust and move each element independently. Eventually, multiple layers may no longer be necessary. However, you might not want to link them together, or even place them within the same folder. Instead, you might want to combine them into a single unit. Once again, Photoshop comes to the rescue by giving you several options for com- bining layers without flattening the entire document. f"'i ••••••••• What You'll Do Understand the Layers Panel Define Layer Designations and Attributes Create a New Layer Select Layers Create a Layer Group Create a Selection from a Layer Create a Layer from a Selection Convert a Background into a Layer Control Image Information Using the Layers Panel Filter and Isolate Layers Move and Copy Layers Duplicate and Delete Layers Use Merge Layer Options link and Unlink Layers Align and Combine Layers Use Smart Guides to Align Layers Work with Layer Blending Modes Set Layer Opacity Work with the Layer CompsPanel Export Layers as Files Set Layers Panel Options 113
  2. 2. Understanding the Layers Panel Link Layers. Hold down the Shift key and click to select two or more layers, and then click this button to link the layers. Add Layer Style. Click this button, and then select from the available layer styles. Add Layer Mask. Click this button to apply a layer mask to the active layer. Clickthis a second time to add a vector mask to the active layer. Create New Fill or Adjustment Layer. Click this button, and then select from the avail- able fill or adjustment layers. Create New Group. Click this button to cre- ate a new group. A group is a folder where you can drag, store, and organize layers. Create New Layer. Click this button to cre- ate a new layer in the active document. Delete Layer. Click this button to delete the active layer. Layers Options. Click this button to access a menu of layer-specific commands. Layers Options Opacity Fill Add Layer Style Create New Layer t). CJ ili'i Delete Layer -1-1- Create New Fill or Adjustment Layer Create New Group With the Layers panel, you can control ele- ments of a Photoshop design by assigning separate layers to each individual object. In addition, Layer effects control the application of everything from drop shadows to gradient overlays, and adjustment layers let you control color overlays and image corrections. To access the Layers panel, select the Layers panel or, if the Layers panel is not visible, click the Window menu, and then click Layers. Layer Filter options. Select this option to find layers based on filter criteria, such as Kind, Name, Effect, Mode, Attribute, and Color. Blending Modes. Select this option to change how two or more layers interact or "blend." Opacity. Select a value from 0% to 100%to change the opacity of the selected layers. Fill. Select a value from 0% to 100%to change the opacity of the active layer without chang- ing the opacity of any applied layer styles. Lock options. Click the LockTransparent Pixels, Lock Image Pixels, Lock Position, or LockAll button for one or more layers. Layer Filter options Blending Modes Lock options r 1~ ov.rl~y lb..!l _ Background Add Layer Mask -+----.., 114 Chapter 5
  3. 3. Defining Layer Designations and Attributes Not only does Photoshop give you the ability to generate layers, it allows you to generate layers with different designations. The desig- nation of a layer determines the type of infor- mation the layer contains. For example, a type layer holds editable text, and a mask layer holds image masks.The ability to control the designation of a layer helps to organize the different elements that typically make up a Photoshop image. Background. The Background is a unique type of layer element (technically, it's not called the Background layer, just the Background). Backgrounds are always positioned at the bot- tom of the layer stack and they cannot be moved. In addition, the Background does not support transparency. Layer. Clicking the Create New Layer button creates Photoshop layers. New layers are always inserted directly above the active layer. All of Photoshop's drawing and shape tools, as well as opacity and fill and blending mode options, are available to use on layers created with this method, except for type. These "traditional" layers can be moved up and down in the layer stack by dragging them where you want them. Type. To create aType layer, select one of Photoshop'sType tools, click in the active doc- ument and begin typing. Photoshop automati- cally creates the Type layer directly above the active layer in the Layers panel. Mask. Masks are applied to a layer by clicking the Add Layer Mask button on the Layers panel. Masks serve a function; they create transparent areas in the visible image. Use masks to remove elements of an image with- out physically erasing them. Vector. Shape layers control vector data by the use of a vector mask.You can create a shape layer in one of several ways: select the Pen tool from the tool box, click Shape from the list arrow (located on the Options bar) and begin drawing, or select any of Photoshop's shape tools using the Shape option. The Vector layer type provides options for fill and stroke. Adjustment. Adjustment layers let you control everything from contrast to color. To create an Adjustment layer, click the Create New Fill or Adjustment Layer button, and then select from the available options. The adjustment layer is placed directly above the active layer and controls the information in all the under- lying layers. You can also choose from one of the 16 icons in the Adjustments panel. ~IOpacity: [iOO~ElINormal lode.: --- Type<!!> T Snic y -~rp iil <!!> ~_~"-bu_lb -""-,,,;,- Shape <!!> [!]s 11composite Mask <!!> [!J overlay <!!> I IAliiII $ Dlevels 1 Layer -~- Adjustment Background fil----i-- Background c- fx. Chapter 5 Working withLayers 115
  4. 4. Creating a New Layer Add Layers to an Active Document oSelect the layers panel. • Click the layers Options button, and then click New layer. TIMESAVER Click the Create New Layer button on the Layers panel to quickly add a layer. The new layer is inserted directly above the active layer. Did You Know? You can drag and drop a file to create a new layer. Drag a file from the Finder (Mac) or Windows Explorer (Win) onto an open Photoshop document. You can move a layer in the stacking order. Pressthe Ctrl (Win) or ~ (Mac) key, and then use the Left/Right Bracket keys ([ )). The Left Bracket key movesthe layer down and the Right Bracket moves the layer up. You can hide all layers except the clipping mask layer and the layer to which it is clipped. Press the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key, and then click the layer's visibility icon. 116 Chapter 5 Layers give you control over the design elements of your document, so Adobe Photoshop makes sure you have plenty of layers available to you (up to 8,000).While that may be more layers than you would ever use in a single document, that flexibility guarantees that you have the creative options to carry your designs to any level you desire. To create a new layer, you must first have an open document. A new image in Photoshop has a single layer. If you have more than one document open, make sure the active image is the one to which you want to add a layer. You can quickly add a layer using a menu or button, or add a layer and select options using a dialog box. You can select options to name the layer, designate it as a clipping group, or even change its color blending mode and opacity (transparency). If you want to add the contents of a file to a document as a new layer, you can drag it directly from the Finder (Mac) or Windows Explorer (Win) to the active document in Photoshop. ..••. uw NewlayerIZ)D Layer IZ)~D._sun _ IZ)[ J Bac/(grolJnd eJ --+- Activelayer ----- CreateNewLayerbutton
  5. 5. Add Layers and Select Options oSelect the layers panel. • Hold down the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key, and then click the Create New layer button to open the New Layer dialog box. o Select the layer options you want: • Name. Enter the name of the layer into the Name box. • Use Previous layer to Create Clipping Mask. Select this check box to use the image information in the previous layer to mask the elements of the new layer. • Calor. This option lets you color-code your layers. Click the Color list arrow, and then select from the available colors. • Mode. Click the Mode list arrow, and then select from the available blending modes. • Opacity. This option controls the visibility of the new layer. Select a value from 0% to 100%. • Click OK. Did You Know? Youcan control to which layers the adjustment is applied. To confine the effects of an adjustment layer to the layer immediately below, hold down the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key, and then click on the visible line separating the adjustment layer from the next lower layer. ,..... -11 ~lO;JrJTtl.lJl INormal ! rOpacity: 110<»' I . I Loci<: •• '*' 6 Fill:~ <11> 0moon lb dI _ <I> D sun <11> 0Background New Layer Name: Imoon I ( OK l+-eoUse Previous Layer to Create Clipping Mask [ Cancel 1 Color: [ _x None : 1 Mode: [ Normal : 1 Opacity:~% (No neutral color exists for Normal mode.) For Your Information Selecting Layer Options When you create a new blank layer, the size of the file does not increase. It's only when you begin painting, or adding information to the layer that the size of the Photoshop document will begin to grow. For example, creating a blank layer in a document with a file size of 10 MB does nothing to increase the size of the file. However, open- ing a 10 MB file, and creating a copy of the original document layer, will create a file size of 20 MB. Layers are great creative tools, but you only want to use them when you need them. Remember, per- formance is directly related to the size of the active document file, and the bigger the file size, the slower Photoshop performs. Chapter 5 Working with Layers 117
  6. 6. Selecting Layers Select Layers oOpen a multi-layered document. o Select multiple layers in the Layers panel using the following options: • Contiguous Layers. Click on the first layer, and then Shitt-cfick the last layer to select first, last, and all layers in-between. • Non-Contiguous Layers. Click on a layer, hold down the Ctrl (Win) or ~ (Mac) key, and then click on another layer. •• Select layers in the document window using the following options: • Single and Multiple Layers. Select the Move tool on the toolbox, select the Auto-Select check box, select Group or Layer from the list arrow on the Options bar, and then click on an object in the document window. The layer holding that object is selected. To add to or subtract layers from the selection, Shift-click (or drag). TIMESAVER Select the Move tool, hold down the Ctrl (Win) or fiiJ (Mac) key, and then click on an object. Hold down the Shitt-Ctrt (Win) or Shift+fiiJ (Mac), and click on another object to add that object's layer to the selection . • To deselect all layers, click the Select menu, and then click Deselect Layers. 118 Chapter 5 Photoshop lets you select multiple layers either in the Layers panel, or directly in the document window using the Move tool. Say, for example, you want to quickly move two or more layers but you don't want to spend the time linking, and then unlinking them. You just want to quickly select the layers, and then perform the move. Or,you want to delete several layers but don't want to delete them one at a time. Or,you want to change color label, blend mode, and locking for multiple layers at once. The ability to select multiple layers allows you to be more efficient as you work. A single selected layer is called the active layer. iifruitwggles.psd tt 66.1" (ReS/8) -~O cit ..•, .. Non- Contiguous Multiple Layers selected Contiguous Multiple Layers selected u.yers C~nneb '.ath. -15 P "'n , 0,;1 e T n 8l 9--N'}fm , p " - L c _ 'l' Ii , - ·Ucharries *~mo ••• <W>~lettuce --- .,0bAn••,," ·UUpit' •DIHkground e - (x.D tl.CJ IOl ~ La~n cu..as Patbs IP",nd 'I lOll e T ", , cS> Uch.rrts .~lr.tll(.. •0 buwtu -rr- * DIoc•.....,. (x.D tl.CJ IOl •••••••••
  7. 7. Creating a Layer Group Create a Layer Group or Nested Layer Group oOpen a document. oSelect the Layers panel. oIf the document contains a layer group, click the triangle to expand the group, and then select one of the layers within the group to create a nested group. TIMESAVER To collapse or expand all groups, press Ctrl (Win) or~ (Mac), and click a triangle . • Click the Create New Group button on the Layers panel, or press CtrltG (Win) or ~tG (Mac). Photoshop creates a layer group. TIMESAVER To quickly create a Layer Group, hold down the Shift key and click the layers you want in the group, click the Layers Options button, and then click New Group from Layers. eTo add layers to the group, drag layers from the Layers panel onto the folder icon of the group. oTo remove layers from the group, drag them from the group back into the Layers panel. Layer groups help to bring organization to large, multi-layered docu- ments. Photoshop layer groups give you control over all the layers within the group at one time. For example, multiple layers within a group can all be hidden or locked with one click of a button. In addition, if you click on the Group name, you can transform or move all the layer objects within the group as one unit and even add effects and adjust- ments to them. If you remove an item from the group, you also remove the effect or adjustment. Tofurther help organize your Layers panel, Photoshop lets you create nested groups. Nested groups are groups that are located within other groups. Layer groups can be nested more than five levels deep. When you nest groups, you control all of the groups by clicking on the main group's name, or you can control the individual groups by selecting the nested group name. Newgroup .•..... "'" • + 11 "'" +11 • .,.f:) lI'd5 • .• €:) "'d, • [iblntl • [j!i b.rcll • [J.il""" • .,. e:t /liated.-CI • GJ.i ••• , • [J.ilb>nU • .•.€:) '*-lteC~ca • [j!i •••• • [j!iblO4 • ~~l • [j!i I:t.rcl5 • [j!i Ikfd5 • [rilk"" • ~-..06 -Okt9f'OU!X' ·O&lc:~ (x. a ().D •• 'Yb lirdt. • [j!i b.":H • [J.il bcn::l2 • G:Ji bnfl • [j!i bo:r04 • [j!i b.td5 •• ~Ord6 • (x. a ().D <il • Expandtriangle Chapter5 Working with Layers 119
  8. 8. Creating a Selection from a Layer Create a Selection from a Layer o Select the Layers panel. o Hold down the Ctrl (Win) or ~ (Mac) key, and then click on the image thumbnail of the layer you want transformed into a selection. Be sure you click on the image thumbnail, not the layer name as you would have in previous versions. The visible portions of the image on the layer are transformed into a selection. IMPORTANT Since Photoshop creates the selection based on the image information, there must be transparent and non-transparent areas within the image or the command selects the entire layer as if you had clicked the Select menu, and then clicked All. 120 Chapter 5 Photoshop's traditional layers basically function like sheets of transpar- ent acetate or clear plastic. Once created, they support all of Photoshop's painting tools, as well as shape and gradient tools. While traditional layers may start out transparent, they don't remain that way for long. In fact, a layer can, over time, become a complicated mix of non-transparent (the image), and transparent areas. It's also possible you might want to make a selection out of that complicated image. Photoshop knows this and gives you an easy way to create a selection from a layer. If you want to move a selection, you can drag the selec- tion marquee, even if the layer is hidden. I Norma.l : IOpacitY: ~ Lode + a Fi":~ <I> .( angel fish Selection based on the visible portions of the layer. lilyer-selection.psd@ 100% (RCB}8
  9. 9. On the previous page, you learned how to create a selection based on the image information within a layer. In addition to creating a selection from a layer, Photoshop gives you the ability to instantly create a layer from a selection. Creating layers from selections opens up all kinds of opportunities for generating special effects. For example, you could select an object from one layer, and then make a layer with that selec- tion, or you could make a selection of just that portion of an image and then apply a layer style to the new layer copy. The possibilities are end- less, and part of the fun of using Photoshop lies in exploring those possibilities. If you want to move a selection, you can drag the selec- tion marquee, even if the layer is hidden. Creating a Layer from a Selection Create a Layer from a Selection o o Select the layers panel. Click on the layer containing the information you want to convert into a layer. Select an area of the image using any of Photoshop's selection tools . Press Ctrl-J (Win) or press ~+J (Mac) to make a copy. Photoshop converts the selected area into a new layer, and places that layer directly above the active layer. o • red .nl.p,d@llOO'll(.nl coPy. RGB/8) Did You Know? You can make a copy of all elements within a layer. Select the layer in the Layers panel, and then click Ctrl-J (Win), ~+J (Mac). Since there are no selections, Photoshop creates a copy of the entire layer. You can make copies of layer objects without a selection. To make a copy of a layer that contains an object, select the layer in the Layers panel, select the Move tool, hold down the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key, and then click and drag (in the document window). lOO!( . [!!' D;x.: )1)11':1.01" CopymadefromselectionSelectthe redant Chapter 5 Working with Layers 121 .....,
  10. 10. Converting a Background into a Layer Convert a Background • Select the Layers panel. oDouble-click on the Background to open the New Layer dialog box. • You can also click the Layer menu, point to New, and then click Layer From Background, or right-click or Control-click (Mac) the Background name, and then click Layer From Background. Rename the layer in the Name box (leave the other options at their default values). e • Click OK. The Background is converted into a traditional layer. Did You Know? Youcan convert a layer to a smart object. Select the layer in the Layers panel, click the Layers Options button, and then click Convertto Smart Object. 122 Chapter 5 The Background layer serves a unique function in Photoshop. Since some layout programs do not support Photoshop's multiple layer and transparency capabilities, a final image must sometimes be converted into a background layer by a process called flattening. When an image is flattened, all of the document's layers are compressed into a single layer in the Layers panel. named Background. That means no more lay- ers, no more transparency, and no more control. Background layers are a necessary evil because Photoshop does not stand alone, and it's sometimes necessary to move images from Photoshop into other appli- cations. However, there are times you may start with an image that only contains a Background layer (for example, when working with original images from a digital camera, scanned images, or images from an online service) and you want to apply transparency, blending modes, or other adjustments to it that cannot be applied to a Background layer. In that case, you will need to convert the Background into a traditional layer. La)'ers a.-Is ••..• IPKind :1 t;;J f) T •• Laye.fS ~ •..... ... I P Kind :1 I;;J f) T n /jI IiI I Normal -:rOp.City:~ """, f:J.- + 6 FiJl:IIO~I"1 rll -*~~"'mon , oe (X. a f).D III a Newlayerfroma background Cancel :1 : 1 Opacity: 1100 y)" Norm,,1 Lod<.I':3.+6 ~·~-, ••-,o-und----rl Name: lemon Use Previous layer to Create Clipping Mask Color: I x None Mode: ( Normal
  11. 11. Convert a Multi-Layered Document into a Background oSelect the Layers panel. oClick the Layers Options button, and then click Flatten Image. The multi-layered document is compressed into a single-layer Background. Did You Know? You can create a composite image of a multi-layered document without flat- tening the image. Create and select a new layer, and then hold down the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key. Now, go to the Layers panel, click the Layers Options button, and then click Merge Visible. Photoshop creates a composite of all the visible layers in the new layer. You now have the control and flexibility of a multi-layered document, along with a separate composite layer. Control gives you the confidence to be more creative. See Also See "Using Merge Layer Options" on page 130 for more information on how to merge two or more layers without flattening all the layers. lode E:3 +6 FitI:~ cS> ~ sO Ievels I cS> L!l ID 0 Selective Col... cS> ~ $0 Cotor Balanc... 80Exposure 1 6 separate layers plus the Background cS> ~ cS> rlI 80lnven! l.i.ye.r5 Chanoels '~ths IP Kind ;1 1;; ~ T N Multiple layers compressed into a single-layer Background Chapter 5 Working with Layers 123
  12. 12. Controlling Image Information Using the Layers Panel Control Image Information oSelect the Layers panel, and then use one of the following options: • Name Layer. To name a layer, double-click on the layer name, type a name, and then press Enter (Win) or Return (Mac). • Colorize Layers. To apply an identifying color to a layer, right-click the layer, and then select a color. • Filter Layers. To display layers by criteria, click the Filter Type list arrow, select a filter, and then specify criteria. • Show/Hide Layers. To show or hide a layer in the document window, click the Show/Hide button (eyeball/box). • Link Layers. To link two or more layers, hold the Shift key and click the layers you want to link, and then click the Link Layers button. A link icon appears when selected to indicate the linked layers. You move or resize linked layers as a unit. • Lock Layers. To lock a layer, click a locking option: Lock Transparent Pixels, Lock Image Pixels, Lock Position, and Lock All. A Lock icon appears. • Stack Layer Order. To change the position of a layer in the stack, drag the layer up or down. A dark line appears to indicate the new layer location. 124 Chapter 5 When you work on multi-layered documents, it's important to under- stand the options Photos hop gives you to control image information. Working on a document that contains a lot of layers can be a difficult proposition. Fortunately, Photoshop gives you options to stay in control; everything from naming and colorizing layers to locking pixel informa- tion is available in Photoshop. For example, when linking two layers together, you can move or resize the layers at the same time, thus sav- ing valuable time. Or,filter layers by Kind, Name, Effect, Mode, Attribute, or Color to display and work with the layers you want. Filter options + 11t----+~~~:::rt- Lock options~ -..J Stacking order: the position of the layers within the panel. .••..IIW 1.----4-- Lock icon Link Layers button Layer nameShow/Hide icon
  13. 13. Filtering Layers Filter Layers in the Layers Panel o Select the layers panel. • To turn on layer filtering, drag the On/Off switch up to the On position. • Click the Filter Type list arrow, and then select a filter type: Kind, Name, Effect, Mode, Attribute, Calor, or Selected (New!). • Select the filter options for the selected filter type: • Kind. Click toggle buttons for pixels, adjustments, type, shape, and smart objects. • Name. Enter all or part of a name. As you type, layers are filtered based on the match. • Effect. Click the list arrow to select a filter gallery effect. • Mode. Click the list arrow to select a blending mode. • Attribute. Click the list arrow to select an attribute, such as visible, locked, linked, clipped, masked, or advanced blending. • Color. Click the list arrow to select a label color. oTo turn off layer filtering, drag the On/Off switch down to the Off position. If you're working on a document with a lot of layers, it can be difficult to find the layers you want to work on. With filters in the Layers panel, you can display the layers you want by specifying filter criteria. Layer filters go a long way towards helping you display and organize layers in a complex, multi-layered document. You can filter layers by Kind, Name, Effect (filter), Mode (blending), Attribute, Color (label), or Selected (iso- late) (New!). Each filter type provides additional options for you to select or enter to apply the criteria you want. For example, the Kind fil- ter type provides toggle buttons to display layers with pixels, adjust- ments, type, shape, and smart objects. When you filter layers, groups are not shown, only the filtered item. You can enable/disable layer fil- tering by using an On/Off switch. When the switch lights up in red, a fil- ter is applied. Options vary based on filter type Filter turned on with a filter applied (switch in red) + 6 Fi I: 1100710 1 • I ~ IDD Levels I ~ IDD Selective Col... n IDD Co or Balanc ... Filter results [!;a IDD uposure! ~ IDD lnvert I Lode Chapter 5 Working with Layers 125
  14. 14. Isolating layers Isolate Layers in the Layers Panel oSelect the Layers panel. • Select the layers you want to isolate. o Click the Select menu, and then click Isolate Layers. Layer filtering is turned on and the filter type changes to Selected in the Layers panel. • Toturn off layer filtering, drag the On/Off switch down to the Off position. Did You Know? You can isolate layers in the Layers panel. Select the layers you want to isolate in the Layers panel, click the Filter Typelist arrow, and then click select Selected. Drag the On/Off switch up to the On position to enable the filter. See Also See "Filtering Layers" on page 125 for more information on working with filters in the Layers panel. 126 Chapter 5 If you're working on a document with a lot of layers, it can be difficult to work with the ones that you want. With the Isolate Layers command (NewO on the Select menu, you can isolate selected layers in the Layers panel. This creates a filter using the Selected filter type (NewO in the Layers panel. All the other nonselected layers are hidden (filtered out), so they are not in the way. This allows you to focus on and work with the layers you want. When you're done, you can quickly turn off the filter to show all the layers again. Selectedfiltertype C•••••MIs Paths -= IP Kmd :I I;;J e T C &I ill _QCt"frru ~ ~ •••• Ion <I) [=::J lettuce •0 ::nas D..~ ..,DBockground ~ (X. a ~.CJ Iil ~ INo""./ lo«.~/+iII Isolatedlayers
  15. 15. Moving and Copying Layers Move/Copy Layers Between Documents • Open the documents in which you want to move layers. oTo have more than one document in view, click the Window menu, point to Arrange, and then click Cascade or Tile. Click on the document containing the layer you want to move. • Drag the layer from the Layers panel into the window of the destination document. • If you prefer copy and paste, you can select the layer, click the Edit menu, and then click Copy in the source, and then click the Edit menu, and then click Paste, Paste Into, or Paste in Place in the destination. Photoshop creates a new layer with a layer copy in the document. Did You Know? You can control or register the posi- tion of the moved layer. Hold down the Shift key while dragging the layer into the receiving document. The new layer aligns to the center of the document. You can move selected portions of a layer. Select the area you want to move, click the Move tool, and then drag the selected area directly from the document window into the window of the receiving document. Photoshop documents typically contain multiple layers. Controlling lay- ers is an important aspect of design. But what about controlling layers across multiple documents? For example, you're working on a design, and you need access to some additional image information. The only problem is that the additional information is located in another Photoshop document. Photoshop gives you the ability to move/copy layers between open documents. dryscapt.pild 5~tl 1"',1 I 'Y"'::-~':;;;=---+-- Dragmoon layerhere Iii ••• I!!!!! Newlayerfrom donordocument Moonlayer nn~------~~~~~~~~----~~~~T 0 INonn~ , I"",,;ty 1 Chapter5 Working with Layers 127
  16. 16. Duplicating a Layer Duplicate a Layer o Select the Layers panel. o Select the layer you want to duplicate. •• Enter a name for the new layer. o Click the Layers Options button, and then click Duplicate Layer. To place the layer in another open document, click the Document list arrow, and then select a document. o Click OK. Did You Know? You can duplicate a layer with the Create New Layer button. Drag the layer over the Create New Layer button and Photoshop creates an exact copy of the layer and appends the word copy at the end of the original layer name. 128 Chapter 5 There are times when you will need a copy of a Photoshop layer. Duplicating a layer is a simple process that creates a pixel-to-pixel copy of the selected layer. Once the copied layer is created, it becomes a separate image within the document. You can then begin to make changes to the new layer. Duplicating a layer gives you the ability to control each layer separately and to apply nondestructive effects to your image by making them on a copy of the image instead of the original. r New L;er... -- 0"XNl A Duplicate laver.~----!---IV I Delete Layer I ! Hldd~I I I New Group... ~1----1I- "=Ii1 L ve Convert to Smart Object 8 eodlnq Op1on Edr A.r' u' e t ( r te ( p q.., SK ~ Co l ver e eel l ked aver Merge Visible OXE Flatten lmaqe Animation Options PanelOptions... I Close Close Tab Group '---- J Duplicate: Background As: Background copy Destination ----------------" Oocument: hawaii-heron.tif IN .• I
  17. 17. Deleting Layers Delete Layers o Select the layers panel. oSelect the layers you want to delete. o Click the Delete layer button on the Layers panel, and then click Yes. • To delete layers without displaying the confirmation dialog box, hold down the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key, and then click the Delete layer button. Did You Know? You can delete layers from the Layers panel by dragging. Click the layers you want to delete, and then drag them to the Delete Layer button. You can delete hidden layers from the Layers panel. Select the Layers panel, click the Layers Options button, and then click Delete Hidden Layers. You can delete empty layers from the Layers panel. Click the File menu, point to Scripts, and then click Delete All Empty Layers. While Photoshop lets you add layers to a document (up to 8,000),it also lets you delete layers. Remember that once you've deleted a layer and saved the document, there is no way to recover the deleted layer. However, while the document is open, there is always the chance of recovering the deleted layer through the History panel. You can delete shown or hidden layers using different commands. If you have some empty layers, you can delete them all at once using the Delete All Empty Layers command on the Scripts submenu on the File menu. (X. a tl. CJ Selectedlayersareremoved fromthe Layerspanel. ~r;;] INon".1 lDd: + a ..,E:ii:•.... <a> D8Jcltground Chapter 5 Working with Layers 129
  18. 18. Using Merge Layer Options The Merge Down option lets you merge one selected layer into the layer directly below it in the layer stacking order. Merged layers take on the characteristics of the layer into which they are being merged. For example, if you merge one layer into another that uses the Darken blending mode, the two merged layers will both use Darken. Or,if you merge a layer into the Background layer, the merged layer becomes a part of the Background. The Merge Visible option enables you to merge all of the layers that have the Show option enabled with just one click. Merge Down !0 Select the Layers panel. 0 Select the layers you want to Layers Ch.aDMIs -.merge. I P "nd ~Ii;;I e T 0 Click the Layers Options button, and then click Merge Down (for '"" .•• single selection) or Merge Layers eO ri.ht (for multiple selection). <J'.) [(] middle The selected layers merge into the $ [] left next layer down. When you use the Merge Down command, the •0 Background ~ top layer will take on the name and characteristics of the bottom layer. TIMESAVER Press Ctn-E (Win) or~+E (Mac) to merge layers fx. a t>.C::l I;] ~ down. •• Mergedown La~ers 1 C•••• n I, '.ths o§i IP I(jnd ~I;;J t> T n &l 11 11 Normill ! IOpadty: IIO~ I...I lode t> 6 Fill:~ e rnmiddle e [] 100t leD S.ckground e I;] afx. III t>. C::l Merge Visible o Select the Layers panel. o Click the Show option for all layers you wantto merge. oClick the Layers Options button, and then click Merge Visible. All layers with the Show option enabled (not locked) are merged together. !Layers0-.11 •.••• Mergevisible Lilyers Chan , Paths 015 IP "nd ! I ;;J t> T tl &l El Normal !IOpadty:~ lode 6 Fill:~ em d.ht - oBackground e I-- fx ~c;- a t> o I;] • -rr-<12> [(] middle e [] 'eft e 0 ~ckground f}TIMESAVER Press Shift+Ctrl+E (Win) or Shift~+E (Mac) to merge visible layers. Youcan also press Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) to merge a/l visible layers into a new layer. 130 Chapter 5 1
  19. 19. Linking and Unlinking Layers Link Layers • Open a multi-layered document. • Select the Layers panel. Select two or more layers. Click the Link Layers button, located at the bottom of the Layers panel. The selected layers are now linked. A link icon appears next to the selected linked layers. Unlink Layers • Open' a multi-layered document that contains links. • Select the Layers panel. oSelect a layer that contains the link icon. TIMESAVER Tounlink several linked layers, select them before continuing. • Click the Link Layers button, located at the bottom of the Layers panel. TIMESAVER Totemporarily disable a linked layer, Shift+click the link icon. A red X appears. Shift+click the link icon again to enable it. If you're currently looking at the Layers panel, and wondering where the linking button is, don't worry. It's not missing; it's just been moved. Linking multiple layers is a snap. Simply select one or more layers and then click the Link Layers button at the bottom of the Layers panel. You can link two or more layers or groups. Unlike selected multiple layers, linked layers retain their relationship (stay together) until you unlink them, which allows you to move or resize the layers as a unit. Ne layers ChanDeIs •••••5 c-:> <e 0 percn Layers <I> D octopus ee are •0 b ue tuea linked .•.0 backd"", Pc. III O.D ~ ~ • Linkremoved <I> 0 suhoru --- <SI 0 pe:~ch ·D~ <I> 0 b'U:=:- <I> 0 backdrop ee Lodt: .+6 <8> 0 se.il.~OfSe ·Operch <e 0 octopus ca> 0 b-ue tuea ~0 badcrop c-:> c-:> ee oe t;I) 0 suhorH •0perch •0 octopus •0 bluetunA <I> 0 backdrop c-:> ee Chapter 5 Working with Layers 131
  20. 20. Aligning and Combining Layers Align Layers oOpen a document. o Duplicate or place the images you want to align on different layers. oTo set a reference layer, select the layer you want, and then click the Lock button on the Layers panel. • If you don't have a locked layer, Photoshop will create one for you. • Select the layers you want to align in the Layers panel. o Click the Edit menu, and then click Auto-Align Layers. o Click one of the layout alignment options: Ever wanted to replace or delete parts of an image that have the same background or combine images that share overlapping content? In Photoshop, you can do it with the Auto-Align Layers and Auto-Blend Layers commands. The Auto-Align Layers command automatically aligns different layers that contain similar content. One layer is assigned to be the reference layer and all other layers are aligned to the reference layer in order to match everything up. You can manually set the reference layer, or let Photoshop automatically choose it for you. Sometimes when you align images, a visible stitching appears between them. You can use the Auto-Blend Layers command with RGBor grayscale images to create a smooth appearance between the aligned images. Auto-Blend Layers uses layer masks to remove content differ- ences between the images. Originalimage • Auto. Analyzes the images and uses either the Perspective, Spherical, or Cylindrical layout. • Perspective. Creates a Normal stretched or skewed effect on iil:~ the side images. ~ Lok.2 Collage. Retains object shapes "• while aligning layers and ~ 8,Jektpound 6) matching overlapping content. • Cylindrical. Reduces a bow-tie Referencelayer effect by displaying images as fx. KI tl.CJ ~ ..... •if they were on an unfolded cylinder. 132 Chapter5
  21. 21. • Spherical. Transforms images spherically using wide fields of view. • Reposition. Aligns the layers and matches overlapping content. oSelect Vignette Removal to remove unwanted lens vignette and Geometric Distortion to automatically correct for fisheye lenses. o Click OK. oTo fine-tune the alignment or make tonal changes, click the Edit menu, and then click Free Transform. Combine and Blend Layers o o oSelect the Panorama or Stack Images option . • Click OK. Select the layers you want to combine in the Layers panel. Click the Edit menu, and then click Auto-Blend Layers. Did You Know? You can create an image stack. If you have images with a similar size, you can create an image stack. Create a document with each image as a sepa- rate layer. Select the all the layers, use the Auto-Align Layers command with the Auto option, convert the layers to Smart Objects, and then create an image stack. Click the Layer menu, point to Smart Objects, point to Stack Mode, and then select a stack mode from the submenu. To remove a stack, click None on the submenu. You can edit an image stack like any other Smart Object. AUlo-Allgn layers Projection • Auto Perspective ( Cvlindrlcal oSpherical oReposition lens Correction I 0Vignette Removal l0Ceomet~lc~~lon Deltr..uM tht but Pfojtc:tion iWtom.Mkllly. Warnill9 CIKlIdnol dflKt cam,r, m<ltld:Ul. UM ttM "fl'" ) Scopu :> load Im•• inlo sua..: stnJM IQpr• ...,.,.. ftMUdlla tor Y.g~I' R.tI'IOY~ andlOf CI01lltUit Dinonlofl. u)'us Ch~ls hths ·Ii §G(;;]~Ttl.!j I Norm" .1O•• dty: Ilooor; I·1 l.odc~/+6 FiI:!lo,",I·1 <SI> uke2 IJitckground Images on the selected layers iliLake2.jpg @25"(RC .. Auto-Blend Layers 1 - Blend Method oPanorama ~1 Fixed and blended image SeamJess Tones and Colors 2SK [It Chapter 5 Working with Layers 133
  22. 22. Aligning layers with Smart Guides Use Smart Guides to Align Layers o Open or create a multi-layered document. •o Select a layer that contains an object. Select the Move tool, and drag the object. As you move the object, Smart Guides appear to help you align the objects. The amount the object moves appears as you drag. oRelease the mouse and the guides disappear. Did You Know? You can turn Smart Guides on and off. Click the View menu, point to Show, and then click Smart Guides. 134 Chapter 5 Photoshop gives you the ability to use Smart Guides to help align shapes, slices, and selections as you draw. They appear automatically as you draw a shape or create a selection or slice, and then disappear after the shape is drawn. They enable you to visually align one object to another with a minimum of effort. Smart Guides are automatically turned on by default. I~UllS. sd @ I ()!I(bo I. bu. ReB/B) • Smart Guide Object movement amount ''''' [ Normal ~ I Opacity: IIO~ 1 y I Lode f:3 +8 Fill 11001; 1 y 1 [jiP-girlladybug b_~, _ l2J1i boy I.dybug <t!> DBackground t?l c-;> fx. t). L:J IiJ .•••
  23. 23. Working with Layer Blending Modes Mix layer Information with Blending Modes o Open a multi-layered document. Select the Layers panel. Click the layers you want to adjust; You can apply blending mode to one or more selected layers in the Layers panel. Since blending modes affect all layers below the one to which the blending mode is applied, select the layer directly above the layer you want to blend. • Click the Blending Mode list arrow, and then select a blending mode. Photoshop uses the selected blending mode to visually blend the image through all the layers below the blending mode layer. If a layer has a Blend-If change applied to it from the Blending Options in the Layer Style dialog box, an icon appears on the layer to let you know. Did You Know? You can control the number of layers to which a blending mode is applied. Hold down the Alt (Win) or Option (Mac) key,andthen click on the visible line separating the adjustment layer from the next lower layer. Layer Blending Modes are one of the most creative areas within the Layers panel. With blending modes, you can instruct Photoshop to mix the image information between two or more layers. For example, using the Multiply blending mode instructs Photoshop to multiply the color of one layer with that of another layer, resulting in a darker color. Blending modes give you control over Photoshop images above and beyond what you would expect to find in the "analog" world. Blending mode and opac- ity settings are shown in the Layers panel for hidden layers. • '*' ill *.snowl.J.,..r II!!! III •• ~ bao'(J.rd Thesnowlayerblendedwiththe backyardlayer. Chapter5 Working with Layers 135
  24. 24. Setting Layer Opacity Set Layer Opacity and Fill Opacity oSelect the Layers panel. • Select the layers you want to change; you can apply opacity to one or more selected layers in the Layers panel. • To set opacity, enter a percentage value in the Opacity box or click the list arrow, and then drag the Opacity slider. TIMESAVER Press 1 to change opacity to 10%,press 2 to change to 20% and so on to 9. Press 0 to change to 100%.Youcan also enter a specify value, such as 85. • To set a fill opacity, enter a percentage value in the Fill Opacity box or drag the Fill Opacity slider. Did You Know? You can change the fill value using the keyboard. Select one or more layers, hold down the Shift key, and then press 1to change the fill to 10%,press 2to change to 20%and so on to 9. Press 0 to change to 100%.Youcan also enter a specify value, such as 14 or 00to get 0%. 136 Chapter 5 The opacity of a layer determines the transparency of the layer beneath it. A layer with a low opacity percentage appears as nearly transparent, while a layer with a high opacity percentage appears as nearly opaque. You can apply opacity to one or more selected layers, even a hidden one, in the Layers panel. Opacity and blending mode settings are shown in the Layers panel for hidden layers. You cannot change the opacity of a background layer or a locked layer. However, you can convert a back- ground layer to a normal layer and then you can apply opacity to it. In addition to setting layer opacity, you can also set a fill opacity. Opacity affects layer styles and blending modes, while fill opacity affects pixels painted in a layer or shapes drawn on a layer without affecting the opacity applied to any layer effects. Thesnowlayeropacitysetto showthroughthe backyardlayer.
  25. 25. Working with the layer Comps Panel Work with the Layer Comps Panel Open a document. oClick the Window menu, and then click Layer Comps to open the Layer Comps panel. • Click the Create New Layer Comp button to create a snapshot of the current state of the image. • Select check boxes to adjust a layer's visibility, position, or appearance (layer style). • Click OK. oTo create another snapshot of the current state of the image, click the Create New Layer Comp button, and then repeat steps 4 and 5 to create as many layer comps as you need. oClick the left and right arrows to cycle through the current layer comps. oClick the Update Layer Comp button to update the selected layer comp to the current state of the image. oClick the Layer Comp icon to change the active image to the selected layer comp state. G To remove a layer cornp. click the Delete Layer Comp button. Layer Comps are an image or snapshot of the current state of the Layers panel. When you create a Layer Comp,you're recording layer visibility, a layer's position within the document, and any layer styles applied to the image. Making changes to the layers in your document and then updating the Layer Comps panel creates a new Layer Comp. Any time you want to view a particular Layer Comp,just select it from the Layer Comps panel. Layer Comps create different versions of your document and saves them all in one file, giving you different creative options for the same document. In addition, they give you the option of printing the same document with different variations, by choosing dif- ferent Layer Comps during printing. Laver Comps L:=.l..iO;..iiio;;,,44"';;~ ~ Lsst Document Srare .••.. III New La er Comp Name: lEffecls Applied ApplV to Levers: Visibility 6!l Position 6!lAppearance rt.aver Style) Comment: Layer Effects Applied Lave.rComps •Last Document St~t. ~ Eff«u Appled ~ Eltects Oiubled 0 ILl ::: Chapter5 Working with Layers 137
  26. 26. Exporting Layers as Files Export layers as Files o Open a document. o Click the File menu, point to Scripts, and then click Export layers to Files. oTo specify a destination for the files, click Browse, and then select a folder location. oEnter the name you want at the beginning of the files. • To export only visible layers, click the Visible layers Only check box. oClick the File Type list arrow, and then select an output option: PSD, BMP, JPEG, PDF,Targa, TIFF,PNG- 8, or PNG-24. oTo embed a color profile, select the Include ICCProfile check box. oSpecify the options you want that relate to the selected file format. Click Run. G) Upon completion, click OK. The files are named with the prefix you specified and numbered in sequential order. 138 Chapter5 Photoshop gives you the option of exporting and saving layers as indi- vidual files using a variety offormats including PSD, BMP,JPEG, PDF, Targa, TIFF,and PNG.When exporting layers to files, one format is applied to all exported layers. The Export Layers to Files script com- mand gives you the ability to create individual files from the individual layers and select options specific to the file format you want. For exam- ple, you can export only visible layers and embed a color profile along with the image. ~) . Export l.ayers To Files Destination: Caps/ MacCaps I I Browse ... I I Run File Name Prefix: I Cancel I ••blackbars ..,-0 Visible Layers Only - File Type: •••PSD .. ~ Include ICC Profile "V r-' PSD Options: ~ Maximize Compatibility ~ •• Please specify the format and location for saving each layer as a file. •~ 11 Export layers To Files was successful. I OK I «~
  27. 27. Copying CSS from Layers Copy CSS from Layers o Select the Layers panel. • Select the layers you want to copy the generated CSS. Click the Layers menu, and then click Copy CSS. The CSSis copied to the Clipboard, where you can paste it into your HTML editor. • In your HTML or text editor, open the document where you want to insert the CSS code. • Click to place the insertion point where you want the CSS code. o Click Edit menu, and then click Paste. The CSS code is pasted into the document. If you're creating images and elements, such as button shapes or text, for web pages, you can use the Copy CSScommand (New!) on the Layers menu to copy the generated CSS(Cascading Style Sheets) code from Photoshop and then paste it in your HTML editor, such as Adobe Dreamweaver, or a text editor. This allows you to quickly integrate and use Photoshop content in your web page design using standard CSS code. For shapes, Copy CSS captures values for size, position, fill color (including gradients), stroke color, and drop shadows. Fortext, Copy CSScaptures values for font family, font size, font weight, line height, underline, strikethrough, superscript, subscript, and text alignment. Lly.rs ChAnnels Paths .Ji ~r;;)tJTtl,j I No",," :lopacity:110Ol<I-1 1..d" + 6 Fdl:~ m ··h ~0;:;;:; ~ .angeLfish{ background·lmage: ur1("1mageslangel fiSh.png"); position: absolute; left: 233px; top: 141pX; width: 317px; helghl: 3OOpx; z~ndex: 2j } PastedCSScodefromPhotoshop Chapter 5 Working with Layers 139
  28. 28. Setting Layers Panel Options Set Layers Panel Options o Select the Layers panel. • Click the Layers Options button, and then click Panel Options. o Click a thumbnail size or the None option. • Click the Layer Bounds or Entire Document option. oSelect the options you want: • Use Default Masks on Fill Layers. Select to automatically insert a mask when creating a new Adjustment layer. • Expand New Effects. Select if you would like to view Smart Filters or Layer Styles in the Layers panel. You can also click the triangle next to the Smart Filter or Layer Style icon in the Layers panel. • Add "copy" to Copied Layers and Groups. Select to add the text "copy" to copied layers or layer groups. o Click OK. 140 Chapter 5 Photoshop doesn't have a lot of options for controlling the Layers panel itself; in fact, there is only one-changing the size of the layer thumb- nail and how it fits within the thumbnail box. You can choose to view the layer thumbnail in a small, medium, or large size, or you can select to have no thumbnail shown at all. When you change the size of the thumbnail, you're instructing Photoshop to spend either more, or less, processing time on the display of the image. The larger the thumbnail, the easier it is to see, but the longer it takes for Photoshop to draw the image in the Layers panel. If you're experiencing performance issues with Photoshop, and you're using the large thumbnail size option, you might consider choosing a smaller thumbnail size. Loc:" .;. Cl Fill:~ ~~ J$~ skyline <It>. moon layers Panel 0 tions Thumbnail Size ONone r Thumbnail Contents oLayer Bounds oEntire Document -- Use Default Masks on Flll Lavers Expand New Effects Add "copy" to Copied Laye" and Groups

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