CLIMATE CHANGE ANDTHE PHILIPPINE CRISIS !Philppine Climate Watch AllianceJune 2012
Introduction1.    The Reality of Climate Change2.    Projected changes and its impacts3.    Causes of change4.    Climate ...
The reality of climate changeObserved changes in climate

!     1. Life on earth       depends on,       is shaped by       and affects       climate. !
Climate system diagram!

!     2. Warming of       the climate is       unequivocal. !
Temperature rise!Average globaltemperatureincreased by 0.74degrees Celsiusbetween 1906 and2005. !In its 2007Assessment, IP...
Sea level rise!Sea levels acrossthe globe haverisen in a wayconsistent with thewarming – since1961 at an averageof 1.8 mm ...
Melting snow and ice!Decreases in snowand ice extent arealso consistent withwarming. Satellitedata recorded since1978 show...
Extreme	  weather	  events	       From 1900 to 2005     precipitation (rain,     sleet and snow)     increased     signific...

!     3. Human       activities are       impacting the       climate       system. !
Surging GHG emissions !
Projected change and its impacts

!    4. Climate      change will      have      consequences      for the earth      system and      human lives.!
Causes of changeUnequal histrorical responsibilities

!     5. It is the rich       and       industrialized       nations who       have emitted       most GHG in       the  ...
•  Top 25 GHG   emitters account   for an estimated   80% of global   emissions.!•  Top 7 emitters   accounted for   52% o...
•  In terms of   historical   emissions,   industrialize   d countries   where less   than 20% of   the total   world   po...
Consumption of energy and fuels!                       •  COAL: The top 25 GHG                          emitting countries...

!     6.The ecological       crisis is indeed       historical and       linked with the       current global       econo...
Historical context!•  Unprecedented rise in   GHG production and   concentration on the   onset of capitalist   system!•  ...
•    Almost half the world — over three     billion people — live on less than     $2.50 a day.!                          ...
Characteristics of production of
Corporate Capitalism !•  The goal: to maximize   short-term private financial   profits !• ...
MNCs and the exploitation of natural resources          in developing countries!
Transnational corporations!•    1998, 4 out of the 11 biggest     producers of oil are TNCs (BP     Amoco-Arco, Exxon Mobi...
System in crisis!Extraction -> Production -> Distribution -> Consumption -> Disposal!
Climate change in the Philippines

7. It is the poor                    !  and  marginalized  people who are  most  vulnerable and  affected by the  impacts...
Human Resources!•  92.2 M population (2009 est.)!•  27.6 M or 33/100  poor Filipinos   !•  4.7 M or 24/ 100 poor  families...
Income distribution!
Poverty incidence among the basic sector!
•  Poor countries like the   Philippines are vulnerable to   enhanced hazards due to   climate change!•  Already a disaste...
6th most vulnerable in the world!
Most vulnerable in Southeast Asia!
Climate Change in the Philippines!•  From 27 typhoons during the period 2000-2003, the   number ominously increased to 39 ...
Global warming worsens theimpact of imperialist plunder!•  Under a systerm where profit   is the primary objective of   soc...

8. The Philippine   !  government is  largely  responsible for  the  environmental  crisis and lack  of disaster-  prepar...
Government Initiatives!•  Climate Change Task Force!    •  EPIRA (privatization of•  Clean Development                ener...
Philippine Government!l    Large scale plunder of the      environment!       l  Without benefit to the           majorit...
Responses to climate change

   9. Any genuine        move resolve!       the problem of        global        warming must        critically        re...
UNFCCC and KYOTO PROTOCOL!          l    1992:	  Interna*onal	  agreement	  under	                  the	  United	  Na*ons...
Conclusion1.  Climate chnge is real.2.  Climate change is not just an environmental    issue but a social justic issue.3. ...

   10. The decisions,       actions and!      solutions       should       primarily       consider and       uphold the ...
Thank you!www.kalikasan.org
Climate change
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Climate change

  1. 1. CLIMATE CHANGE ANDTHE PHILIPPINE CRISIS !Philppine Climate Watch AllianceJune 2012
  2. 2. Introduction1.  The Reality of Climate Change2.  Projected changes and its impacts3.  Causes of change4.  Climate change in the Philippines5.  Responses to climate change
  3. 3. The reality of climate changeObserved changes in climate
  4. 4. 
! 1. Life on earth depends on, is shaped by and affects climate. !
  5. 5. Climate system diagram!
  6. 6. 
! 2. Warming of the climate is unequivocal. !
  7. 7. Temperature rise!Average globaltemperatureincreased by 0.74degrees Celsiusbetween 1906 and2005. !In its 2007Assessment, IPCCpredicted anadditional rise of1.8–4.0 degreesCelsius this century,depending on howmuch and how soongreenhouse gasemissions arecurbed. !!
  8. 8. Sea level rise!Sea levels acrossthe globe haverisen in a wayconsistent with thewarming – since1961 at an averageof 1.8 mm per year,and since 1993 at3.1 mm per year.The total global risein the 20th centuryamounted to 17 cm.!!
  9. 9. Melting snow and ice!Decreases in snowand ice extent arealso consistent withwarming. Satellitedata recorded since1978 show theannual averageArctic sea ice extenthas shrunk by 2.7per cent eachdecade, with largerdecreases insummer. Mountainglaciers andaverage snow cover Minimum  arc*c  sea-­‐ice  extent  from  1979  to  2007  have declined inboth hemispheres.!
  10. 10. Extreme  weather  events   From 1900 to 2005 precipitation (rain, sleet and snow) increased significantly in parts of the Americas, northern Europe and northern and central Asia, but declined in the Sahel, the Mediterranean, southern Africa and parts of southern Asia. ! ! Increasing Strength and frequency of Typhoons (Category 4/5)!Source:  Science  Magazine,  Sep  16,  2005    
  11. 11. 
! 3. Human activities are impacting the climate system. !
  12. 12. Surging GHG emissions !
  13. 13. Projected change and its impacts
  14. 14. 
! 4. Climate change will have consequences for the earth system and human lives.!
  15. 15. Causes of changeUnequal histrorical responsibilities
  16. 16. 
! 5. It is the rich and industrialized nations who have emitted most GHG in the atmosphere.!
  17. 17. •  Top 25 GHG emitters account for an estimated 80% of global emissions.!•  Top 7 emitters accounted for 52% of the 185 nations’ emissions.!•  In 2000, the US emitted 19% of the world total, followed by China with 14%; !•  No other country 2000 GHG Emissions! reached 6%!
  18. 18. •  In terms of historical emissions, industrialize d countries where less than 20% of the total world population lives account for 80% of the CO2 buildup in the atmosphere to date.! 1850-2000 GHG Emissions!
  19. 19. Consumption of energy and fuels! •  COAL: The top 25 GHG emitting countries account for approx 92% of global coal consumption, production, and known reserves. 5 countries account for 3/4 of worldwide consumption. ! •  OIL: The top 25 GHG emitting countries account for 78% of oil consumption, 61% of production, and 51% of known oil reserves.! •  NATURAL GAS: The top 25 GHG emitters account for 77% of global consumption, 67% of production, and 58 % of gas reserves. ! !
  20. 20. 
! 6.The ecological crisis is indeed historical and linked with the current global economic crisis. !
  21. 21. Historical context!•  Unprecedented rise in GHG production and concentration on the onset of capitalist system!•  Industrial revolution!•  Modern technology!•  Intensive use of machines and fossil fuels for transportation, trade and energy. !
  22. 22. •  Almost half the world — over three billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day.! Great and exciting•  1.6 billion people — a quarter of humanity — live without electricity! advances!•  Nearly a billion people entered the •  Information technology, 21st century unable to read a book automation, genetics and or sign their names!•  1.4 million die each year from lack medicine! of access to safe drinking water Greatest challenges! and adequate sanitation!•  According to UNICEF, 25,000 •  Famine and hunger, rapid children die each day due to ecological destruction, poverty.! breakdown of health•  In 2005, the wealthiest 20% of the systems, world accounted for 76.6% of total private consumption. The poorest social decay fifth just 1.5%:! and•  About 0.13% of the world’s disintegration! population controlled 25% of the world’s financial assets in 2004.! !•  For every $1 in aid a developing country receives, over $25 is spent on debt repayment!
  23. 23. Characteristics of production of
Corporate Capitalism !•  The goal: to maximize short-term private financial profits !•  Anarchic !•  Wasteful and pollutive!•  Monopoly on production, resources, capital!•  Division of the world – market, raw materials and war!!
  24. 24. MNCs and the exploitation of natural resources in developing countries!
  25. 25. Transnational corporations!•  1998, 4 out of the 11 biggest producers of oil are TNCs (BP Amoco-Arco, Exxon Mobil, Royal Dutch Shell at Chevron-Texaco). !•  2005, oil TNCs like British Petroleum, Exxon Mobil, Shell Dutch controls 18% of global oil reserves!•  2004, the 10 biggest oil TNCs in the US control around 55% of the oil production while the top 50 controls 77%!•  2006, Exxon Mobil Corporation reported — TNC having the biggest GHG emission in the world (150 million tons-6th largest if it were a country ) – and a net profit of $39.5 billion from gross income of $377.6 billion !•  TNCs owns the biggest agricultural plantations, logging corporations, large dams, energy plants, etc..!
  26. 26. System in crisis!Extraction -> Production -> Distribution -> Consumption -> Disposal!
  27. 27. Climate change in the Philippines
  28. 28. 
7. It is the poor ! and marginalized people who are most vulnerable and affected by the impacts of climate change.!
  29. 29. Human Resources!•  92.2 M population (2009 est.)!•  27.6 M or 33/100 poor Filipinos !•  4.7 M or 24/ 100 poor families!•  PhP 6,274 monthly income of Filipino family of five to stay out of poverty!•  71. 4 % Self rated poverty (Oct 2009 by Ibon National Opinion Survey!
  30. 30. Income distribution!
  31. 31. Poverty incidence among the basic sector!
  32. 32. •  Poor countries like the Philippines are vulnerable to enhanced hazards due to climate change!•  Already a disaster-prone country!•  12th country in the world most at risk to disasters UNISDR!•  Destroyed environment!•  Lack of financial, institutional and technological capacity and access to knowledge!•  Exacerbates inequities in health status and access to adequate food, clean water and other resources.!
  33. 33. 6th most vulnerable in the world!
  34. 34. Most vulnerable in Southeast Asia!
  35. 35. Climate Change in the Philippines!•  From 27 typhoons during the period 2000-2003, the number ominously increased to 39 from 2004-2007!•  The typhoons are getting stronger and stronger, especially since the late 1990s. Typhoon signal no. 4 is a fairly recent category.!•  Total damages brought about by typhoons increased by 408% from 2003 to 2006!•  Seven of the 20 deadliest typhoons in the Philippines covering the period 1947-2006 occurred in 1990-2006!
  36. 36. Global warming worsens theimpact of imperialist plunder!•  Under a systerm where profit is the primary objective of societal production, the environment and our ecosystems are reduced to being a source of raw materials and dumping ground for wastes.!•  Under such a system, countries which top the list in terms of profit and industrial might also become the worlds foremost culprits of environmental degradation. !!
  37. 37. 
8. The Philippine ! government is largely responsible for the environmental crisis and lack of disaster- preparedness program in the country.!
  38. 38. Government Initiatives!•  Climate Change Task Force! •  EPIRA (privatization of•  Clean Development energy plants and building Mechanism! of new ones by private•  1991 Inter-Agency sector) ! Committee on Climate •  Philippine Energy Plan Change! 2005-2014 – building new•  Oct. 29 – Arroyo signed (RA coal power plants and 9729) Climate Change increasing it share in energy production by 40% ! Commission! •  Others – Mining Act,•  2009 Climate Change Bill! Biofuels Act, Clean Air Act, Joint explorations!
  39. 39. Philippine Government!l  Large scale plunder of the environment! l  Without benefit to the majority of our people! l  Benefits only a small segment of society!l  Government policies aggravates our climate vulnerability! l  Biofuels Act! l  Oil deregulation law! l  Mining Act 1995! l  EPIRA! l  Forestry Code! l  Neoliberal Globalization! l  Corruption!
  40. 40. Responses to climate change
  41. 41. 
 9. Any genuine move resolve! the problem of global warming must critically recognize and address the larger socio- economic context in which it occurs.! !
  42. 42. UNFCCC and KYOTO PROTOCOL! l  1992:  Interna*onal  agreement  under   the  United  Na*ons  Framework   Conven*on  on  Climate  Change   (UNFCCC)   l  reduce  GHG  emissions,  on  average  by   about  5%  between  2008-­‐2012  rela*ve   to  1990   l  1997:  Kyoto  Protocol;  The  flexibility   mechanisms     •  Funding  mechanisms  to  assist   developing  countries   l  175  countries  except  US  and  Australia   (Australia  later  signed  on  Kyoto)  
  43. 43. Conclusion1.  Climate chnge is real.2.  Climate change is not just an environmental issue but a social justic issue.3.  Historically linked with the the world socio- economic crisis.4.  Will worsen the Philippine crisis.5.  Inaction is inexcusable.
  44. 44. 
 10. The decisions, actions and! solutions should primarily consider and uphold the interest an welfare of the majority of our people and environment.! ! !
  45. 45. Thank you!www.kalikasan.org

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