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Anatomy Great blood vessels.pdf

  1. Major blood vessels of the body Urge Gerema (B.Sc., M.Sc.) Address: 5/10/2022 Urge G 1
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  3. Principal Arteries of the body 1. Aorta A. Ascending aorta  Ascending from the heart (left ventricle)  The coronary arteries are the only branch of the ascending aorta that supplies the heart B. Aortic arch  Three vessels arise from the aortic arch:  Brachiocephalic  Left common carotid artery  Left subclavian artery C. Descending aorta  Thoracic Aorta  Abdominal Aorta 5/10/2022 Urge G 3
  4. Aorta 5/10/2022 Urge G 4
  5. Arteries of the neck and head 5/10/2022 Urge G 5
  6. Arteries of the neck and head 5/10/2022 Urge G 6
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  8. Arteries of the neck and head  The brain is supplied by four arteries:  Paired vertebral arteries  Paired internal carotid arteries 5/10/2022 Urge G 8
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  10. Arteries of the upper limbs  Right subclavian- from brachiocephalic  left subclavian- from aortic arch 5/10/2022 Urge G 10
  11. Branches of the thoracic portion of aorta It is a continuation of the aortic arch Descends though the thoracic cavity to diaphragm Gives branches to the muscles and organs of thoracic region Pericardial artery  Supply the pericardium of heart Bronchial artery  Supply the systemic circulation to the lungs Esophageal artery 5/10/2022 Urge G 11
  12. Branches of the thoracic portion of aorta 5/10/2022 Urge G 12
  13. Branches of the abdominal portion of aorta  Abdominal aorta is the segment between diaphragm and L4  Unpaired Inferior mesentery Superior mesentery Middle Mesentery  Paired branches  Renal artery– to kidney  Suprarenal artery - to adrenal glands  Testicular artery - to testes  Ovarian artery - to ovaries  Celiac trunk  Splenic artery (to spleen)  Left gastric artery ( to stomach)  Common hepatic (to liver) 5/10/2022 Urge G 13
  14. Branches of the abdominal portion of aorta 5/10/2022 Urge G 14
  15. Arteries of the pelvis and lower limbs  The abdominal aorta terminates by bifurcating into Right common iliac arteries Left common iliac arteries  The common iliac divides into  The internal iliac and  External iliac . 5/10/2022 Urge G 15
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  17. Venous drainage of the body: Veins Draining the neck and head  External jugular vein  From scalp, portions of face, superficial neck region  drain into right and left subclavian vein.  Internal jugular vein  From brain, meninges, deep regions of face and neck  Larger and deeper than the external jugular vein  Sub-clavian vein and internal jugular unite to form the brachiocephalic vein  The two brachiocephalic veins merge to form the superior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium 5/10/2022 Urge G 17
  18. Veins Draining the neck and head 5/10/2022 Urge G 18
  19. Veins of the upper extremity  Consists of superficial and deep venous drainage  Deep veins  Accompany the arteries and bear their names / region  Brachial vein –axillary → subclavian → internal jugular → brachiocephalic 5/10/2022 Urge G 19
  20. Superficial veins 1. Basilic vein Drains blood from ulnar side of forearm form the axillary vein 2. Cephalic vein  Drains superficial region of hand and forearm on radial side and joins axillary vein in the shoulder region  Median cubital vein  It is a site of venipuncture 5/10/2022 Urge G 20
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  22. Veins of the thorax  Superior vena cava  Receives blood from the right and left brachiocephalic veins, which drain head, neck, and upper limb as well as from azygous veins.  The azygous vein  Extends superiorly along the abdominal and thoracic walls on the right side of the vertebral column 5/10/2022 Urge G 22
  23. Intercostal veins  The posterior intercostal veins drain into azygos and hemiazygos system  The superior veins drain into the brachiocephalic veins  Right  1st – right brachiocephalic vein  2nd, 3rd & 4th - join to form superior intercostal which drain into azygos vein  5th - 11th & subcostal – drain to azygos vein  Left  1st – left brachiocephalic vein  2nd, 3rd & 4th – join to form superior intercostal which drain into left brachiocephalic  5th - 8th – drain into accessory hemiazygos vein  9th -11th & subcostal – drain into hemiazygos vein 5/10/2022 Urge G 23
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  25. Veins of the lower extremity  Have a deep and a superficial group  The deep veins  accompany the corresponding arteries  Drain to common iliac vein then to inferior vena cava 5/10/2022 Urge G 25
  26. The superficial vein Small saphenous vein Arises from the lateral side of the foot join popliteal vein behind the knee. Great saphenous vein Longest vessel in the body, originates at the arch of the foot and ascends superiorly draining into the femoral vein. 5/10/2022 Urge G 26
  27. Arterial anastomosis  Communication between two neighboring arteries  Provide alternate routes – collateral circulation when one artery blocked 5/10/2022 Urge G 27
  28. Arterial anastomosis Arterial anastomosis occur at:  Labial branches of facial arteries  Between posterior and anterior intercostal arteries  Uterine and ovarian arteries  Arterial arcades in the mesentery intestine  Around scapula  Around elbow joint  Around knee joint  Circle of wills  Palmar and plantar 5/10/2022 Urge G 28
  29. Clinical Condition Where is the site for axillary artery compression? Compression of axillary artery  Compression of axillary artery against the humerus may be necessary when profuse bleeding occurs  Axillary artery can be compressed at its origin at the lateral border of the 1st rib by exerting downward pressure in the angle between the clavicle and the attachment of the SCM 5/10/2022 Urge G 29
  30. Measuring Blood Pressure What is instrument that used to measure arterial blood pressure ?  Sphygmomanometer is used to measure arterial blood pressure 5/10/2022 Urge G 30
  31. Compression of Brachial Artery  Where is the site for brachial artery compression and what will happen, if compressed at proximal site?  The best place to compress the brachial artery to control hemorrhage is near the middle of the arm  Because the arterial anastomoses around the elbow provide collateral circulation, the brachial artery may be clamped distal to the inferior ulnar collateral artery without producing tissue damage  Ischemia of the elbow and forearm results in clamping the brachial artery proximal to the deep artery of the arm for an extended period 5/10/2022 Urge G 31
  32. Femoral pulse and cannulation of the femoral artery  Palpable just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament  Normally, the pulse is strong; however, if the common or external iliac arteries are partially occluded, the pulse may be diminished  The femoral artery may be compressed here to control arterial bleeding after lower limb trauma  The femoral artery may be cannulated just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament (e.g., for cardioangiography, radiography of the heart and great vessels after the introduction of contrast material) 5/10/2022 Urge G 32
  33. Axillary vein Wounds in the axilla often involve the axillary vein because of its large size and exposed position Emissary vein  Infections in the loose subaponeurotic layer, however, can be transmitted through bony channels by emissary and diploic veins to the cranial cavity. 5/10/2022 Urge G 33
  34. Thrombosis and thromboembolism How thrombosis and thromboembolism occurs ?  The veins of the lower limb are subject to venous thrombosis (blood clotting) for example, after a bone fracture, muscular inactivity, and external pressure on the veins (tight cast)  Venous stasis (stagnation) is an important cause of thrombus formation  A thrombus that breaks free from a lower limb vein and travels to the lungs results in a pulmonary thromboembolism (obstruction of the pulmonary artery) 5/10/2022 Urge G 34
  35. Saphenous vein grafts  Vein grafts obtained by surgically harvesting parts of the great saphenous vein are used to bypass obstructions in blood vessels (e.g., an occlusion of a coronary artery or its branches)  When part of the vein is used as a bypass, it is reversed so that the valves do not obstruct blood flow 5/10/2022 Urge G 35
  36. Thank you! 5/10/2022 Urge G 36