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Increasing Access, Promoting Progress: Empowering Global Research through the BHL

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Increasing Access, Promoting Progress: Empowering Global Research through the BHL. Martin R. Kalfatovic. Group of 12 Meeting. Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle. Paris, 2 December 2016.

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Increasing Access, Promoting Progress: Empowering Global Research through the BHL

  1. 1. Martin R. Kalfatovic Program Director Biodiversity Heritage Library Smithsonian Libraries Increasing Access, Promoting Progress: Empowering Global Research through the BHL Group of 12 Meeting December 2016 | Paris
  2. 2. “The cultivation of natural history cannot be efficiently carried out without reference to an extensive library.” Charles Darwin, et al (1847)
  3. 3. Extensive. Open. Global
  4. 4. Inspiring Discovery through Free Access to Biodiversity Knowledge 10 years of inspiring discovery 15th-21st centuries through free & open access to biodiversity literature & archives from the Mission The Biodiversity Heritage Library improves research methodology by collaboratively making biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
  5. 5. A global project that encompasses Libraries ScienceTechnology
  6. 6. Natural history literature and archives contain information that is critical to studying life on Earth. SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS DISTRIBUTION RECORDS HISTORY OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY CLIMATE RECORDS INFORMATION ON EXTINCT SPECIES SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATIONS ECOSYSTEM PROFILES SCIENTIFIC ILLUSTRATIONS
  7. 7. BHL is a Global Consortium 17MEMBERS AS OF DECEMBER 2016 16AFFILIATES 60+ WORLDWIDE PARTNERS
  8. 8. “Last year I threw down the gauntlet to [BHL staff] and asked if there was any possibility of BHL arranging to have made available the entire run of the UK periodical The Gardeners' Chronicle. I asked because there is nowhere in my country of residence (Denmark) that holds it, requiring that I make time consuming and expensive research trips to London or Cambridge in the UK should I wish to examine the periodical. I was amazed and delighted that BHL has achieved what I asked. This contribution to the BHL catalogue has been a real boon to my research.” Dr. Toby Musgrave Horticulturalist & Botanist Lecturer, Danish Institute for Study Abroad BHL Content
  9. 9. 50+MILLION PAGES TITLES VOLUMES 112,000+ 190,000+ 172+MILLIONINSTANCES OF TAXONOMIC NAMES 530+IN-COPYRIGHT TITLES LICENSED FOR BHL AGREEMENTS WITH 230+ LICENSORS *Stats as of November 2016
  10. 10. BHL includes all levels of organismic organization, from genes to ecosystems, as well as other disciplines affecting the study of the biodiversity of life on earth.
  11. 11. Not just “heritage” collections > 23% of BHL's collection of 188,970 items is post-1922 > 72.3% of BHL’s collection is free of copyright restriction in the United States As of August 2016
  12. 12. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. Ed. 10, 1758. Carl von Linné. biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/542 ___________________ Considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature. Listed about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals. The earliest work in BHL is Theophrasti De Historia plantarum liber primus (1483) biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40913187
  13. 13. Logbook of the yacht "France" Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History Volume: v.2 (1926-1928) biodiversitylibrary.org/page/44821245 __________________ BHL includes over 100,000 pages of Field Notes and related archival material. Ongoing transcription projects will make these fully searchable.
  14. 14. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 61 (1): 135- 39 (July 2012) biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4482124 ___________________ With the assistance of BioStor, BHL now indexes over 202,000 articles, chapters or other “segments” of BHL content. These are all searchable through the bibliographic interface to BHL. Scotopteryx kuznetzovi (Wardikian, 1957) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae), a new species for the fauna of Iran and Turkey Hossein Rajaei Sh.* & Dieter Stuning
  15. 15. Charles Darwin’s Library biodiversitylibrary.org/browse/collection/darwi nlibrary ___________________ A digital edition and virtual reconstruction of the surviving books owned by Charles Darwin. It also provides full transcriptions of his annotations and marks. These works provide important insight into the development of Darwin’s ideas on evolution and natural selection. "If this were true, adios theory" Charles Darwin wrote these words in response to reading Principles of Geology, v. 2 (1837) by Charles Lyell, who was arguing that changes in species have limitations. Darwin, on the other hand, argued that changes in species are infinite and continuous, an integral concept crucial to his theory of evolution.
  16. 16. Digitization Workflow Metadata Collection and Workflow System
  17. 17. Digitization Workflow
  18. 18. Digitization Workflow
  19. 19. Digitization Workflow
  20. 20. Digitization Workflow Smithsonian Data Center Bib Alex Data Center
  21. 21. Collection Management Cycle
  22. 22. Curating Collections in BHL
  23. 23. Curating Collections in BHL
  24. 24. Curating Collections in BHL Content by Contributor
  25. 25. “BHL is a tremendous and extremely valuable resource. It has done an enormous amount to enhance the capacity of developing countries to undertake taxonomic research on their biota.” Dr. Dai Herbert Malacologist KwaZulu-Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Usage: Macro
  26. 26. 2016 198,747 visitors | March 2016 Past 12 Months 2.2m sessions 1.2m visitors 2007
  27. 27. 1. London 2. Paris 3. New York 4. Washington 5. Mexico City 6. Berlin 7. Sydney 8. Vienna 9. Sao Paulo 10. Madrid
  28. 28. 13.5% sessions Mobile Sessions FY 2016 9.3% sessions Mobile Sessions FY 2013
  29. 29. “BHL is a tremendous and extremely valuable resource. It has done an enormous amount to enhance the capacity of developing countries to undertake taxonomic research on their biota.” Dr. Dai Herbert Malacologist KwaZulu-Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Usage: Institutional
  30. 30. EXPLORING COLLECTION IMPACT IN BHL PAGES VOLUMES 64,600 297 CONTRIBUTIONS TO BHL TO DATE AVERAGE VIEWS PER ITEM (IN IA) 358 106,349 TOTAL VIEWS/ DOWNLOADS IN INTERNET ARCHIVE
  31. 31. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL ITEM VIEWS 1,313 UNIQUE VIEWS 963 AVG. TIME ON PAGE 1:23 The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria.
  32. 32. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria. Tracking Online Impact: Altmetric
  33. 33. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria. Tracking Online Impact: Altmetric
  34. 34. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria. Sharing & linking to Flickr where collections can be enhanced through citizen science!
  35. 35. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria. The images in Flickr link back to the image in BHL and credit the contributing institution.
  36. 36. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria. In Flickr, volunteers enhance our collections through tags & comments. For instance, they tag our illustrations with common and scientific (including accepted & synonym) names. They also add information about artists, including artist names & VIAF numbers.
  37. 37. Exploring Collection Impact in BHL The naturalist's miscellany, or Coloured figures of natural objects. v. 1 (1789). http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124540. Digitized by Museums Victoria. The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) automatically ingests any of our tagged images in Flickr & associates them with corresponding species pages. The EOL files credit BHL & link back to the page in BHL, so it’s always easy for users to see where the image came from and view the page in BHL.
  38. 38. “BHL is radically changing the status quo and democratizing access to knowledge about biodiversity. Now anyone in the world has instant access to the original species description in a couple of clicks.” Dr. John Sullivan Evolutionary Biologist Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia Cornell University A Free & Open Library
  39. 39. A Commitment to Open Access… BHL is a charter signatory of the Bouchout Declaration for Open Biodiversity Knowledge Management. Fundamental principles of the Declaration: Free & Open Use Policies to Foster Free & Open Access Persistent Identifiers Tracking Identifiers to Ensure Attribution Infrastructure, Standards & Protocols to Improve Access Linked Data Sustainable Knowledge Management Registers for Content & Services
  40. 40. CUSTOM PDF DOWNLOADS 517,000+ TO DATE ARTICLE INDEXING 202,000+ TO DATE DOI ASSIGNMENT 104,000+ TO DATE BHL offers a range of free services API & DATA EXPORTS TAXONOMIC NAME SEARCHING REFERENCE MANAGEMENT TOOLS *Stats as of November 2016
  41. 41. • All BHL content must be explicitly licensed and this license is referenced in the metadata • Public domain material is noted as such • Every in-copyright book or volume needs a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license Licensing Required
  42. 42. Licensing Required
  43. 43. Medadata Licensing The BHL makes its metadata available for public use under the CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication license . This Creative Commons license allows you to reuse, modify, repurpose, and distribute the metadata for all purposes including commercial and non- commercial, with no need to ask for permission.
  44. 44. “[BHL] is a fantastic resource, making research possible that would never have been considered in the past. I use it to find information on particular species and also to find source documents for further analysis. The ability to search by taxon name is invaluable.” Dr. Quentin Groom Research Assistant and Biogeographer Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium Global Biodiversity Collaboration
  45. 45. BHL collaborates with and contributes content to a variety of partners…
  46. 46. BHL collaborates with and contributes content to a variety of partners… Two more recent collaboration opportunities
  47. 47. "I think BHL is one of the most important and useful resources online right now. Judging by how often I use it, I’d say it has an impact on my research commensurate with that of Google Scholar or Web of Science.” Andrew Durso Ph.D. Student, Herpetology Biology Department Utah State University Expanding Directions
  48. 48. 107,000+ IMAGES IN FLICKR TOTAL IMAGES TAGGED29,900+ 202+MILLION TOTAL VIEWS ON IMAGES OF TOTAL FLICKR COLLECTION TAGGED TAGGED IMAGES IN EOL 27% 18,000+ BHL FLICKR NAMED 1 OF WIRED’S 27 MUST-FOLLOW FEEDS IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE *Stats as of November 2016 WWW.FLICKR.COM/BIODIVLIBRARY
  49. 49. Engagement BHL is used in exhibitions in our partner institutions, such as “Once There Were Billions” at the National Museum of Natural History.
  50. 50. “Congratulations on a superior on-line library service that is of great help to anybody that has no direct access to old literature (like many scientists in developing countries). I used to be located in the Natural History Museum in Leiden, Netherlands with an excellent library, but after my retirement I moved to Brazil and lost direct contact with the Leiden library. In many cases BHL now provides what I am looking for.” Dr. Marinus Hoogmoed Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians, 1963-2003 Naturalis Biodiversity Center BHL Technology
  51. 51. CUSTOM PDF DOWNLOADS 517,000+ TO DATE ARTICLE INDEXING 202,000+ TO DATE DOI ASSIGNMENT 104,000+ TO DATE BHL offers a range of free services API & DATA EXPORTS TAXONOMIC NAME SEARCHING REFERENCE MANAGEMENT TOOLS *Stats as of November 2016
  52. 52. DOI ASSIGNMENT 104,000+ TO DATEThe birds of Australia (1865) by John Gould http://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8367 Enables persistent citation of BHL content in publications. Most cited BHL item is Systema Naturae (1758)
  53. 53. TAXONOMIC NAME SEARCHING The Global Names Architecture (GNA) is a system of web-services which helps people to register, find, index, check and organize biological scientific names and interconnect on-line information about species. Names Discovery Engines •NetiNeti •TaxonFinder
  54. 54. Species Bibliographies Click on Link to View Page View Taxonomy Source Information
  55. 55. Agatea violaris Type specimen from the U.S. National Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution) collected by the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842
  56. 56. Agatea violaris Type specimen from the U.S. National Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution) collected by the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 Illustration from the USExEx
  57. 57. Species Description from the USExEx
  58. 58. “BHL came to the rescue when a planned trip to work in the Mertz Library at The New York Botanical Garden had to be cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy. Thanks to the online resources available through BHL I was able to source most of the key works I needed, with their supporting bibliographic information.” Gina Douglas Honorary Archivist Linnean Society of London Governance
  59. 59. *As of December 2016 MEMBERS • American Museum of Natural History Library • BHL Australia • BHL México • Cornell University Library • Field Museum of Natural History Library • Harvard University Botany Libraries • Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ernst Mayr Library • Library of Congress • Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle • The LuEsther T. Mertz Library, The New York Botanical Garden • Missouri Botanical Garden, Peter H. Raven Library • National Library Board, Singapore • Natural History Museum Library, London • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Library, Art & Archives • Smithsonian Libraries • United States Geological Survey Libraries Program • University Library, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
  60. 60. *As of December 2016 AFFILIATES • Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Library and Archives • BHL Africa • Bibliothèque cantonale et universitaire - Lausanne • California Academy of Sciences Library • Canadian Museum of Nature • Chicago Botanic Garden, Lenhardt Library • Internet Archive • Los Angeles County Arboretum & Botanic Garden • Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBLWHOI Library) • Mendel Museum • Narodni Museum (National Museum, Prague) • Natural History Museum Los Angeles County • Naturalis Biodiversity Center • Smithsonian Institution Archives • U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library • Washington University Libraries
  61. 61. Executive Committee BHL GOVERNANCE BHL Members’ Council CHAIR Dr. Nancy E. Gwinn Smithsonian Libraries VICE-CHAIR Constance Rinaldo Harvard, Ernst Mayr Library, MCZ SECRETARY Jane Smith Natural History Museum, London
  62. 62. Secretariat BHL GOVERNANCE Program Diretor Martin R. Kalfatovic Program Manager Carolyn Sheffield Collections Manager Bianca Crowley Outreach & Communication Manager Grace Costantino
  63. 63. Technical Advisory Group BHL GOVERNANCE Martin R. Kalfatovic BHL Program Director Carolyn Sheffield BHL Program Manager Mike Lichtenberg BHL Developer Joel Richard Smithsonian Libraries Susan Lynch The New York Botanical Garden
  64. 64. “I am pretty sure I exclaimed ‘this is amazing!’ out loud as soon as I discovered BHL, and I immediately bookmarked it in my browser. BHL helps fill this void by providing such resources freely to the public.” Aaron Sims Rare Plant Botanist California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Financial Structure
  65. 65. FUNDING SOURCES • Member and Affiliate Dues & Fees • Institutional Endowments • Grants • Alfred P. Sloan Foundation • Arcadia Fund • Council on Library & Information Resources • Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation • Institute of Museum & Library Services • JRS Foundation • MacArthur Foundation • Mellon Foundation • National Endowment for the Humanities • National Science Foundation (NSF) • Richard Lounsbery Foundation • U.S. Federal Funding • Federal allocation to Smithsonian Libraries • Donations • Product Development • Institutional Subventions • In-Kind Contributions
  66. 66. CASH & IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS DIRECT STAFF $1,112,785.14 VALUE OF MEMBER & AFFILIATE CONTRIBUTIONS 2015 OTHER $246,123.06 2014 VS 2015 TOTAL IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS 2014 $1,437,666.46 2015 $1,358,908.20 14TOTAL MEMBER & AFFILIATE FTEs WORKING ON BHL IN 2015
  67. 67. 2006 – 2016 Grants Received (by year)
  68. 68. EXPENSES $256,332 Total Programmer $139,000 Hardware and Software $7,500 Scanning Costs $43,992 Travel and Training $14,000 Meetings $19,000 Outreach $5,000 Contingency & Carryover $25,740 Indirect Costs $ 2,100 CY 2016 Spending (Dues and Fees)
  69. 69. “BHL is an awesomely useful resource! It’s very helpful to have the BHL when I’m traveling away from ‘home base.’ No need to carry around a rare 120 year old book if you can just open a scanned file of it on your computer.” Dr. Christopher Mah Invertebrate Zoologist Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Outreach
  70. 70. 55,000+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS ON SOCIAL MEDIA TOTAL FOLLOWERS 10,800+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS 10,900+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS 26,000+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS 4,900+ AVERAGE MONTHLY READERS (CY16) 2,300+ FOLLOW @BIODIVLIBRARY *Stats as of November 2016 TOTAL FOLLOWERS 2,400+ * BHL Instagram launched August 2016
  71. 71. MAJOR MEETINGS • 2016 DLF Forum, Milwaukee, 6-9 November 2016 • GBIF 23, Brasilia, 24-28 October 2016 • Library Leaders Forum 2016, Internet Archive, San Francisco, 26-28 October 2015 • CETAF 40 General Assembly Madrid, Spain, 18-19 October 2016 • The 8th Shanghai International Library Forum, Shanghai, 6-8 July 2016 • SPNHC 31st Annual Meeting, Berlin, 19-26 June 2016 • Open Repositories, Ireland, June 2016 • Society for Scholarly Publishing, Vancouver, June 2016 • BHL/ITIS/EOL/GBIF Meeting, Prague, June 2016 • BHL 2016 Annual Meeting and 7th Global BHL Meeting, London, 11-15 April 2016 • BHL Mexico Workshop, CONABIO, Mexico City, Mexico, 2-4 December 2015 • LITA Forum, Minneapolis, 15 November 2015 BHL • Staff Meeting, Washington, DC, 12-13 November 2015 • Library Leaders Forum 2015, Internet Archive, San Francisco, 21-23 October 2015 • 22nd GBIF Governing Board Meeting (GB22), Madagascar, 5-11 October 2015 • TDWG 2015, Nairobi, 28 September - 1 October 2015
  72. 72. Engage with audiences
  73. 73. Support BHL Financial Sustainability CafePress: http://www.cafepress.com/biodiversityheritagelibrary
  74. 74. AWARDS • Digital Library Federation (DLF) 2016 Community/Capacity Award (joint recipient with Archive of American Broadcasting). 2016 • Internet Archive Hero Award. Global Leaders in Sharing Knowledge. 2015 • Laureate. IDG’s Computerworld Honors Program. • Charles Robert Long Award of Extraordinary Merit. Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries. 2013 • Victorian Government Arts Leadership Recognition Award (BHL Australia). 2012 • John Thackray Medal. The Society for the History of Natural History. 2011 • Outstanding Collaboration Award. Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS). 2010
  75. 75. “BHL provides an excellent service for studies of marine and other biodiversity. I’ve said it before, you folks do a great job. Keep up the good work; you’ve got lots of admirers out there.” Dr. Thomas Carefoot Marine Biologist University of British Columbia, Canada BHL & the G12
  76. 76. The Biodiversity Heritage Library relies on its network of partners to grow its vast online collections, to effectively serve its worldwide user base, and to maintain its impact as a leader in both the library and biodiversity communities. BHL Partners: Members and Affiliates
  77. 77. BHL welcomes new Partners through a tiered participation structure to accommodate libraries of various sizes and capacity.  Member  Affiliate BHL Partners: Members and Affiliates
  78. 78. … participate in influencing the direction of the consortium … leverage resources including access to a pool of scanning funds … access to additional fee-based services provided exclusively to BHL Partners Tangible Institutional benefits BHL partners ...
  79. 79. … participate in governance and direction of BHL … participate in collaborative grant and funding opportunities Tangible Institutional benefits BHL partners ...
  80. 80. 2006 – 2016 Grants Received (by Lead Institution)
  81. 81. … expand the reach and impact of the their library’s digital content … have increased visibility of the institution and library both within the library professional sphere as well as in professional organizations Intangible Institutional benefits BHL partners ...
  82. 82. ... participate in a community of active, engaged leading information professionals ... participate in a global digital library program that grew out of a direct need from the taxonomic community Intangible Institutional benefits BHL partners ...
  83. 83. ... have focused aggregation of library content that complements that content in large general digital library projects such as Europeana, DPLA, Gallica, HathiTrust, etc. ... showcase content with their global peers within a biodiversity context Intangible Institutional benefits BHL partners ...
  84. 84. ... meeting the aspirational goals of the Convention on Biodiversity and the Darwin Declaration A Larger Context BHL supports your institution in ...
  85. 85. “Such exchange of information shall include exchange of results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research, as well as information on training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, indigenous and traditional knowledge as such and in combination with the technologies referred to in Article 16, paragraph 1. It shall also, where feasible, include repatriation of information.” A Larger Context Convention on Biodiversity (CBD Article 17, 1992)
  86. 86. “The essential requirements for accessing and utilising this global information are: that existing information held in literature and by current experts is made available electronically ” A Larger Context Darwin Declaration (1998)
  87. 87. “Joining BHL represents a greater opportunity for CONABIO to provide broader access to Mexico’s biodiversity knowledge contained within published literature. We believe that only with a well-informed society it is possible to develop and strengthen a culture of appreciation and valuation of Mexico’s natural capital.” Dr. José Sarukhán CONABIO National Coordinator Mexico City, Mexico In Closing …
  88. 88. BHL strives to be part of that larger "Biodiversity Commons" and provide a space for the literature of biodiversity to be available such that ...  it is a zone of fair use  sustainable use without jeopardizing original ownership rights  respects organizational/individual "moral rights" (rights of authors)  protects against unauthorized commercial use Tom Moritz, "A Vision for the Biodiversity Commons" (2004)
  89. 89. By engaging with the larger biodiversity community and major stakeholder institutions, BHL is creating a sustainable biodiversity commons for the literature of taxonomy.
  90. 90. The Commons succeeds when, among other elements, there is "the presence of a community; small and stable populations with a thick social network and social norms". BHL has created that community among our natural history and botanical libraries Elinor Ostrom, "Sustainable development and the tragedy of commons" (2009)
  91. 91. Specimens, data, publications...
  92. 92. Merci! Discussion Discussion

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