The Ferment ofThe Ferment of
Reform & CultureReform & Culture
1790-1860
Religion in AmericaReligion in America
• 75% of 23 million attended
church regularly
• Religion had become more
liberal
• ...
In France, I had almost always seen
the spirit of religion and the spirit of
freedom pursuing courses diametrically
oppose...
• Deism
–Franklin & Jefferson
–Relied on reason over faith
• Unitarianism
–belief in God as one person
not the Trinity
–St...
• Embraced by
intellectuals
such as
Ralph Waldo
Emerson
The Second GreatThe Second Great
AwakeningAwakening
• 1800 - began as a backlash
against the liberalism of the
Age of Reas...
• Effects:
–“Born-again” Christians
–Reorganized churches &
new sects
–New reform movements:
•Temperance
•Abolitionism
•Wo...
• Methodists & Baptists led
camp meetings
–sent missionaries to the
Indians & overseas
–Peter Cartwright
•Methodist “circu...
Second Great Awakening Revival MeetingSecond Great Awakening Revival Meeting
• Charles Grandison Finney
–Greatest of
revival
preachers
–Conducted
revivals in
eastern cities
The ranges of tents, the
fires, reflecting light…; the
candles and lamps illuminating
the encampment; hundreds
moving to a...
New Religious SectsNew Religious Sects
• “Burned-Over District”
–Western NY
• Adventists (Millerites)
–William Miller led ...
““Burned-Over” District in Upstate NYBurned-Over” District in Upstate NY
• Class & region lines
widened as well
–Southern & northern
churches broke apart over
slavery
–Foreshadowing of secession
• Mormons
–1830 – Joseph
Smith founded
Mormon
church
•Claims to have
been given
golden plates
by the Angel
Moroni
• Plates
constituted the
Book of Mormon
& gave rise to
the Church of
Jesus Christ of
Latter Day Saints
• Mormons followed Smith west
to Ohio, Missouri & finally
Illinois
• Persecuted for cooperativism,
voting as a unit, havin...
• 1844: Joseph Smith & his
brother were killed by a mob in
Carthage, IL
• 1846-47: Brigham Young led
Mormons to Salt Lake,...
The Mormon TrekThe Mormon Trek
• 1850: Young
becomes
territorial
governor
• 1859: “Mormon
War”
–Federal troops
forced Mormons
to submit to
Federal author...
Education ReformsEducation Reforms
• Free tax-supported
education slowly gained
support at all levels of
society (1825-185...
Winslow HomerWinslow Homer
Horace MannHorace Mann
• Led the crusade
for better
teachers, better
schools & longer
school years
• Helped create “normal
schools”
–Teaching colleges to
train teachers
Noah WebsterNoah Webster
• “Schoolmaster
of the Republic”
• Improved
textbooks &
standardized an
American
dictionary
William H. McGuffeyWilliam H. McGuffey
• Created McGuffey’s
Readers
• Taught grammar,
morality,
patriotism, &
idealism to ...
Higher EducationHigher Education
• Second Great Awakening
led to the creation of many
small, denominational
liberal-arts c...
University of Virginia 1819University of Virginia 1819
• Founded & designed by
Thomas Jefferson
• Founded as a non-religio...
Women’s EducationWomen’s Education
• Considered frivolous
• 1821 – Emma Willard
established the Troy
Female Seminary
• 1837 – Oberlin College
admitted women after
already having admitted
Blacks
• Mary Lyon established
Mount Holyoke Seminar...
The LyceumsThe Lyceums
• Travelling lecturers made
the circuit
• Gave talks on science,
literature, & philosophy
• Ralph W...
Age of ReformAge of Reform
• Most driven by evangelical
Christians
• Reform movements
included:
–Education
–Women’s rights...
–Slavery
–Medical programs
–Polygamy
–Celibacy
–Anti-tobacco
–Anti-alcohol
–Mail on Sundays
Memory AidMemory Aid
• A Totally Wicked Elephant
Made People Devour Worms
• Abolition
• Temperance
• Women’s Rights
• Educ...
• Women very involved in
abolitionism, women’s
suffrage & other reforms
Prison ReformPrison Reform
• Laboring class voted for
an end to debtors prisons
• Number of capital crimes
reduced
• Priso...
Dorothea DixDorothea Dix
• Traveled 60,000 miles
chronicling the abuses
against the mentally ill
• Petitioned Massachusett...
American Peace SocietyAmerican Peace Society
• Anti-war group led by
William Ladd called for
an end to all war
Temperance MovementTemperance Movement
• Custom & hard lifestyle
led to widespread alcohol
abuse
• 1826 – American
Tempera...
• Tolerance
–moderation in use of
alcohol
• Prohibition
–make alcohol illegal
Annual Consumption of Alcohol
Ten Nights in a BarroomTen Nights in a Barroom
and What I Saw Thereand What I Saw There
• Novel by T.S. Arthur in
1854
• D...
““The Drunkard’s Progress”The Drunkard’s Progress”
the first glass to the gravethe first glass to the grave, 1846, 1846
• Neal S. Dow
–sponsored the Maine Law
of 1851
–prohibited the manufacture
& sale of alcohol
–12 states had laws by 1857
Women’s RightsWomen’s Rights
• Industrial Rev. had
separated men & women
into distinct roles
• Women physically &
emotiona...
Lucretia MottLucretia Mott
ElizabethElizabeth
Cady StantonCady Stanton
• Stanton & Mott organized
Seneca Falls Conference
• Stanton urged equality,
rights to sue & own property
• Advocated wome...
Susan B. AnthonySusan B. Anthony
• Militant
lecturer for
women’s
rights
• Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
–first female graduate of a
medical college
• Margaret Fuller
–edited The Dial
• Grimke sisters
...
• Lucy Stone,
abolitionist,
who kept
her maiden
name after
she married
• Amelia
Bloomer wore
a short skirt
with
“Turkish”
trousers
Seneca Falls (1848)Seneca Falls (1848)
• Women’s Rights Convention
• 61 women, 34 men attended
• “Declaration of Sentiment...
• Launched woman’s rights
movement
• Eclipsed by Abolition &
the Civil War
UtopianismUtopianism
• 40+ communes created
during the period
• New Harmony (1825)
–Robert Owen established in
Indiana wit...
Brook Farm (1841)Brook Farm (1841)
• 20 transcendentalist
intellectuals
• Successful attempt at
communal living until fire...
Oneida Colony (1848)Oneida Colony (1848)
• Founded in NY
• Experimented in “complex
marriages” & eugenics
• Made & sold st...
Shakers (1776-1940)Shakers (1776-1940)
• 6000 members in 1840
• Celibacy & simplicity
• Equal spirit of men &
women
• Oppo...
Shaker Meeting
Scientific AchievementScientific Achievement
• Practical science
• Nathaniel Bowditch
(Navigation)
• Matthew Maury
(Oceano...
• Louis Aggasiz (biology
professor at Harvard)
• Asa Gray (Botany at Harvard)
• John J. Audubon - painted
birds in the wil...
Audubon’sAudubon’s
BirdsBirds
• Medicine slow to catch up
to scientific achievement
–Bleeding
–Smallpox plagues
–40 year life expectancy in
1850
–Surger...
ArtisticArtistic
AchievementsAchievements
•Architecture - Jefferson
• Painting handicapped by
lack of wealthy class &
Puritanism roots
• Moved from portraits to
landscapes
John Singleton CopleyJohn Singleton Copley
Watson and the SharkWatson and the Shark
GilbertGilbert
StuartStuart
GilbertGilbert
Stuart’sStuart’s
WashingtonWashington
CharlesCharles
WilsonWilson
PealePeale
John TrumbullJohn Trumbull
MusicMusic
• Minstrels in “blackface”
sang “darky tunes”
• Stephen Foster - “Old
Folks at Home”
LiteratureLiterature
• Essays - The Federalist,
Common Sense.
• Ben Franklin's -
Autobiography
• The Knickerbocker Group
–Washington Irving
•1st
to gain international
recognition
•Rip Van Winkle
–James Fenimore Cooper...
–William Cullen Bryant
•Poet (“Thanatopsis”)
•Editor of the New York
Evening Post
TranscendentalismTranscendentalism
• Truth “transcends” the
senses & cannot be found
by observation alone
• Believed peopl...
• Emphasized individualism
& self-reliance
• Hostile to formal
institutions & conventional
wisdom
Ralph Waldo EmersonRalph Waldo Emerson
• Famous address to Phi
Beta Kappa “The American
Scholar”
• Stressed self-reliance,...
RalphRalph
WaldoWaldo
EmersonEmerson
Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau
• Poet & non-conformist
• Walden: Or Life in the
Woods
• Refused to pay taxes to
su...
Walt WhitmanWalt Whitman
“The Poet“The Poet
Laureate ofLaureate of
Democracy”Democracy”
• Romantic, emotional
• Leaves of Grass (1855)
• Wrote of enthusiasm of
expanding America
Literary LightsLiterary Lights
• Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
–Historically-based poems
• John Greenleaf Whittier
–Influence...
• William Gilmore Simms
–Southern novelist
• Edgar Allan Poe
–Short story author
• Nathaniel Hawthorne
–The Scarlet Letter...
Daily DiversionsDaily Diversions
• Stage plays: Uncle Tom’s
Cabin & Ten Nights in a
Barroom
• Famous Actors: Edwin
Forrest...
• Horse racing
• Baseball (1845)
NY Knickerbockers 1858NY Knickerbockers 1858
• Showboats
• Circuses
–Phineas T. Barnum “a
sucker is born every
minute”
• Upper class crowd
“summered” at resorts
like Saratoga Springs &
Newport, RI
• Rich often made the
“Grand Tour” of Europe
Alexis de ToquevilleAlexis de Toqueville
• Democracy in America
(1835)
• Individualism & equality
characterized antebellum...
The Frontier ExperienceThe Frontier Experience
• Frederick Jackson Turner
• “Significance of the
Frontier in American
Hist...
Lecture 16
Lecture 16
Lecture 16
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Lecture 16

  1. 1. The Ferment ofThe Ferment of Reform & CultureReform & Culture 1790-1860
  2. 2. Religion in AmericaReligion in America • 75% of 23 million attended church regularly • Religion had become more liberal • 1794 – Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason attacked the church
  3. 3. In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832 The Rise of Popular ReligionThe Rise of Popular Religion R1-1
  4. 4. • Deism –Franklin & Jefferson –Relied on reason over faith • Unitarianism –belief in God as one person not the Trinity –Stressed the essential goodness of human beings
  5. 5. • Embraced by intellectuals such as Ralph Waldo Emerson
  6. 6. The Second GreatThe Second Great AwakeningAwakening • 1800 - began as a backlash against the liberalism of the Age of Reason • Led to an era of evangelism & reform
  7. 7. • Effects: –“Born-again” Christians –Reorganized churches & new sects –New reform movements: •Temperance •Abolitionism •Women’s Movement •Prison Reform
  8. 8. • Methodists & Baptists led camp meetings –sent missionaries to the Indians & overseas –Peter Cartwright •Methodist “circuit rider” preacher
  9. 9. Second Great Awakening Revival MeetingSecond Great Awakening Revival Meeting
  10. 10. • Charles Grandison Finney –Greatest of revival preachers –Conducted revivals in eastern cities
  11. 11. The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation. Charles G. FinneyCharles G. Finney (1792 – 1895)(1792 – 1895) “soul-shaking” conversion R1-2
  12. 12. New Religious SectsNew Religious Sects • “Burned-Over District” –Western NY • Adventists (Millerites) –William Miller led to believe the second coming was to happen on Oct. 22, 1844
  13. 13. ““Burned-Over” District in Upstate NYBurned-Over” District in Upstate NY
  14. 14. • Class & region lines widened as well –Southern & northern churches broke apart over slavery –Foreshadowing of secession
  15. 15. • Mormons –1830 – Joseph Smith founded Mormon church •Claims to have been given golden plates by the Angel Moroni
  16. 16. • Plates constituted the Book of Mormon & gave rise to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  17. 17. • Mormons followed Smith west to Ohio, Missouri & finally Illinois • Persecuted for cooperativism, voting as a unit, having their own militia, & practicing polygamy
  18. 18. • 1844: Joseph Smith & his brother were killed by a mob in Carthage, IL • 1846-47: Brigham Young led Mormons to Salt Lake, Utah –5000 settled by 1848
  19. 19. The Mormon TrekThe Mormon Trek
  20. 20. • 1850: Young becomes territorial governor • 1859: “Mormon War” –Federal troops forced Mormons to submit to Federal authority
  21. 21. Education ReformsEducation Reforms • Free tax-supported education slowly gained support at all levels of society (1825-1850) –The Little Red Schoolhouse & the “3 R’s”
  22. 22. Winslow HomerWinslow Homer
  23. 23. Horace MannHorace Mann • Led the crusade for better teachers, better schools & longer school years
  24. 24. • Helped create “normal schools” –Teaching colleges to train teachers
  25. 25. Noah WebsterNoah Webster • “Schoolmaster of the Republic” • Improved textbooks & standardized an American dictionary
  26. 26. William H. McGuffeyWilliam H. McGuffey • Created McGuffey’s Readers • Taught grammar, morality, patriotism, & idealism to grade schoolers
  27. 27. Higher EducationHigher Education • Second Great Awakening led to the creation of many small, denominational liberal-arts colleges • Federal land grant colleges
  28. 28. University of Virginia 1819University of Virginia 1819 • Founded & designed by Thomas Jefferson • Founded as a non-religious institution dedicated to science & modern language
  29. 29. Women’s EducationWomen’s Education • Considered frivolous • 1821 – Emma Willard established the Troy Female Seminary
  30. 30. • 1837 – Oberlin College admitted women after already having admitted Blacks • Mary Lyon established Mount Holyoke Seminary in Mass.
  31. 31. The LyceumsThe Lyceums • Travelling lecturers made the circuit • Gave talks on science, literature, & philosophy • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  32. 32. Age of ReformAge of Reform • Most driven by evangelical Christians • Reform movements included: –Education –Women’s rights –Communal living
  33. 33. –Slavery –Medical programs –Polygamy –Celibacy –Anti-tobacco –Anti-alcohol –Mail on Sundays
  34. 34. Memory AidMemory Aid • A Totally Wicked Elephant Made People Devour Worms • Abolition • Temperance • Women’s Rights • Education • Mental Inst. • Prisons • Debtors prisons • War
  35. 35. • Women very involved in abolitionism, women’s suffrage & other reforms
  36. 36. Prison ReformPrison Reform • Laboring class voted for an end to debtors prisons • Number of capital crimes reduced • Prisons called to reform instead of punish
  37. 37. Dorothea DixDorothea Dix • Traveled 60,000 miles chronicling the abuses against the mentally ill • Petitioned Massachusetts Legislature to improve conditions
  38. 38. American Peace SocietyAmerican Peace Society • Anti-war group led by William Ladd called for an end to all war
  39. 39. Temperance MovementTemperance Movement • Custom & hard lifestyle led to widespread alcohol abuse • 1826 – American Temperance Society formed
  40. 40. • Tolerance –moderation in use of alcohol • Prohibition –make alcohol illegal
  41. 41. Annual Consumption of Alcohol
  42. 42. Ten Nights in a BarroomTen Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw Thereand What I Saw There • Novel by T.S. Arthur in 1854 • Depicted how a stable village was transformed by a new tavern
  43. 43. ““The Drunkard’s Progress”The Drunkard’s Progress” the first glass to the gravethe first glass to the grave, 1846, 1846
  44. 44. • Neal S. Dow –sponsored the Maine Law of 1851 –prohibited the manufacture & sale of alcohol –12 states had laws by 1857
  45. 45. Women’s RightsWomen’s Rights • Industrial Rev. had separated men & women into distinct roles • Women physically & emotionally weak yet artistic & refined • “Cult of domesticity”
  46. 46. Lucretia MottLucretia Mott ElizabethElizabeth Cady StantonCady Stanton
  47. 47. • Stanton & Mott organized Seneca Falls Conference • Stanton urged equality, rights to sue & own property • Advocated women’s suffrage
  48. 48. Susan B. AnthonySusan B. Anthony • Militant lecturer for women’s rights
  49. 49. • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell –first female graduate of a medical college • Margaret Fuller –edited The Dial • Grimke sisters –spoke against slavery
  50. 50. • Lucy Stone, abolitionist, who kept her maiden name after she married
  51. 51. • Amelia Bloomer wore a short skirt with “Turkish” trousers
  52. 52. Seneca Falls (1848)Seneca Falls (1848) • Women’s Rights Convention • 61 women, 34 men attended • “Declaration of Sentiments” read by Stanton –“All men & women are created equal” –Demanded women’s suffrage
  53. 53. • Launched woman’s rights movement • Eclipsed by Abolition & the Civil War
  54. 54. UtopianismUtopianism • 40+ communes created during the period • New Harmony (1825) –Robert Owen established in Indiana with 1000 people –Attracted scholars & scoundrels
  55. 55. Brook Farm (1841)Brook Farm (1841) • 20 transcendentalist intellectuals • Successful attempt at communal living until fire destroyed the experiment
  56. 56. Oneida Colony (1848)Oneida Colony (1848) • Founded in NY • Experimented in “complex marriages” & eugenics • Made & sold steel traps & silverware • Troubles with law led to end
  57. 57. Shakers (1776-1940)Shakers (1776-1940) • 6000 members in 1840 • Celibacy & simplicity • Equal spirit of men & women • Opposition to marriage & sex led to extinction
  58. 58. Shaker Meeting
  59. 59. Scientific AchievementScientific Achievement • Practical science • Nathaniel Bowditch (Navigation) • Matthew Maury (Oceanography) • Benjamin Silliman (chemist & geology professor at Yale)
  60. 60. • Louis Aggasiz (biology professor at Harvard) • Asa Gray (Botany at Harvard) • John J. Audubon - painted birds in the wild –“Birds of America”
  61. 61. Audubon’sAudubon’s BirdsBirds
  62. 62. • Medicine slow to catch up to scientific achievement –Bleeding –Smallpox plagues –40 year life expectancy in 1850 –Surgery & whiskey
  63. 63. ArtisticArtistic AchievementsAchievements
  64. 64. •Architecture - Jefferson
  65. 65. • Painting handicapped by lack of wealthy class & Puritanism roots • Moved from portraits to landscapes
  66. 66. John Singleton CopleyJohn Singleton Copley
  67. 67. Watson and the SharkWatson and the Shark
  68. 68. GilbertGilbert StuartStuart
  69. 69. GilbertGilbert Stuart’sStuart’s WashingtonWashington
  70. 70. CharlesCharles WilsonWilson PealePeale
  71. 71. John TrumbullJohn Trumbull
  72. 72. MusicMusic • Minstrels in “blackface” sang “darky tunes” • Stephen Foster - “Old Folks at Home”
  73. 73. LiteratureLiterature • Essays - The Federalist, Common Sense. • Ben Franklin's - Autobiography
  74. 74. • The Knickerbocker Group –Washington Irving •1st to gain international recognition •Rip Van Winkle –James Fenimore Cooper •1st American novelist to gain world fame •Last of the Mohicans
  75. 75. –William Cullen Bryant •Poet (“Thanatopsis”) •Editor of the New York Evening Post
  76. 76. TranscendentalismTranscendentalism • Truth “transcends” the senses & cannot be found by observation alone • Believed people have an inner light that allows direct contact with God
  77. 77. • Emphasized individualism & self-reliance • Hostile to formal institutions & conventional wisdom
  78. 78. Ralph Waldo EmersonRalph Waldo Emerson • Famous address to Phi Beta Kappa “The American Scholar” • Stressed self-reliance, self- improvement, optimism & freedom as a practical philosopher
  79. 79. RalphRalph WaldoWaldo EmersonEmerson
  80. 80. Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau • Poet & non-conformist • Walden: Or Life in the Woods • Refused to pay taxes to support war in Mexico • Civil Disobedience
  81. 81. Walt WhitmanWalt Whitman “The Poet“The Poet Laureate ofLaureate of Democracy”Democracy”
  82. 82. • Romantic, emotional • Leaves of Grass (1855) • Wrote of enthusiasm of expanding America
  83. 83. Literary LightsLiterary Lights • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow –Historically-based poems • John Greenleaf Whittier –Influenced social action • James Russell Lowell –Political satirist • Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes –Poet
  84. 84. • William Gilmore Simms –Southern novelist • Edgar Allan Poe –Short story author • Nathaniel Hawthorne –The Scarlet Letter • Herman Melville –Moby Dick
  85. 85. Daily DiversionsDaily Diversions • Stage plays: Uncle Tom’s Cabin & Ten Nights in a Barroom • Famous Actors: Edwin Forrest, Junius Brutus Booth (sons Edwin Booth & John W. Booth)
  86. 86. • Horse racing • Baseball (1845) NY Knickerbockers 1858NY Knickerbockers 1858
  87. 87. • Showboats • Circuses –Phineas T. Barnum “a sucker is born every minute”
  88. 88. • Upper class crowd “summered” at resorts like Saratoga Springs & Newport, RI • Rich often made the “Grand Tour” of Europe
  89. 89. Alexis de ToquevilleAlexis de Toqueville • Democracy in America (1835) • Individualism & equality characterized antebellum America
  90. 90. The Frontier ExperienceThe Frontier Experience • Frederick Jackson Turner • “Significance of the Frontier in American History” • 1893 essay described that the frontier forged the American character

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