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Mapping Experience -- Jim Kalbach UXSTRAT 15

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Building a better mousetrap does not guarantee success anymore. Products and services are increasingly interconnected. Ecosystems are the new competitive advantage. The winners will be determined by how well their offerings fit with each other and how well they fit into people's lives.

We are witnessing a fundamental shift in the way businesses create and capture value. But we are stuck in obsolete practices of management that optimize short term gains to maximize shareholder prices at the expense of long term shared value. The use of systematic, visual representations exposes previously unseen opportunities for improvement and for growth. This workshop focuses on ''alignment diagrams'', a category of artifact that gives businesses strategic clarity in creating competitive solutions. Together, we'll discuss the principles of value alignment and review many diagram examples. Through hands-on exercises, you'll be able to apply some of the principles in practice.

Published in: Design

Mapping Experience -- Jim Kalbach UXSTRAT 15

  1. 1. Mapping Experiences with Alignment Diagrams @JimKalbach Jim.Kalbach@Gmail.com
  2. 2. @JimKalbach MURAL
  3. 3. Agenda 9:00 Alignment 9:15 Initiate 10:00 Investigate 10:15 Illustrate 10:45 Break 11:00 Exercise 11:45 Align 12:15 Strategy 12:30 End
  4. 4. Alignment Diagrams
  5. 5. INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATION Value Value-Centered Design
  6. 6. “Value-centered design starts a story about an ideal interaction between an individual and an organization and the benefits each realizes from that interaction.” Jess McMullin, “Searching For The Center of Design,“ Boxes and Arrows
  7. 7. Customer Journey Maps Experience Maps Service Blueprints Mental Model Diagrams Spatial Maps Alignment Diagrams
  8. 8. Customer Business Touchpoints Customer Journey Map
  9. 9. Individual Organization Interactions Experience Map
  10. 10. Service Blueprints
  11. 11. Mental Models Customer Business Touchpoints
  12. 12. Isometric Maps Paul Kahn, “Information Architecture for the Web: Applied IA“ http://www.slideshare.net/pauldavidkahn/04-appled-ia
  13. 13. STORY INTERACTION INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATION Experience Map Chronological Interactions Goals, actions, thoughts, feelings, pain points Physical, artifacts, opportunities, recommendations Customer Journey Map Chronological Touchpoints Actions, thoughts, feelings, moments of truth, pain points Customer facing artifacts and roles, opportunities Service Blueprint Chronological Line of Interaction Stages, artefacts Front-line services, back-office systems, gaps Mental Model Hierarchical Center Line Tasks, intent, feelings, philosophy Support, features, gaps Isometric Map Spatial Overlays Content usage, categories Data systems, departments, workflow
  14. 14. 1. Initiate 2. Investigate General Process 3. Illustrate 3. Align
  15. 15. 1. Initiate
  16. 16. What is the difference between: Customer Journey Map Experience Map Service Blueprint
  17. 17. 1. Frame the effort – Point of view – whose experiences? unit of analysis? – Scope – where do you begin and end? – Focus – which aspects are highlighted? – Structure – how will you arrange elements? – Use – what will you do with the diagram? 2. Align with business goals Initiate
  18. 18. Customer Value Chain Relationships
  19. 19. Customer Value Chain Relationships
  20. 20. The Athens Tourism Office (ATO) would like to improve the overall experience guests have when visiting the city, particularly holiday travelers. They already have some ideas what to do, but need to see the big picture in order to prioritize funding and to focus on areas that will have the most impact. First, the ATO is planning to significantly overhaul its website. The site has grown organically over the past decade, and there are many complaints about finding information. In particular, the federated reservations system for hotels is incomplete, outdated and hard to use. Second, the ATO wants to offer mobile services and apps for travelers. With so many options in the mobile arena, they are not sure where the best place to start would be. Finally, ATO believes partnering with key service providers would improve the travel experience of visitors. ATO already has information kiosks in tourist areas, but they are looking to integrate more with partner services. You work for a research agency specializing in experience mapping. The ATO has hired you to investigate and identify the most salient ways to bring the most value to visitors. They are also looking for new opportunities previously overlooked. The insight they hope to gain will help structure a multi-year program for improvement. SCENARIO
  21. 21. PART 1 In groups, draw a model of the value chain around travel to Athens. EXERCISE 1 – VALUE CHAIN (20 MINUTES) PART 2 What type of diagram would you recommend to start with?
  22. 22. 2. Investigate
  23. 23. 1. Gather existing reports and studies • Qualitative & quantitative 1. Conduct internal interviews • Sketch experience • Identify gaps in knowledge 1. Conduct external interviews • Contextual interviews • Surveys or quantitative data 2. Investigate
  24. 24. Who might you want to interview? Internal interview participants External interview participants _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ INTERVIEWS
  25. 25. What themes or topics might you include in a guide for interviews internally at the ATO and externally with travellers? Internal interview themes External interview themes _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ DISCUSSION GUIDE
  26. 26. 3. Illustrate
  27. 27. Analyze Data Interviews (texts) Clusters & Patterns Flow & Experience
  28. 28. Text coding software, e.g., MaxQDA Analyze – The LongWay
  29. 29. Analyze – The Short Way • Create a spreadsheet with phases and information types • Fill out the diagram from notes • Adjust structure as you go
  30. 30. Analyze – The Short Way • Cluster and discuss themes on a whiteboard
  31. 31. Guideline Example 1 Example 2 Start with insights Research cluster 1: People indicated they sometimes hesitate and reconsider during the customer acquisition phase because of our premium pricing model Research cluster 2: There is a clear pain point around deploying the solution, primarily due to lack of necessary technical knowledge. Use natural language People reconsider when making a purchase because they may be nervous or anxious about the high cost Users struggle to install the software for the first time if they don’t have the required technical skills Keep voice consistent I reconsider when making a purchase because I’m anxious and nervous about the high cost I struggle to install the software for the first time because I don’t have the necessary technical skills. Omit pronouns and articles Reconsider when making purchase due to anxiousness and nervousness over high cost Struggle to install software for first time without the necessary technical skills. Focus on the root cause Feel anxious and nervous when making purchase due to high cost, and then reconsider Struggle during installation due to lack of necessary technical skills Be concise Feel anxious during purchase about cost, and then reconsider Struggle due to lack technical skills during installation Use abbreviations sparingly “” Struggle due to lack of tech skills during installation Rely on context of map anxious about cost (In the cell for the column for “purchase” and row for “feelings”) Reconsider (In the cell of a column for “purchase” and a row for “actions”) Struggle due to lack of tech skills OR Lack tech skills (assuming a column for “installation” and a row for “pain points”)
  32. 32. Consider different layouts
  33. 33. Startbucks
  34. 34. Phases in Middle Adam Richardson, in HBR Blog
  35. 35. Process Lines and Icons by nForm (CA)
  36. 36. Curved Lines
  37. 37. Circular
  38. 38. Network
  39. 39. Circular with Key www.businessmodelcreativity.net
  40. 40. Spatial Maps Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
  41. 41. Table Wheel Timeline “Chutes and Ladders” Spider Circles Spatial Map Tower
  42. 42. Strive for Visual Clarity
  43. 43. Representation • Fit to space • Font selection • Color coding • Icons and shapes
  44. 44. Format Text • Actions: Start each with a verb, • Thoughts: Phrase as a question • Feelings: Use adjectives • Pain points: start each with a gerund • Touchpoints: Use nouns • Opportunities: Begin each with a verb that shows change, e.g., increase the ease of installation, eliminate unnecessary steps.
  45. 45. Chronology
  46. 46. EXERCISE 3 – SKETCH OUTLINE FOR DIAGRAM (20 MINS) In groups, create a draft diagram for the ATO scenario How will you tell the story of interaction? Use the following phases •Plan Trip •Travel to Athens •Arrive in Athens •Stay in Athens •Depart •Return Home •Visit Again Include the following aspects •Customer • Actions • Thoughts • Feelings • Pain points •Touchpoints •ATO • Support • Goals
  47. 47. 4. Align
  48. 48. Collaborate • Hold extended workshop (included in proposal!) • Invite diverse group • Diagnose performance • Engage in creative exercises Empathize
  49. 49. Collaborate Discuss
  50. 50. Envision Evaluate
  51. 51. b. Align for value Look for 1.GAPS 2.WEAKNESSES 3.EFFICIENCIES 4.COMPETITORS
  52. 52. Author Involvement Levels Example: “Author Experience Map“
  53. 53. The Ask
  54. 54. circa 1886 Scientific American Supplement, No. 530, February 27, 1886 “A NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS” This apparatus consists of a box containing a camera, A, and a frame, C, containing the desired number of plates, each held in a small frame of black Bristol board. The camera contains a mirror, M, which pivots upon an axis and is maneuvered by the extreme bottom, B. This mirror stops at an angle of 45°, and sends the image coming from the objective to the horizontal plate, D, at the upper part of the camera. The image thus reflected is righted upon this plate. As the objective is of short focus, every object situated beyond a distance of three yards from the apparatus is in focus. In exceptional cases, where the operator might be nearer the object to be photographed, the focusing would be done by means of the rack of the objective. The latter can also slide up and down, so that the apparatus need not be inclined when buildings or high trees are being photographed. The door, E, performs the role of a shade. When the apparatus has been fixed upon its tripod and properly directed, all the operator has to do is to close the door, P, and raise the mirror, M, by turning the button, B, and then expose the plate. The sensitized plates are introduced into the apparatus through the door, I, and are always brought automatically to the focus of the objective through the pressure of the springs, R. The shutter of the frame, B, opens through a hook, H, with in the pocket, N. After exposure, each plate is lifted by means of the extractor, K, into the pocket, whence it is taken by hand and introduced through a slit, S, behind the springs, R, and the other plates that the frame contains. All these operations are performed in the interior of the pocket, N, through the impermeable, triple fabric of which no light can enter. An automatic marker shows the number of plates exposed. When the operations are finished, the objective is put back in the interior of the camera, the doors, P and E, are closed, and the pocket is rolled up. The apparatus is thus hermetically closed, and, containing all the accessories, forms one of the most practical of systems for the itinerant photographer.—La Nature.
  55. 55. [EASTMAN] recognized that his roll film could lead to a revolution if he focused on the experience he wanted to deliver, an experience captured in his advertising slogan, “You press the button, we do the rest.”
  56. 56. Photographers
  57. 57. The Ask Solutions that merely please, serve, meet the needs/specs, or delight customers don’t go far enough. They represent yesterday’s marketing and design paradigms. They misunderstand innovation’s real impact – transforming customers.
  58. 58. Entrepreneurs
  59. 59. Who does Google ask us to become?
  60. 60. Wierdo
  61. 61. Supersize Unhealthy
  62. 62. Using "The Ask" with Alignment Diagrams 1. At each phase ask: Who do we want our customers to become? 2. Use metaphors. These are often experts of some kind. 3. Reframe the solution space to transform users based on the transformations.
  63. 63. CitizenExplorer Documentary Filmmaker Activist Reporter
  64. 64. EXERCISE In groups, discuss who you want your customers to become
  65. 65. Strategy Myopia
  66. 66. You've got to start with the customer experience and work back toward the technology – not the other way around. 1997
  67. 67. An industry begins with the customer and his needs, not with a patent, a raw material or a selling skill. Given the customer’s needs, the industry develops backwards, first concerning itself with the physical delivery of customer satisfaction. Then it moves back further to creating the things b which these satisfactions are in part achieved. How these materials are created i a matter of indifference to the customer, hence the particular form of manufacturing processing, or what-have-you cannot be considered as vital aspects of the industry. 1960
  68. 68. Growth slows not because industries stop growing, but because companies fail to continue to meet ever-expanding customer needs.
  69. 69. Why did Kodak fail?
  70. 70. • From the end of World War II until the late 1970s, a retain-and- reinvest approach to resource allocation prevailed at major U.S. corporations. • This pattern began to break down in the late 1970s, giving way to a downsize-and-distribute regime of reducing costs and then distributing the freed-up cash to shareholders. • By favoring value extraction over value creation, this approach has contributed to employment instability and income inequality. Profits Without Prosperity WILLIAM LAZONICK, “Profits without Prosperity,“ HBR Sept 2014
  71. 71. Companies … remain trapped in an outdated approach to value creation. They continue to view value creation narrowly, optimizing short-term financial performance in a bubble while missing the most important customer needs. Shared Value MICHAEL PORTER. “Creating Shared Value.” HBR (Jan 2011)
  72. 72. Figure out what your product is and what your value chain is. Understand where those things touch important social needs and problems. If you’re in financial services, let’s think about ‘saving’ or ‘buying a home’ - but in a way that actually works for the consumer. Shared Value MICHAEL PORTER. “Creating Shared Value.” HBR (Jan 2011) Story Interaction Individual Business
  73. 73. What business is the ATO really in? How can they create shared value?
  74. 74. Danke schön! @JimKalbach Jim.Kalbach@Gmail.com www.experiencinginformation.com

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