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CS111-PART 6 (DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORKING).pptx

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CS111-PART 6 (DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORKING).pptx

  1. 1. DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORKING
  2. 2. COMPUTER NETWORK A system in which a number of independent computers are linked together to share data and peripherals, such as files and printers. In the modern world, computer networks have become almost indispensable. All major businesses and governmental and educational institutions make use of computer networks to such an extent that it is now difficult to imagine a world without them.
  3. 3. Three very common types of networks include: 1 LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) It is a network that is confined to a relatively small area. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab, school, or building. Simply the computers connected in the 100m distance are called Local Area Network (LAN).
  4. 4. 2 METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN) It is a network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town/city. Three very common types of networks include: Routers, switches, and hubs are connected to create a Metropolitan Area Network.
  5. 5. 3 WIDE AREA NETWORK (MAN) It connect networks in larger geographic areas, such as Florida, the United States, or the world. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of global network. Three very common types of networks include: Computer networks exist on various scales, from links between two computers in one room to connect computers in a building or campus to national and global networks.
  6. 6. COMPONENTS OF A DATA COMMUNICATION Data communication is a process of transferring data electronically from one place to another. Data can be transferred by using a different medium. Diagrammatic Representation of Computer Network/Data Communication
  7. 7. 1. Sender 2. Encoder 3. Medium/communication channel 4. Decoder 5. Receiver The basic components of data communications are: - It is a device that sends a message. - It is a device that converts digital signals in a form that can pass through a transmission medium. - It is a device that converts digital signals in a form that can pass through a transmission medium. - It is a device that converts the encoded signals into digital form. - It is a device that receives the message. It is also called sink. Source/Sender Medium Host/Receiver Diagrammatic Representation of Computer Network/Data Communication Components of Data Communication
  8. 8. MODES OF DATA COMMUNICATION OR MODES OF NETWORK Transmission mode means transferring of data between two devices. It is also known as the communication mode. Buses and networks are designed to allow communication to occur between individual devices that are interconnected. There are three types of Transmission mode: Transmission mode 2. Half-Duplex mode 1. Simplex mode 3. Full-Duplex mode
  9. 9. 1. Simplex Mode In Simplex mode, the communication is unidirectional, as on a one-way street. Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit, the other can only receive. The simplex mode can use the entire capacity of the channel to send data in one direction. SIMPLEX ONE DIRECTION Simplex Mode of Communication
  10. 10. 2. Half-Duplex Mode In half-duplex mode, each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same time. When one device is sending, the other can only receive, and vice versa. A is sending, B is receiving Half-Duplex Mode of Communication B is sending, A is receiving Send Send Receive Receive A B A B The half-duplex mode is used in cases where there is no need for communication in both directions at the same time.
  11. 11. 3. Full-Duplex Mode In full-duplex mode, both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously. In the full duplex mode, signals going in one direction share the capacity of the link with signals going in other direction, this sharing can occur in two ways: 1.) Either the link must contain two physically separate transmission paths, one for sending and other for receiving. 2.) Or the capacity is divided between signals traveling in both directions. Full-duplex mode is used when communication in both directions is required all the time. The capacity of the channel, however, must be divided between the two directions.
  12. 12. FULL-DUPLEX BOTH DIRECTIONS Full-Duplex Mode of Communication COMPUTER COMPUTER
  13. 13. 4. Synchronous Mode of Communication Synchronous communication relies on the presence of a clocking system at both ends of the transmission. clock Transmitter receiver data ground
  14. 14. 5. Asynchronous Communication Asynchronous communication sends small blocks of data with many control bits for error correction, synchronous techniques use large blocks of data with control bits only at the start and end of the transmission.
  15. 15. 6. Parallel Communication In data transmission, parallel communication is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously.
  16. 16. 7. Serial Communication With serial communication, it conveys only a single bit at a time.
  17. 17. NETWORK TOPOLOGY Think of a topology as a network’s virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: 1. Bus 2. Ring 3. Star 4. Mesh More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the basic above topologies.
  18. 18. 1. Bus Topology Bus networks use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium those devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.
  19. 19. 2. Ring Topology In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes.
  20. 20. 3. Star Topology Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a “hub node” that may be a network hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  21. 21. 4. Mesh Topology Mesh Topology introduces the concept of routes.
  22. 22. SEATWORK

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