Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Writing research proposal

9,691 views

Published on

Writing research proposal by Dr. Ahmad Attar

Writing research proposal

  1. 1. Writing a Research ProposalAHMED ATTAR,AHMED ATTAR, MBBS, FRCPC, ABPN, FAAN, CERTIFIEDEPI. & BIOSTATConsultant Neurologist, King Abdul Aziz Medical City WesternRegionDirector - Quality Management, KAMC-WRChairman - Medication Safety Program, KAMC-WR
  2. 2. Objectives• At end of this session, participants are ableto:– State and define the concept of writing a researchproposal– Develop a research proposalJun 10, 2013 2WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  3. 3. Do you like to Cook?• Group exercise?Jun 10, 2013 3WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  4. 4. What are the basic elements fora yu mmy Dish?• Title: ‫الحجازي‬ ‫السليق‬• Statement of the problem• Literature review• Formulation of objectives• Research methodology• Utilization & dissemination of results• Work plan• Resources / budget• ReferencesJun 10, 2013 4WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  5. 5. Outline• What is a research proposal?• Why a research proposal?• What are the basic elements of a researchproposal?• What are the common mistakes in proposalwriting?Jun 10, 2013 5WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  6. 6. What is a Research Proposal?• A detailed plan of action for scientific inquiry– what the researcher intends to do, how, why,where, and whenJun 10, 2013 6WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  7. 7. Why a Research Proposal?• An important documentation of your approach tothe research question/objectives• Demonstrate scholarly abilities• A reference document during execution and alsowriting up the results of the study• Needed document for research committees andfunding agencies approvalJun 10, 2013 7WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  8. 8. Jun 10, 2013WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr.Ahmed Attar 8
  9. 9. What are the basic elements fora research proposal?• Title• Statement of the problem• Literature review• Formulation of objectives• Research methodology• Utilization & dissemination of results• Work plan• Resources / budget• ReferencesJun 10, 2013 9WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  10. 10. Title• Concise• DescriptiveJun 10, 2013 10WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  11. 11. TitleJun 10, 2013WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr.Ahmed Attar 11
  12. 12. Jun 10, 2013 Lecture Title/Lecturer Name 12
  13. 13. Statement of the Problem• “The problem statement describes thecontext for the study and it also identifies thegeneral analysis approach”(Wiersma, 1995, p.404)• “A problem might be defined as the issue thatexists in the literature, theory, or practice thatleads to a need for the study”(Creswell, 1994, p.50)Jun 10, 2013 13WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  14. 14. Logical Sequence of PresentingProblem Statement• Magnitude, frequency and distribution: Affectedgeographical areas and population groups affectedby the problem. Ethnic and gender considerations.• Probable causes of the problem: What is the currentknowledge of the problem and its causes? Is thereconsensus? Is there controversy? Is there conclusiveevidence?Jun 10, 2013 14WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  15. 15. Logical Sequence of PresentingProblem Statement• Possible solutions: In what ways have solutions tothe problem been attempted? What has beenproposed? What are the results?• Unanswered questions: What remains to beanswered? What areas have not been possible tounderstand, determine, verify, or test?Jun 10, 2013 15WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  16. 16. Rationale and Hypothesis– Good• Clearly state the hypothesis or number of hypothesesthat will be addressed in the proposal.• Give a rationale why this hypothesis is important toinvestigate.– Reject• Avoid combining the two together. It could beconfusing to the reviewer.• Too long of a hypothesis makes it hard to understandthe aim of the research.
  17. 17. Literature Review• “The review of the literature provides thebackground and context for the researchproblem. It should establish the need for theresearch and indicate that the writer isknowledgeable about the area”(Wiersma, 1995, p.406)Jun 10, 2013 17WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  18. 18. Literature Review• It shares with the reader the results of otherstudies that are closely related to the studybeing reported(Fraenkel &Wallen, 1990)• It relates a study to the larger, ongoingdialogue in the literature about a topic, fillingin gaps and extending prior studies(Marshall & Rossman, 1989)Jun 10, 2013 18WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  19. 19. Literature Review• It provides a framework for establishing theimportance of the study, as well as abenchmark for comparing the results of astudy with other findings.• It frames the problem earlier identified.Jun 10, 2013 19WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  20. 20. Questions and/or Hypothesis• Questions:– Normative or census type research– Most often used in qualitative inquiry• Hypothesis:– Theoretical research and are typically used only inquantitative inquiryJun 10, 2013 20WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  21. 21. Questions and/or Hypothesis• A research question poses a relationshipbetween two or more variables but phrasesthe relationship as a question; and ahypothesis represents a declarative statementof the relations between two or morevariables.(Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988)Jun 10, 2013 21WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  22. 22. Formulation of ResearchObjectives• The OBJECTIVES of a research projectsummarizes what is to be achieved by thestudy.• Objectives should be closely related to thestatement of the problem.Jun 10, 2013 22WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  23. 23. Formulation of ResearchObjectives• General objective: states what researchersexpect to achieve by the study in generalterms.• Specific objectives: smaller, logicallyconnected parts of general objective. They arethe specific aspects of the topic that you wantto studyJun 10, 2013 23WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  24. 24. Importance of ResearchObjectives• To Focus the study (narrowing it down toessentials);• To Avoid the collection of data which are notstrictly necessary for understanding andsolving the problem we have identified; and• To Organize the study in clearly defined partsor phases.Jun 10, 2013 24WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  25. 25. Details of Research Proposal• Goals and/or Objectives of Research• This is usually one paragraph telling the reviewereverything they need to know about this research proposal.• This provides the opportunity to gain the reviewers interestand excitement about this proposal.• It should contain the background on why this research isimportant, hypothesis, and objectives.• Should state the innovation of this proposal.• Finally it should in a clear statement demonstrate why thisproject is significant and what impact it will have.
  26. 26. Details of Research Proposal• Reject– No goal or objective statement at the start of theproposal.– Too technical and condensed will make it hard toread and understand.– Too short will not give the reviewer the neededinformation to understand the proposal.– Too long will make the reviewer skip to thebackground and makes the reviewer search forwhat is important.
  27. 27. Research Methodology• “The methods or procedures section is reallythe heart of the research proposal. Theactivities should be described with as muchdetail as possible, and the continuity betweenthem should be apparent”(Wiersma, 1995, p.409)Jun 10, 2013 27WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  28. 28. Research Methodology• Sampling• Instrumentation• Data collection• Data analysis• Ethical IssuesJun 10, 2013 28WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  29. 29. Sampling• The key reason for being concerned withsampling is that of validity – the extent towhich the interpretations of the results of thestudy follow from the study itself and theextent to which results may be generalized toother situations with other people.(Shavelson, 1988)Jun 10, 2013 29WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  30. 30. Instrumentation• Outline the instruments you propose to use:– surveys– scales– interview protocols– observation gridsJun 10, 2013 30WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  31. 31. Data Collection• Outline the general plan for collection thedata– Survey administration, interview or observationprocedures– Explicit statement covering field controlsJun 10, 2013 31WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  32. 32. Data Analysis• Specify the procedures (e.g., ANOVA,MANCOVA, Case study).• Indicate briefly any analytic tools (e.g., SAS,SPSS)• Provide a well thought-out rationaleJun 10, 2013 32WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  33. 33. Ethical Issues• Relevant to and the methods by which thepatient/subject’s interests will besafeguarded.Jun 10, 2013 33WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  34. 34. Utilization & Dissemination ofResults• This describes the type of knowledgeexpected to be obtained upon completion ofthe project and the intended application ofthe results.• It indicates the strategy for disseminating andimplementing the research.Jun 10, 2013 34WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  35. 35. Work Plan• Include the major phases of the project:– estimate when you will start each stage of thework, and how long it will take.Jun 10, 2013 35WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  36. 36. Gantt ChartJun 10, 2013 36WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed AttarExample of a Gantt ChartTasks to be performed Person assigned June Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec1. Finalized researchproposalResearch team 2. Train researchassistants and pretestinstrumentPrincipal invest. andresearch team3. Data collection Research team  4. Prepare for data entry Hire one statistician 5. Data cleaning andpreliminary analysisPrincipal invest. andstatistician 5. Data analysis andreport writingPrincipal invest. andlocal authorities 6. Finalize report Research team 7. Discussrecommendations/ planof actionResearch team/MOHand local authorities 7. Presentation anddisseminationResearch team/Policymaker MOH
  37. 37. Budget and Resources• Access to special systems or computers• specialized computer algorithms• Itemized Budget• Budget NarrativeJun 10, 2013 37WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  38. 38. References• List all references cited in the proposal. Makesure these references are:– Up-to-date– Relevant– Original sourceJun 10, 2013 38WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  39. 39. What are the common mistakesin proposal writing?• Failure to:– Provide the proper context to frame the researchquestion– Delimit the boundary conditions– Cite landmark studies– Accurately present the theoretical and empiricalcontributions by other researchers– Stay focused on the research questionJun 10, 2013 39WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  40. 40. What are the common mistakesin proposal writing?• Failure to develop a coherent and persuasiveargument• Too much detail on minor issues, but notenough detail on major issues• Too many citation lapses and incorrectreferences• Sloppy writingJun 10, 2013 40WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  41. 41. Avoid the following crticisms• Not an original data• Rationale is weak• Uncertain outcomes• Writing is vague• Proposal is unfocused• Problem is not importantJun 10, 2013 41WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  42. 42. Research Proposal SubmittalFormJun 10, 2013 42WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  43. 43. Outlines of Study Proposal forObservational StudiesJun 10, 2013 43WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  44. 44. Outlines of Study Proposal forObservational StudiesJun 10, 2013 44WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  45. 45. Outlines of Study Proposal forObservational StudiesJun 10, 2013 45WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  46. 46. Jun 10, 2013 54WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed AttarThank You

×