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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
1
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
35.3
• Statistics is a tool for converting data into
information:
Data Statistics Information
But where then does data come from? How is it
gathered? How do we ensure its accurate? Is the
data reliable? Is it representative of the population
from which it was drawn?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
4
Evaluation
questions
Indicators:
Evidence that
answers your
questions
Sources of
information:
program records,
individuals,
public
METHODS
Who
What
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
5
• Existing information
• People
• Pictorial records and observations
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Quantitative: numbers breadth generalizability
Qualitative: words depth specific
Remember, "Not everything that counts can be counted."
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Quantitative Qualitative
Surveys
Questionnaires
Focus groups
Tests Unstructured
interviews
Existing databases Unstructured
observations
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Mixed methods for one program
• Log of activities and participation
• Self-administered questionnaires
completed after each workshop
• In-depth interviews with key
informants
• Observation of workshops
• Survey of participants
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Validity: Are you measuring what you think
you are measuring?
• Reliability: if something was measured
again using the same instrument, would it
produce the same (or nearly the same)
results?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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What do these words mean relative to
your evaluation information?
How can you help ensure that your
evaluation data are trustworthy and
credible?
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
11
• Survey
• Case study
• Interview
• Observation
• Group assessment
• Expert or peer
reviews
• Portfolio reviews
• Testimonials
• Tests
• Photographs,
videotapes, slides
• Diaries, journals,
logs
• Document review
and analysis
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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 The purpose of your evaluation − Will the
method allow you to gather information that
can be analyzed and presented in a way
that will be credible and useful to you and
others?
 The respondents − What is the most
appropriate method, considering how the
respondents can best be reached, how they
might best respond, literacy, cultural
considerations, etc.?Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
13
Consider…
• Resources available. Time, money, and staff to design,
implement, and analyze the information. What can you
afford?
• Type of information you need. Numbers, percent,
comparisons, stories, examples, etc.
• Advantages and disadvantages of each method.
• The need for credible and authentic evidence.
• The value of using multiple methods.
• The importance of ensuring cultural appropriateness.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
14
UTILITY
Will the data sources and
collection methods serve the
information needs of your primary
users?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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FEASIBILITY
Are your sources and methods
practical and efficient?
Do you have the capacity, time, and
resources?
Are your methods non-intrusive and
non-disruptive?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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PROPRIETY
Are your methods respectful, legal,
ethical, and appropriate?
Does your approach protect and
respect the welfare of all those
involved or affected?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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ACCURACY
Are your methods technically adequate to:
• answer your questions?
• measure what you intend to measure?
• reveal credible and trustworthy information?
• convey important information?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
18
There is no one right method of collecting
data.
Each has a purpose, advantages, and
challenges.
The goal is to obtain trustworthy, authentic,
and credible evidence.
Often, a mix of methods is preferable.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• How appropriate is the method given the
culture of the respondent/the setting?
• Culture differences: nationality, ethnicity,
religion, region, gender, age, abilities, class,
economic status, language, sexual
orientation, physical characteristics,
organizational affiliation
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Things to consider:
• Literacy level
• Tradition of reading, writing
• Setting
• Not best choice for people with oral tradition
• Translation (more than just literal translation)
• How cultural traits affect response – response sets
• How to sequence the questions
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
21
Things to consider:
• Preferred by people with
an oral culture
• Language level proficiency;
verbal skill proficiency
• Politeness – responding to authority (thinking it‟s
unacceptable to say “no”), nodding, smiling,
agreeing
• Need to have someone present
• Relationship/position of interviewer
• May be seen as interrogation
• Direct questioning may be seen as impolite,
threatening, or confrontational
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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A structured way to collect information
using questionnaires. Surveys are
typically conducted through:
Hand to hand or face to face
Mail (electronic or surface)
Phone
Internet.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Surveys are used…
• To collect standardized information
from large numbers of individuals
• When face-to-face meetings are
inadvisable
• When privacy is important or
independent opinions and responses
are needed
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
24
1. Decide who should be involved in the process.
2. Define survey content.
3. Identify your respondents.
4. Decide on the survey method.
5. Develop the questionnaire.
6. Pilot test the questionnaire and other materials.
7. Think about analysis.
8. Communicate about your survey and its results.
9. Develop a budget, timeline, and management
process.
Questionnai
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How survey work to produce statistics
Respondent
answers to
quenstions
Inference
Characteristics of a
respondent Statistical
computing
Characteristics of
the sample
Characteristics of
the population
Inference
A survey from a process perspective
Define research objectives
Choose mode of
collection
Construct and
pretest a
questionnaire
Choose
sampling frame
Design and
select sample
Recruit and
measure sample
Code and edit data
Make postsurvey adjustments
Perform analysis
Questionnaire
The life cycle of a survey from a design
perspective
Construct
Measurement
Response
Edited
Response
Survey statistics
Target Population
Sampling Frame
Sample
Respondent
Postsurvey Adjustments
The Measurement dimension describes
what data are to be collected about the
observational units in the sample
The Representational dimention
concerns what population are
described by the survey
What
is the
survey
about?
Who
is the
survey
about?
The measurement dimension
Constructs are the elements of information that are
sought by the researcher :
How many incidents of crimes with victims there were in the last year;
The consumption of coffee in the last month;
The degree of knowledge of mathematics of childrens…
Measurements are ways to gather information about
constructs :
Questions posed to a respondent (“During the last 6 month, did you call the police
to report something that happened to you that you thought was a crime?”)
NB: the critical task for maesurement is to design questions that produce answers
reflecting perfectly the construct we are trying to measure.
Response could be produced in a variety of means
But in general the nature of the response is determined by the
nature of the measurement
Editing of data may examine the full distribution of
answers and look for atypical patterns of responses
Edited responses are the data from wich inference is made about the values of
the construct for an individual respondent
Construct
Measurement
Response
Edited
Response
The representational dimension
The target population is the set of unit to be studied
The adult population living in households in 2009;
The frame population if the set of target population members
that has chance to be selected into the survey sample :
In a simple case it is a list of all units in the target population, but sometimes it is
a set of units imperfectly linked to population members.
i.e. a list of telephone numbers when the target population is the adult population
The sample is the group from wich measurement will be
sought. In many case it is a very small fraction of the the sampling frame
Postsurvey adjustments consist on weighting up the
underrepresented groups in order to improve the survey
estimate
Because of mismatches of the sampling frame and the target population
(coverage problems) statistics based on the respondents can differ from
caracteristics of the target population. Examination of non response patterns may
suggest an underrepresentation of some groupes relative to the sampling frame
Target Population
Sample
Respondent
Postsurvey
Adjustments
Sampling Frame
Respondents are the elements successfully measures.
Non respondents is the complement
Evaluating survey questions:
Are the answers good measures of the
intended construct?
Example of methods that can be used
to evaluate draft survey questions
 Expert reviews
The substantive expert review the wording, the
order and the structure of questions, the
response alternatives etc.
A small number of target population participate in a
systematic discussion about the survey topic. The
researcher learn about the nomenclature of the concept,
the common perspective taken by the target population
on key issues etc…
 Focus groups
 Questionnaire pretest Researcher test how questions are read
and answered. A behaviour coding is
often used
Questionnaire
Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
32
The proportion of people who respond: divide the
number of returned surveys by the total number of
surveys distributed.
Example: If you distribute 50 questionnaires and
you get 25 questionnaires back, your response rate
is 50%.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
33
# that answered
# you contacted
Response rate =
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• High response rate promotes confidence in
results.
• Lower response rate increases the likelihood of
biased results.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
35
• There is no standard response rate. “The
higher, the better.” Anything under 60% is a
warning.
• Why is high return important? It‟s the only
way to know if results are representative.
• Address low response. How are people
who didn‟t respond different from those
who did? Only describe your results in
terms of who did respond.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
36
• Generate positive publicity for your survey.
• Over sample.
• Ensure that respondents see the value of
participating.
• Use a combination of methods.
• Make (multiple) follow-up contacts.
• Provide incentives.
• Provide 1st class postage/return postage.
• Set return deadlines.
• Make the survey easy to complete.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
37
Use language that is suggestive
rather than decisive.
Examples: “The data suggests” vs.
“These data show”; “It appears” vs.
“We can conclude”
• Don‟t generalize findings to the
entire group.
• Clearly describe who the data
represents.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
39
1. Decide what information you need.
2. Determine sample – respondents.
3. Develop accurate, user-friendly
questionnaire.
4. Develop plan for distribution, return,
and follow-up.
5. Provide clear instructions and a
good cover letter.
6. Pilot test.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
40
• Be specific
• Need to know Vs. would like to know
• Check to see if information exists
elsewhere
• What do you want to be able to say:
counts, percentages, relationships,
narratives
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
41
• Who will complete the questionnaire?
• What do you know about their
preferences, abilities, and cultural
characteristics that may affect the way
they respond?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
42
• Make sure questions cover information needed.
• Word questions carefully.
• Consider cultural nuances.
• Sequence questions appropriately.
• Attend to formatting.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Write clear, complete directions.
• Review to see if it is user-friendly; consider the
respondent.
• Make the questionnaire attractive.
• Work as a team.
• Plan on writing several draft questionnaires.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Distribution: when, where
• At meetings, sites, through mail, email, internet
Return: when, where
• Return to individual, collection box
• Return envelope addressed/stamped
• Return envelope addressed only
Follow-up
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Purpose of questionnaire –
how information will be used
• Why they are being asked to fill it out
• Importance of their response
• How and when to respond
• Whether response will be anonymous or
confidential
• Your appreciation
• Promise results, if appropriate
• Signature − sponsorship
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
46
• Always
• With people as similar to respondents as possible
• Do they understand the questions? The instructions?
• Do questions mean same thing to all?
• Do questions elicit the information you want?
• How long does it take?
• Revise as necessary
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
47
• Knowledge − what people know, how well they
understand something
• Beliefs − attitudes, opinions
• Behaviors − what people do
• Attributes/Demographics − what people are and
what people have
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Impact of divorce on children
As a result of this program, to what extent do you
understand the following about children and divorce:
Not well Somewhat Very well Already knew
a. Stages of grief 1 2 3 4
b. Self-blame or guilt 1 2 3 4
c. The desire for
parents to reunite
1 2 3 4
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Communication skills
List three communications techniques you learned in
this course that you have used with your children:
1.________________________________
2.________________________________
3.________________________________
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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As a result of this course, to what extent do you feel
that your attitude has changed about:
a. Discussing your children with your ex
not at all / somewhat / a great deal
b. Allowing your former in-laws to see your children
not at all / somewhat / a great deal
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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How visitation disputes are handled
1. Describe how you and your ex-spouse handled
visitation disagreements before the course.
2. Describe how you and your ex-spouse have handled
visitation disagreements
since the workshop.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
52
Demographic characteristics − age, education,
occupation, or income
• Where do you currently live?
• How many children do you have?
• What is your age?
• How many years have you been employed at your
current job?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
53
• Open-ended questions − allow respondents to
provide their own answers
• Closed-ended questions − list answers and
respondents select either one or multiple
responses
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Do not provide any specific responses from which
the participant would choose.
• Allow respondents to express their own ideas and
opinions.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Pros:
• Can get
unintended or
unanticipated
results
• Wide variety of
answers
• Answers in
participants‟
“voices”
Cons:
• More difficult to
answer
• May be harder to
categorize for
interpretation
• More difficult for
people who don‟t
write much
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Examples:
What communication skills did you
learn in this workshop that you will
use with your children?
What benefits do you receive from
this organization?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
57
• Provide specific answers from
which the participant must
choose.
• Sometimes called “forced
choice.”
• Response possibilities include:
one best answer, multiple
responses, rating, or ranking
scale.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
58
Pros:
• Easy to analyze
responses
• Stimulates recall
Cons:
• Chance of none of
the choices being
appropriate
• Biases response to
what you‟re looking
for
• Misses unintended
outcomes
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
59
Example − one best answer:
What does the word “nutrition” mean to
you? (Circle one number.)
1 Getting enough vitamins
2 The food you eat and how your body
uses it
3 Having to eat foods I don‟t like
4 Having good health
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Example − multiple responses:
Of the communication skills taught in
this workshop, which will you use
with your children? (Check all that
apply.)
___active listening
___acknowledge feelings
___ask more open-ended questions
___provide one-on-one time for discussion
___negotiation
___other_____________________Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Example − rating scale
To what extent do you agree or disagree with the
new Speeding Monitoring System „‟ SAHER”” ?
(Circle one.)
1 Strongly disagree
2 Mildly disagree
3 Neither agree or disagree
4 Mildly agree
5 Strongly agree
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
62
• The particular people for whom the
questionnaire is being designed
• The particular purpose of the
questionnaire
• How questions will be placed in
relation to each other in the
questionnaire
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
63
• Match vocabulary and reading skills of
your respondents.
• Are any words confusing?
• Do any words have a double meaning?
• Avoid the use of abbreviations and
jargon.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
64
• Avoid jargon or technical language.
Jargon:
What kind of post-litigation concerns have
you and your ex-spouse had?
Better:
Since having your visitation rights set by a
judge, what other concerns have you and
your ex-spouse had about visitation?
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
65
• Avoid vague questions and answers.
• Avoid ambiguous words or phrases.
• Avoid questions that may be too
specific.
• Avoid making assumptions.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
66
Vague:
How will this seminar
help you?
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Poor spacing and
logic:
Children‟s Ages
0−1
1−3
3−6
7−12
13−18
Better spacing, logic, and
mutually exclusive:
Children‟s Ages
under 1 year of age
1−3 years of age
4−6 years of age
7−9 years of age
10−12 years of age
13−15 years of age
16−18 years of age
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
68
Vague:
How often did you attend a workshop for self-
improvement during the past year?
a. Never
b. Rarely
c. Several times
d. Many times
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
69
Better:
How often did you attend a workshop for self-
improvement during the past year?
a. Not at all
b. One to two times
c. Three to five times
d. More than five times
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
70
• Ordered options to gauge difference of
opinion.
• Keep the order of choices the same
throughout the form.
• Odd number of options allows people to
select a middle option.
• Even number forces respondents to
take sides.
• Simpler is better.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
71
Category scales
Numeric scales
Semantic differentials
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Use words or phrases to express a range of
choices.
• The number of categories depends on the amount
of differentiation.
• Three, four, or five categories are most common.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Balance the scale with an equal number of
positive and negative options.
• “No opinion” or “uncertain” are not part of a scale.
They are usually placed off to the side or in a
separate column.
• All choices should refer to the same
thing/concept.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Poor:
__Not worth my time
__Slightly interested
__Moderately
interested
__Very interested
Better:
__Not at all
interested
__Slightly interested
__Moderately
interested
__Very interested
Left column includes two concepts –
“worth” and “interest level.”
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Not much
Some
A great deal
A little
Some
A lot
Not much
Little
Somewhat
Much
A great deal
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
76
Never
Seldom
Often
Always
Extremely poor
Below average
Average
Above average
Excellent
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
77
Strongly
disagree
Disagree
Agree
Strongly
agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Neither agree
nor
disagree
Agree
Completely disagree
Mostly disagree
Slightly disagree
Slightly agree
Mostly agree
Completely agree
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Overall appearance
• Length of the questionnaire
• Order of questions
• Demographic data collection
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
79
• Use an easy-to-read typeface.
• Leave plenty of white space.
• Separate different components of a
questionnaire by using different type styles.
• Use arrows to show respondents where to go.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Start with the easiest questions −
avoid controversial topics.
• Address important topics early.
• Move from specific questions to
general questions.
• Move from closed-ended to open-
ended questions.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Only include questions about
demographic data that you will use.
• You may want to preface demographic
questions with the purpose for
collecting the information.
• You may need to state that providing
this information is optional and/or
explain how it affects program
eligibility.
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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Age
Gender
Ethnicity
Marital status
Family size
Occupation
Education
Employment status
Residence
Previous contact with
organization
Prior knowledge of
topic
First-time participant
vs. repeats
How you learned
about the program
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
83
ALWAYS
ALWAYS
ALWAYS
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Does each question measure what it is
supposed to measure?
• Are all the words understood?
• Are questions interpreted in the same
way by all respondents?
• Are all response options appropriate?
• Is there an answer that applies to each
respondent?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• Are the answers respondents can choose
from correct? Are some responses missing?
• Does the questionnaire create a positive
impression - does it motivate people to
answer it?
• Does any aspect of the questionnaire
suggest bias?
• Do respondents follow the directions?
• Is the cover letter clear?
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
86
1. Select reviewers who are similar to
the respondents and who will be
critical.
(Also ask your colleagues to review
it.)
2. Ask them to complete the
questionnaire as if it were “for real.”
3. Obtain feedback on the form and
content of the questionnaire and the
cover letter. Was anything confusing,
difficult to answer, de-motivating?Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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4. Assess whether the questions
produce the information you need.
5. Try the tabulation and analysis
procedures.
6. Revise.
7. If necessary, repeat these steps to
pre-test the revised version.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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• A quality questionnaire is almost
never written in one sitting.
• A quality questionnaire goes through
multiple revisions (maybe a dozen!)
before it is ready.
• Remember – a list of questions is
just the starting point. There are
many factors that affect response.
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
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When will data be collected?
• Before and after the program
• At one time
• At various times during the course of the
program
• Continuously through the program
• Over time − longitudinally
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
90
• Purpose and importance of the
survey
• Survey sponsor − use letterhead
• Why the respondent was selected to
participate
• Benefit(s) of completing survey
• Assurance of anonymity or
confidentiality
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
91
• How results will be used
• Instruction for returning the
survey
• When to respond
• How to obtain survey results
• Contact information
Questionnai
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Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes
Unit 5: Collecting data
92
• Personalize the letter in salutation or
signature
• Hand-sign the letter
• Express appreciation for their
participation
• Include pre-addressed, stamped
return envelope
Questionnai
re
Thank you so much
GoodLuck
93

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Questionnaire design & basic of survey

  • 1. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 1 Questionnai re
  • 2.
  • 3. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 35.3 • Statistics is a tool for converting data into information: Data Statistics Information But where then does data come from? How is it gathered? How do we ensure its accurate? Is the data reliable? Is it representative of the population from which it was drawn? Questionnai re
  • 4. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 4 Evaluation questions Indicators: Evidence that answers your questions Sources of information: program records, individuals, public METHODS Who What Questionnai re
  • 5. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 5 • Existing information • People • Pictorial records and observations Questionnai re
  • 6. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 6 Quantitative: numbers breadth generalizability Qualitative: words depth specific Remember, "Not everything that counts can be counted." Questionnai re
  • 7. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 7 Quantitative Qualitative Surveys Questionnaires Focus groups Tests Unstructured interviews Existing databases Unstructured observations Questionnai re
  • 8. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 8 Mixed methods for one program • Log of activities and participation • Self-administered questionnaires completed after each workshop • In-depth interviews with key informants • Observation of workshops • Survey of participants Questionnai re
  • 9. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 9 • Validity: Are you measuring what you think you are measuring? • Reliability: if something was measured again using the same instrument, would it produce the same (or nearly the same) results? Questionnai re
  • 10. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 10 What do these words mean relative to your evaluation information? How can you help ensure that your evaluation data are trustworthy and credible? Questionnai re
  • 11. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 11 • Survey • Case study • Interview • Observation • Group assessment • Expert or peer reviews • Portfolio reviews • Testimonials • Tests • Photographs, videotapes, slides • Diaries, journals, logs • Document review and analysis Questionnai re
  • 12. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 12  The purpose of your evaluation − Will the method allow you to gather information that can be analyzed and presented in a way that will be credible and useful to you and others?  The respondents − What is the most appropriate method, considering how the respondents can best be reached, how they might best respond, literacy, cultural considerations, etc.?Questionnai re
  • 13. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 13 Consider… • Resources available. Time, money, and staff to design, implement, and analyze the information. What can you afford? • Type of information you need. Numbers, percent, comparisons, stories, examples, etc. • Advantages and disadvantages of each method. • The need for credible and authentic evidence. • The value of using multiple methods. • The importance of ensuring cultural appropriateness. Questionnai re
  • 14. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 14 UTILITY Will the data sources and collection methods serve the information needs of your primary users? Questionnai re
  • 15. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 15 FEASIBILITY Are your sources and methods practical and efficient? Do you have the capacity, time, and resources? Are your methods non-intrusive and non-disruptive? Questionnai re
  • 16. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 16 PROPRIETY Are your methods respectful, legal, ethical, and appropriate? Does your approach protect and respect the welfare of all those involved or affected? Questionnai re
  • 17. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 17 ACCURACY Are your methods technically adequate to: • answer your questions? • measure what you intend to measure? • reveal credible and trustworthy information? • convey important information? Questionnai re
  • 18. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 18 There is no one right method of collecting data. Each has a purpose, advantages, and challenges. The goal is to obtain trustworthy, authentic, and credible evidence. Often, a mix of methods is preferable. Questionnai re
  • 19. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 19 • How appropriate is the method given the culture of the respondent/the setting? • Culture differences: nationality, ethnicity, religion, region, gender, age, abilities, class, economic status, language, sexual orientation, physical characteristics, organizational affiliation Questionnai re
  • 20. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 20 Things to consider: • Literacy level • Tradition of reading, writing • Setting • Not best choice for people with oral tradition • Translation (more than just literal translation) • How cultural traits affect response – response sets • How to sequence the questions Questionnai re
  • 21. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 21 Things to consider: • Preferred by people with an oral culture • Language level proficiency; verbal skill proficiency • Politeness – responding to authority (thinking it‟s unacceptable to say “no”), nodding, smiling, agreeing • Need to have someone present • Relationship/position of interviewer • May be seen as interrogation • Direct questioning may be seen as impolite, threatening, or confrontational Questionnai re
  • 22. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 22 A structured way to collect information using questionnaires. Surveys are typically conducted through: Hand to hand or face to face Mail (electronic or surface) Phone Internet. Questionnai re
  • 23. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 23 Surveys are used… • To collect standardized information from large numbers of individuals • When face-to-face meetings are inadvisable • When privacy is important or independent opinions and responses are needed Questionnai re
  • 24. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 24 1. Decide who should be involved in the process. 2. Define survey content. 3. Identify your respondents. 4. Decide on the survey method. 5. Develop the questionnaire. 6. Pilot test the questionnaire and other materials. 7. Think about analysis. 8. Communicate about your survey and its results. 9. Develop a budget, timeline, and management process. Questionnai re
  • 25. How survey work to produce statistics Respondent answers to quenstions Inference Characteristics of a respondent Statistical computing Characteristics of the sample Characteristics of the population Inference
  • 26. A survey from a process perspective Define research objectives Choose mode of collection Construct and pretest a questionnaire Choose sampling frame Design and select sample Recruit and measure sample Code and edit data Make postsurvey adjustments Perform analysis Questionnaire
  • 27. The life cycle of a survey from a design perspective Construct Measurement Response Edited Response Survey statistics Target Population Sampling Frame Sample Respondent Postsurvey Adjustments The Measurement dimension describes what data are to be collected about the observational units in the sample The Representational dimention concerns what population are described by the survey What is the survey about? Who is the survey about?
  • 28. The measurement dimension Constructs are the elements of information that are sought by the researcher : How many incidents of crimes with victims there were in the last year; The consumption of coffee in the last month; The degree of knowledge of mathematics of childrens… Measurements are ways to gather information about constructs : Questions posed to a respondent (“During the last 6 month, did you call the police to report something that happened to you that you thought was a crime?”) NB: the critical task for maesurement is to design questions that produce answers reflecting perfectly the construct we are trying to measure. Response could be produced in a variety of means But in general the nature of the response is determined by the nature of the measurement Editing of data may examine the full distribution of answers and look for atypical patterns of responses Edited responses are the data from wich inference is made about the values of the construct for an individual respondent Construct Measurement Response Edited Response
  • 29. The representational dimension The target population is the set of unit to be studied The adult population living in households in 2009; The frame population if the set of target population members that has chance to be selected into the survey sample : In a simple case it is a list of all units in the target population, but sometimes it is a set of units imperfectly linked to population members. i.e. a list of telephone numbers when the target population is the adult population The sample is the group from wich measurement will be sought. In many case it is a very small fraction of the the sampling frame Postsurvey adjustments consist on weighting up the underrepresented groups in order to improve the survey estimate Because of mismatches of the sampling frame and the target population (coverage problems) statistics based on the respondents can differ from caracteristics of the target population. Examination of non response patterns may suggest an underrepresentation of some groupes relative to the sampling frame Target Population Sample Respondent Postsurvey Adjustments Sampling Frame Respondents are the elements successfully measures. Non respondents is the complement
  • 30. Evaluating survey questions: Are the answers good measures of the intended construct? Example of methods that can be used to evaluate draft survey questions  Expert reviews The substantive expert review the wording, the order and the structure of questions, the response alternatives etc. A small number of target population participate in a systematic discussion about the survey topic. The researcher learn about the nomenclature of the concept, the common perspective taken by the target population on key issues etc…  Focus groups  Questionnaire pretest Researcher test how questions are read and answered. A behaviour coding is often used Questionnaire
  • 31. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 32 The proportion of people who respond: divide the number of returned surveys by the total number of surveys distributed. Example: If you distribute 50 questionnaires and you get 25 questionnaires back, your response rate is 50%. Questionnai re
  • 32. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 33 # that answered # you contacted Response rate = Questionnai re
  • 33. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 34 • High response rate promotes confidence in results. • Lower response rate increases the likelihood of biased results. Questionnai re
  • 34. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 35 • There is no standard response rate. “The higher, the better.” Anything under 60% is a warning. • Why is high return important? It‟s the only way to know if results are representative. • Address low response. How are people who didn‟t respond different from those who did? Only describe your results in terms of who did respond. Questionnai re
  • 35. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 36 • Generate positive publicity for your survey. • Over sample. • Ensure that respondents see the value of participating. • Use a combination of methods. • Make (multiple) follow-up contacts. • Provide incentives. • Provide 1st class postage/return postage. • Set return deadlines. • Make the survey easy to complete. Questionnai re
  • 36. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 37 Use language that is suggestive rather than decisive. Examples: “The data suggests” vs. “These data show”; “It appears” vs. “We can conclude” • Don‟t generalize findings to the entire group. • Clearly describe who the data represents. Questionnai re
  • 37.
  • 38. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 39 1. Decide what information you need. 2. Determine sample – respondents. 3. Develop accurate, user-friendly questionnaire. 4. Develop plan for distribution, return, and follow-up. 5. Provide clear instructions and a good cover letter. 6. Pilot test. Questionnai re
  • 39. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 40 • Be specific • Need to know Vs. would like to know • Check to see if information exists elsewhere • What do you want to be able to say: counts, percentages, relationships, narratives Questionnai re
  • 40. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 41 • Who will complete the questionnaire? • What do you know about their preferences, abilities, and cultural characteristics that may affect the way they respond? Questionnai re
  • 41. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 42 • Make sure questions cover information needed. • Word questions carefully. • Consider cultural nuances. • Sequence questions appropriately. • Attend to formatting. Questionnai re
  • 42. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 43 • Write clear, complete directions. • Review to see if it is user-friendly; consider the respondent. • Make the questionnaire attractive. • Work as a team. • Plan on writing several draft questionnaires. Questionnai re
  • 43. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 44 Distribution: when, where • At meetings, sites, through mail, email, internet Return: when, where • Return to individual, collection box • Return envelope addressed/stamped • Return envelope addressed only Follow-up Questionnai re
  • 44. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 45 • Purpose of questionnaire – how information will be used • Why they are being asked to fill it out • Importance of their response • How and when to respond • Whether response will be anonymous or confidential • Your appreciation • Promise results, if appropriate • Signature − sponsorship Questionnai re
  • 45. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 46 • Always • With people as similar to respondents as possible • Do they understand the questions? The instructions? • Do questions mean same thing to all? • Do questions elicit the information you want? • How long does it take? • Revise as necessary Questionnai re
  • 46. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 47 • Knowledge − what people know, how well they understand something • Beliefs − attitudes, opinions • Behaviors − what people do • Attributes/Demographics − what people are and what people have Questionnai re
  • 47. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 48 Impact of divorce on children As a result of this program, to what extent do you understand the following about children and divorce: Not well Somewhat Very well Already knew a. Stages of grief 1 2 3 4 b. Self-blame or guilt 1 2 3 4 c. The desire for parents to reunite 1 2 3 4 Questionnai re
  • 48. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 49 Communication skills List three communications techniques you learned in this course that you have used with your children: 1.________________________________ 2.________________________________ 3.________________________________ Questionnai re
  • 49. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 50 As a result of this course, to what extent do you feel that your attitude has changed about: a. Discussing your children with your ex not at all / somewhat / a great deal b. Allowing your former in-laws to see your children not at all / somewhat / a great deal Questionnai re
  • 50. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 51 How visitation disputes are handled 1. Describe how you and your ex-spouse handled visitation disagreements before the course. 2. Describe how you and your ex-spouse have handled visitation disagreements since the workshop. Questionnai re
  • 51. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 52 Demographic characteristics − age, education, occupation, or income • Where do you currently live? • How many children do you have? • What is your age? • How many years have you been employed at your current job? Questionnai re
  • 52. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 53 • Open-ended questions − allow respondents to provide their own answers • Closed-ended questions − list answers and respondents select either one or multiple responses Questionnai re
  • 53. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 54 • Do not provide any specific responses from which the participant would choose. • Allow respondents to express their own ideas and opinions. Questionnai re
  • 54. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 55 Pros: • Can get unintended or unanticipated results • Wide variety of answers • Answers in participants‟ “voices” Cons: • More difficult to answer • May be harder to categorize for interpretation • More difficult for people who don‟t write much Questionnai re
  • 55. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 56 Examples: What communication skills did you learn in this workshop that you will use with your children? What benefits do you receive from this organization? Questionnai re
  • 56. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 57 • Provide specific answers from which the participant must choose. • Sometimes called “forced choice.” • Response possibilities include: one best answer, multiple responses, rating, or ranking scale. Questionnai re
  • 57. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 58 Pros: • Easy to analyze responses • Stimulates recall Cons: • Chance of none of the choices being appropriate • Biases response to what you‟re looking for • Misses unintended outcomes Questionnai re
  • 58. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 59 Example − one best answer: What does the word “nutrition” mean to you? (Circle one number.) 1 Getting enough vitamins 2 The food you eat and how your body uses it 3 Having to eat foods I don‟t like 4 Having good health Questionnai re
  • 59. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 60 Example − multiple responses: Of the communication skills taught in this workshop, which will you use with your children? (Check all that apply.) ___active listening ___acknowledge feelings ___ask more open-ended questions ___provide one-on-one time for discussion ___negotiation ___other_____________________Questionnai re
  • 60. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 61 Example − rating scale To what extent do you agree or disagree with the new Speeding Monitoring System „‟ SAHER”” ? (Circle one.) 1 Strongly disagree 2 Mildly disagree 3 Neither agree or disagree 4 Mildly agree 5 Strongly agree Questionnai re
  • 61. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 62 • The particular people for whom the questionnaire is being designed • The particular purpose of the questionnaire • How questions will be placed in relation to each other in the questionnaire Questionnai re
  • 62. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 63 • Match vocabulary and reading skills of your respondents. • Are any words confusing? • Do any words have a double meaning? • Avoid the use of abbreviations and jargon. Questionnai re
  • 63. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 64 • Avoid jargon or technical language. Jargon: What kind of post-litigation concerns have you and your ex-spouse had? Better: Since having your visitation rights set by a judge, what other concerns have you and your ex-spouse had about visitation? Questionnai re
  • 64. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 65 • Avoid vague questions and answers. • Avoid ambiguous words or phrases. • Avoid questions that may be too specific. • Avoid making assumptions. Questionnai re
  • 65. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 66 Vague: How will this seminar help you? Questionnai re
  • 66. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 67 Poor spacing and logic: Children‟s Ages 0−1 1−3 3−6 7−12 13−18 Better spacing, logic, and mutually exclusive: Children‟s Ages under 1 year of age 1−3 years of age 4−6 years of age 7−9 years of age 10−12 years of age 13−15 years of age 16−18 years of age Questionnai re
  • 67. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 68 Vague: How often did you attend a workshop for self- improvement during the past year? a. Never b. Rarely c. Several times d. Many times Questionnai re
  • 68. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 69 Better: How often did you attend a workshop for self- improvement during the past year? a. Not at all b. One to two times c. Three to five times d. More than five times Questionnai re
  • 69. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 70 • Ordered options to gauge difference of opinion. • Keep the order of choices the same throughout the form. • Odd number of options allows people to select a middle option. • Even number forces respondents to take sides. • Simpler is better. Questionnai re
  • 70. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 71 Category scales Numeric scales Semantic differentials Questionnai re
  • 71. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 72 • Use words or phrases to express a range of choices. • The number of categories depends on the amount of differentiation. • Three, four, or five categories are most common. Questionnai re
  • 72. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 73 • Balance the scale with an equal number of positive and negative options. • “No opinion” or “uncertain” are not part of a scale. They are usually placed off to the side or in a separate column. • All choices should refer to the same thing/concept. Questionnai re
  • 73. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 74 Poor: __Not worth my time __Slightly interested __Moderately interested __Very interested Better: __Not at all interested __Slightly interested __Moderately interested __Very interested Left column includes two concepts – “worth” and “interest level.” Questionnai re
  • 74. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 75 Not much Some A great deal A little Some A lot Not much Little Somewhat Much A great deal Questionnai re
  • 75. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 76 Never Seldom Often Always Extremely poor Below average Average Above average Excellent Questionnai re
  • 76. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 77 Strongly disagree Disagree Agree Strongly agree Uncertain Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Completely disagree Mostly disagree Slightly disagree Slightly agree Mostly agree Completely agree Questionnai re
  • 77. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 78 • Overall appearance • Length of the questionnaire • Order of questions • Demographic data collection Questionnai re
  • 78. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 79 • Use an easy-to-read typeface. • Leave plenty of white space. • Separate different components of a questionnaire by using different type styles. • Use arrows to show respondents where to go. Questionnai re
  • 79. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 80 • Start with the easiest questions − avoid controversial topics. • Address important topics early. • Move from specific questions to general questions. • Move from closed-ended to open- ended questions. Questionnai re
  • 80. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 81 • Only include questions about demographic data that you will use. • You may want to preface demographic questions with the purpose for collecting the information. • You may need to state that providing this information is optional and/or explain how it affects program eligibility. Questionnai re
  • 81. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 82 Age Gender Ethnicity Marital status Family size Occupation Education Employment status Residence Previous contact with organization Prior knowledge of topic First-time participant vs. repeats How you learned about the program Questionnai re
  • 82. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 83 ALWAYS ALWAYS ALWAYS Questionnai re
  • 83. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 84 • Does each question measure what it is supposed to measure? • Are all the words understood? • Are questions interpreted in the same way by all respondents? • Are all response options appropriate? • Is there an answer that applies to each respondent? Questionnai re
  • 84. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 85 • Are the answers respondents can choose from correct? Are some responses missing? • Does the questionnaire create a positive impression - does it motivate people to answer it? • Does any aspect of the questionnaire suggest bias? • Do respondents follow the directions? • Is the cover letter clear? Questionnai re
  • 85. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 86 1. Select reviewers who are similar to the respondents and who will be critical. (Also ask your colleagues to review it.) 2. Ask them to complete the questionnaire as if it were “for real.” 3. Obtain feedback on the form and content of the questionnaire and the cover letter. Was anything confusing, difficult to answer, de-motivating?Questionnai re
  • 86. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 87 4. Assess whether the questions produce the information you need. 5. Try the tabulation and analysis procedures. 6. Revise. 7. If necessary, repeat these steps to pre-test the revised version. Questionnai re
  • 87. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 88 • A quality questionnaire is almost never written in one sitting. • A quality questionnaire goes through multiple revisions (maybe a dozen!) before it is ready. • Remember – a list of questions is just the starting point. There are many factors that affect response. Questionnai re
  • 88. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 89 When will data be collected? • Before and after the program • At one time • At various times during the course of the program • Continuously through the program • Over time − longitudinally Questionnai re
  • 89. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 90 • Purpose and importance of the survey • Survey sponsor − use letterhead • Why the respondent was selected to participate • Benefit(s) of completing survey • Assurance of anonymity or confidentiality Questionnai re
  • 90. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 91 • How results will be used • Instruction for returning the survey • When to respond • How to obtain survey results • Contact information Questionnai re
  • 91. Building Capacity in Evaluating Outcomes Unit 5: Collecting data 92 • Personalize the letter in salutation or signature • Hand-sign the letter • Express appreciation for their participation • Include pre-addressed, stamped return envelope Questionnai re
  • 92. Thank you so much GoodLuck 93