Companion Planting - Foodshed Project, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada


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Companion Planting - Foodshed Project, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

  1. 1. Companion PlantingMany plants have natural substances in their roots, flowers, leaves etc. that can alternately repel(anti-feedants) and/or attract insects depending on your needs. In some situations they can also helpenhance the growth rate and flavor of other varieties. Experience shows us that using companionplanting through out the landscape is an important part of integrated pest management. In essencecompanion planting helps bring a balanced eco-system to your landscape, allowing nature to do itsjob. Nature integrates a diversity of plants, insects, animals, and other organisms into everyecosystem so there is no waste. The death of one organism can create food for another, meaningsymbiotic relationships all around. We consider companion planting to be a holistic concept due tothe many intricate levels in which it works with the ecology.By using companion planting, many gardeners find that they can discourage harmful pests withoutlosing the beneficial allies. There are many varieties of herbs, flowers, etc. that can be used forcompanion plants. Be open to experimenting and find what works for you. Some possibilities wouldbe using certain plants as a border, backdrop or interplanting in your flower or vegetable beds whereyou have specific needs. Use plants that are native to your area so the insects you want to attractalready know what to look for! Plants with open cup shaped flowers are the most popular withbeneficial insects.Companion planting can combine beauty and purpose to give you an enjoyable, healthy environment.Have fun, let your imagination soar. There are many ways you can find to incorporate these usefulplants in your garden, orchard, flower beds etc.ALFALFA: Perennial that roots deeply. Fixes the soil with nitrogen, accumulates iron, magnesium,phosphorous and potassium. Withstands droughts with its long taproot and can improve just aboutany soil! Alfalfa has the ability to break up hard clay soil and can even send its roots through rocks!Now that is a tenacious plant! Alfalfa is practically pest and disease free. It needs only naturalrainfall to survive.AMARANTH: A tropical annual that needs hot conditions to flourish. Good with sweet corn, itsleaves provide shade giving the corm a rich, moist root run. Host to predatory ground beetles. Eat theyoung leaves in salads.ANISE: Licorice flavored herb, good host for predatory wasps which prey on aphids and it is alsosaid to repel aphids. Deters pests from brassicas by camouflaging their odor. Improves the vigor ofany plants growing near it. Used in ointments to protect against bug stings and bites. Good to plantwith coriander.ARTEMISIAS: see wormwood.ASPARAGUS: Friends: Aster family flowers, dill ,coriander, tomatoes, parsley, basil, comfrey andmarigolds. Avoid: Onions, garlic and potatoes.BASIL: Plant with tomatoes to improve growth and flavor. Basil also does well with peppers,oregano, asparagus and petunias. Basil can be helpful in repelling thrips. It is said to repel flies andmosquitoes. Do not plant near rue or sage.BAY LEAF: A fresh leaf bay leaf in each storage container of beans or grains will deter weevils andmoths. Sprinkle dried leaves with other deterrent herbs in garden as natural insecticide dust. A goodcombo: Bay leaves, cayenne pepper, tansy and peppermint.For ladybug invasions try spreading bay leaves around in your house anywhere they are getting inand congregating. They should leave.
  2. 2. BEANS: All bean enrich the soil with nitrogen fixed form the air. In general they are good companyfor carrots, celery, chards, corn, eggplant, peas, potatoes, brassicas, beets, radish, strawberry andcucumbers. Beans are great for heavy nitrogen users like corn and grain plants because beans fixnitrogen from the air into the soil so the nitrogen used up by the corn and grains are replaced at theend of the season when the bean plants die back. French Haricot beans, sweet corn and melons are agood combo. Summer savory deters bean beetles and improves growth and flavor. Keep beans awayfrom the alliums.BEE BALM (Oswego, Monarda): Plant with tomatoes to improve growth and flavor. Great forattracting beneficials and bees of course. Pretty perennial that tends to get powdery mildew.BEET: Good for adding minerals to the soil. The leaves are composed of 25% magnesium makingthem a valuable addition to the compost pile if you dont care to eat them. Beets are also beneficial tobeans with the exception of runner beans. Runner or pole beans and beets stunt each others growth.Companions for beets are lettuce, onions and brassicas. Beets and kohlrabi grow perfectly together.Beets are helped by garlic and mints. Garlic improves growth and flavor. Rather than plantinginvasive mints around beets use your mint clippings as a mulch.BORAGE: Companion plant for tomatoes, squash, strawberries and most plants. Deters tomatohornworms and cabbage worms. One of the best bee and wasp attracting plants. Adds trace mineralsto the soil and a good addition the compost pile. The leaves contain vitamin C and are rich incalcium, potassium and mineral salts. Borage may benefit any plant it is growing next to viaincreasing resistance to pests and disease. It also makes a nice mulch for most plants. Borage andstrawberries help each other and strawberry farmers always set a few plants in their beds to enhancethe fruits flavor and yield. Plant near tomatoes to improve growth and disease resistance. After youhave planned this annual once it will self seed. Borage flowers are edible.BRASSICA: Benefit from chamomile, peppermint, dill, sage, and rosemary. They need rich soilwith plenty of lime to flourish. Avoid planting with mustards, nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, etc).BUCKWHEAT: Accumulates calcium and can be grown as an excellent cover crop. Attractshoverflies in droves. (Member of the brassica family.)CABBAGE: Celery, dill, onions and potatoes are good companion plants. Celery improves growthand health. Clover interplanted with cabbage has been shown to reduce the native cabbage aphid andcabbageworm populations by interfering with the colonization of the pests and increasing the numberof predatory ground beetles. Plant Chamomile with cabbage as it Improves growth and flavor.Cabbage does not get along with strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, rue, grapes and polebeans.CARAWAY: Good for loosening compacted soil with its deep roots so its also compatible next toshallow rooted crops. Plant it with strawberries. Caraway can be tricky to establish. The flowersattract a number of beneficial insects especially the tiny parasitic wasps. Keep it away from dill andfennel.CARROTS: Their pals are leaf lettuce, onions and tomatoes. Plant dill and parsnips away fromcarrots. Flax produces an oil that may protect root vegetables like carrots from some pests. Onedrawback with tomatoes and carrots: tomato plants can stunt the growth of your carrots but thecarrots will still be of good flavor.CATNIP: Deters flea beetles, aphids, Japanese beetles, squash bugs, ants and weevils. We havefound it repels mice quite well: mice were wreaking havoc in our outbuildings, we spread sprigs ofmint throughout and the mice split! Use sprigs of mint anywhere in the house you want deter miceand ants. Smells good and very safe.
  3. 3. CELERY: Companions: Bean, cabbage family, leek, onion, spinach and tomato. Flowers for celery:cosmos, daisies and snapdragons. Foe: Corn.CHAMOMILE, GERMAN: Annual. Improves flavor of cabbages, cucumbers and onions. Host tohoverflies and wasps. Accumulates calcium, potassium and sulfur, later returning them to the soil.Increases oil production from herbs. Leave some flowers unpicked and German chamomile willreseed itself. Roman chamomile is a low growing perennial that will tolerate almost any soilconditions. Both like full sun. Growing chamomile of any type is considered a tonic for anything yougrow in the garden.CHARDS: Companions: Bean, cabbage family and onion.CHERVIL: Companion to radishes, lettuce and broccoli for improved growth and flavor. Keepsaphids off lettuce. Said to deter slugs. Likes shade.CHIVES: Improves growth and flavor of carrots and tomatoes. A friend to apples, carrots, tomatoes,brassica (broccoli, cabbage, mustard, etc) and many others. Keeps aphids help to keep aphids awayfrom tomatoes, mums and sunflowers. Chives may drive away Japanese beetles and carrot rust fly.Planted among apple trees it helps prevent scab and among roses it prevents black spot. You willneed patience as it takes about 3 years for plantings of chives to prevent the 2 diseases. A tea ofchives may be used on cucumbers and gooseberries to prevent downy and powdery mildews. Avoidplanting near beans and peas.CHRYSANTHEMUMS: C. coccineum kills root nematodes. (the bad ones) Its flowers along withthose of C. cineraruaefolium have been used as botanical pesticides for centuries. (i.e. pyrethrum)White flowering chrysanthemums repel Japanese beetles. To the right is a picture of the painteddaisy from which pyrethrum is extracted.CLOVER: Long used as a green manure and plant companion and is especially good to plant undergrapevines. Attracts many beneficials. Useful planted around apple trees to attract predators of thewoolly aphid. Clover interplanted with cabbage has been shown to reduce the native cabbage aphidand cabbageworm populations by interfering with the colonization of the pests and increasing thenumber of predator ground beetles.COMFREY: Accumulates calcium, phosphorous and potassium. Likes wet spots to grow in.Comfrey is beneficial to avocado and most other fruit trees. Traditional medicinal plant. Good trapcrop for slugs.CORIANDER: Repels aphids, spider mites and potato beetle. A tea from this can be used as a sprayfor spider mites. A partner for anise.CORN: Amaranth, beans, cucumber, white geranium, lambs quarters, melons, morning glory,parsley, peanuts, peas, potato, pumpkin, soybeans, squash and sunflower. A classic example is togrow climbing beans up corn while inter-planting pumpkins. The corn provides a natural trellis forthe beans, pumpkins smother the weeds and helps corn roots retain moisture. Corn is a heavy feederand the beans fix nitrogen from air into the soil. The beans do not feed the corn will it is growing butwhen the bean plants die back they return nitrogen to the soil that was used up by the corn. A win-win situation. Another interesting helper for corn is the weed Pigs Thistle which raises nutrientsfrom the subsoil to where the corn can reach them. Keep corn away from celery and tomato plants.COSTMARY: This 2-3 foot tall perennial of the chrysanthemum family helps to repel moths.CUCUMBERS: Cucumbers are great to plant with corn and beans. The three plants like the sameconditions warmth, rich soil and plenty of moisture. Let the cucumbers grow up and over your cornplants. A great duet is to plant cukes with sunflowers. The sunflowers provide a strong support forthe vines. Cukes also do well with peas, beets, radishes and carrots. Radishes are a good deterrentagainst cucumber beetles. Dill planted with cucumbers helps by attracting beneficial
  4. 4. predators. Nasturtium improves growth and flavor. Keep sage, potatoes and rue away fromcucumbers.DAHLIAS: These beautiful, tuberous annuals that can have up to dinner plate size flowers repelsnematodes!DILL: Improves growth and health of cabbage. Do not plant near carrots, caraway or tomatoes. Bestfriend for lettuce. Attracts hoverflies and predatory wasps. Repels aphids and spider mites to somedegree. Also may repel the dreaded squash bug! (scatter some good size dill leaves on plants that aresuspect to squash bugs, like squash plants.) Dill goes well with lettuce, onions, cabbage, sweet cornand cucumbers. Dill does attract the tomato horn worm so it would be useful to plant it somewhereaway from your tomato plants to keep the destructive horn worm away from them. Do plant dill in anappropriate spot for the swallowtail butterfly caterpillars to feed on. Even their caterpillars arebeautiful.EGGPLANT: Plant with amaranth, beans, peas, spinach, tarragon, thyme and marigold. Eggplant isa member of the nightshade family and does well with peppers. Avoid planting fennel near eggplant.ELDERBERRY: A spray made from the leaves can be used against aphids, carrot root fly,cucumber beetles and peach tree borers. Put branches and leaves in mole runs to banish them.Elderberry leaves added to the compost pile speeds up the decomposing process.FLAX: Plant with carrots, and potatoes. Flax contains tannin and linseed oils which may offend theColorado potato bug. Flax is an annual from 1-4 feet tall with blue or white flowers that readily selfsows.FOUR-OCLOCKS: Draws Japanese beetles like a magnet which then dine on the foliage. Thefoliage is pure poison to them and they wont live to have dessert! It is important to mention thatFour Oclock are also poisonous to humans and animals. Please be careful where you plant them ifyou have children and pets. They are a beautiful annual plant growing from 2-3 feet high with abushy growth form.GARLIC: Plant near roses to repel aphids. It also benefits apple trees, pear trees, cucumbers, peas,lettuce and celery. Garlic accumulates sulfur: a naturally occurring fungicide which will help in thegarden with disease prevention. Garlic is systemic in action as it is taken up the plants through theirpores and when garlic tea is used as a soil drench it is also taken up by the plant roots. Has value inoffending codling moths, Japanese beetles, root maggots, snails, and carrot root fly. Researchershave observed that time-released garlic capsules planted at the bases of fruit trees actually kept deeraway. Its certainly worth a try! Concentrated garlic sprays have been observed to repel and killwhiteflies, aphids and fungus gnats among others with as little as a 6-8% concentration! It is safe foruse on orchids too.GERANIUM: -Repels cabbage worms and Japanese beetles, plant around grapes, roses, corn,tomatoes, peppers and cabbage. Geraniums help to distract beet leafhoppers, carrier of the curly topvirus.GOPHER PURGE: Deters gophers, and moles.GRAPES: Hyssop is beneficial to grapes as are basil, beans, geraniums, oregano, clover, peas, orblackberries. Keep radishes and cabbage away from grapes. Planting clover increases the soil fertilityfor grapes. Chives with grapes help repel aphids. Plant your vines under Elm or Mulberry trees.HEMP: Repels many types of beetles which attack brassicas.HORSERADISH: Plant in containers in the potato patch to keep away Colorado potato bugs.Horseradish increases the disease resistance of potatoes. There are some very effective insect spraysthat can be made with the root. Use the bottomless pot method to keep horseradish contained. Also
  5. 5. repels Blister beetles. We have observed that the root can yield anti-fungal properties when a tea ismade from it.HOREHOUND: (Marrubium Vulgare) like many varieties in the mint family, the many tinyflowers attract Braconid and Icheumonid wasps, and Tachnid and Syrid flies. The larval forms ofthese insects parasitize or otherwise consume many other insects pests. It grows where many othersfail to thrive and can survive harsh winters. Blooms over a long season, attracting beneficial insectsalmost as long as you are likely to need them. For best results use horehound directly as a companionplant. Stimulates and aids fruiting in tomatoes and peppers.HYSSOP: Companion plant to cabbage and grapes, deters cabbage moths and flea beetles. Do notplant near radishes. Hyssop may be the number one preference among bees and some beekeepers rubthe hive with it to encourage the bees to keep to their home. It is not as invasive as other members ofthe mint family making it safer for interplanting.KELP: When used in a powder mixture or tea as a spray, this versatile sea herb will not only repelinsects but feed the vegetables. In particular we have observed that kelp foliar sprays keep aphids andJapanese beetles away when used as a spray every 8 days before and during infestation times. If youhave access to seaweed, use it as a mulch to keep slugs away.KOHLRABI: May be planted with cucumber, onion and chives. Kohlrabi and beets are perfect togrow with one another! Do not plant kohlrabi with pole beans, pepper, strawberry or tomatoes.LAMIUM: This will repel potato bugs- a big problem for many gardeners!LARKSPUR: An annual member of the Delphinium family, larkspur will attract Japanese beetles.They dine and die! Larkspur is poisonous to humans too.LAVENDER: Repels fleas and moths. Prolific flowering lavender nourishes many nectar feedingand beneficial insects. Lavenders can protect nearby plants from insects such as whitefly, andlavender planted under and near fruit trees can deter codling moth. Use dried sprigs of lavender torepel moths. Start plants in winter from cuttings, setting out in spring.LEEKS: Use leeks near apple trees, carrots, celery and onions which will improve their growth.Leeks also repel carrot flies. Avoid planting near legumes.LEMON BALM: Sprinkle throughout the garden in an herbal powder mixture to deter many bugs.Lemon balm has citronella compounds that make this work: crush and rub the leaves on your skin tokeep mosquitoes away! Use to ward off squash bugs!LETTUCE: Does well with beets, bush beans, pole beans, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, onion,radish and strawberries. It grows happily in the shade under young sunflowers.LOVAGE: Improves flavor and health of most plants. Good habitat for ground beetles. A largeplant, use one planted as a backdrop. Similar to celery in flavor.MARIGOLDS: (Calendula): Given a lot of credit as a pest deterrent. Keeps soil free of badnematodes; supposed to discourage many insects. Plant freely throughout the garden. The marigoldsyou choose must be a scented variety for them to work. One down side is that marigolds do attractspider mites and slugs.French Marigold (T. patula) has roots that exude a substance which spreads in their immediatevicinity killing nematodes. For nematode control you want to plant dense areas of them. There havebeen some studies done that proved this nematode killing effect lasted for several years after theplants were These marigolds also help to deter whiteflies when planted around tomatoes and can beused in greenhouses for the same purpose. Whiteflies hate the smell of marigolds. Do not plantFrench marigolds next to bean plants.
  6. 6. Mexican marigold (T. minuta) is the most powerful of the insect repelling marigolds and may alsooverwhelm weed roots such as bind weed! It is said to repel the Mexican bean beetle and wildbunnies! Be careful it can have an herbicidal effect on some plants like beans and cabbage.MARJORAM: As a companion plant it improves the flavor of vegetables and herbs. Sweetmarjoram is the most commonly grown type.MELONS: Companions: Corn, pumpkin, radish and squash. Other suggested helpers for melons areas follows: Marigold deters beetles, nasturtium deters bugs and beetles. Oregano provides generalpest protection.MINT: Deters white cabbage moths, ants, rodents, flea beetles, fleas, aphids and improves the healthof cabbage and tomatoes. Use cuttings as a mulch around members of the brassica family. It attractshoverflies and predatory wasps. Earthworms are quite attracted to mint plantings. Be careful whereyou plant it as mint is an incredibly invasive perennial. We have found that placing mint (fresh ordried) where mice are a problem is very effective in driving them off!MOLE PLANTS: (castor bean plant) Deter moles and mice if planted here and there throughout thegarden. Drop a seed of this in mole runs to drive them away. This is a poisonous plant.MORNING GLORIES: They attract hoverflies. Plus if you want a fast growing annual vine tocover something up morning glory is an excellent choice.NASTURTIUMS: Plant as a barrier around tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, and under fruit trees. Donot plant near cauliflower. Deters wooly aphids, whiteflies, squash bug, cucumber beetles and otherpests of the cucurbit family. Great trap crop for aphids (in particular the black aphids) which it doesattract, especially the yellow flowering varieties. Likes poor soil with low moisture and no fertilizer.It has been the practice of some fruit growers that planting nasturtiums every year in the root zone offruit trees allow the trees to take up the pungent odor of the plants and repel bugs. Studies say it isamong the best at attracting predatory insects. It has no taste effect on the fruit. A nice variety togrow is Alaska which has attractive green and white variegated leaves. The leaves, flowers and seedsof nasturtiums are all edible and wonderful in salads!NETTLES, STINGING: The flowers attract bees. Sprays made from these are rich in silica andcalcium. Invigorating for plants and improves their disease resistance. Leaving the mixture to rot, itthen makes an excellent liquid feed. Comfrey improves the liquid feed even more. Hairs on thenettles leaves contain formic acid which "stings" you.ONIONS: Planting chamomile and summer savory with onions improves their flavor. Othercompanions are carrot, leek, beets, kohlrabi, strawberries, brassicas, dill, lettuce and tomatoes.Intercropping onions and leeks with your carrots confuses the carrot and onion flies! Onions plantedwith strawberries help the berries fight disease. Keep onions away from peas and asparagus.OPAL BASIL: An annual herb that is pretty, tasty and said to repel hornworms!OREGANO: Can be used with most crops but especially good for cabbage. Plant near broccoli,cabbage and cauliflower to repel cabbage butterfly and near cucumbers to repel cucumber beetle.Also benefits grapes.PARSLEY: Allies: Asparagus, carrot, chives, onions, roses and tomato. Sprinkle the leaves ontomatoes, and asparagus. Use as a tea to ward off asparagus beetles. Attracts hoverflies. Let some goto seed to attract the tiny parasitic wasps and hoverflies. Parsley increases the fragrance of roseswhen planted around their base. Rose problems? Mint and parsley are enemies. Keep them well awayfrom one another.PEAS: Peas fix nitrogen in the soil. Plant next to corn. Companions for peas are bush beans, PoleBeans, Carrots, Celery, Chicory, Corn Cucumber, Eggplant, Parsley, Early Potato, Radish, Spinach,Strawberry, Sweet pepper and Turnips. Do not plant peas with onions.
  7. 7. PEPPERMINT: Repels white cabbage moths, aphids and flea beetles. It is the menthol content inmints that acts as an insect repellant. Bees and other good guys love it.PEPPERS, BELL (Sweet Peppers): Plant peppers near tomatoes, parsley, basil, geraniums,marjoram, lovage, petunia and carrots. Onions make an excellent companion plant for peppers. Theydo quite well with okra as it shelters them and protects the brittle stems from wind. Dont plant themnear fennel or kohlrabi. They should also not be grown near apricot trees because a fungus that thepepper is prone to can cause a lot of harm to the apricot tree. Peppers can double as ornamentals, sotuck some into flowerbeds and borders. Harvesting tip: The traditional bell pepper, for example, isharvested green, even though most varieties will mature red, orange, or yellow. Peppers can beharvested at any stage of growth, but their flavor doesnt fully develop until maturity.PEPPERS, HOT: Chili peppers have root exudates that prevent root rot and other Fusariumdiseases. Plant anywhere you have these problems. Teas made from hot peppers can be useful asinsect sprays. Hot peppers like to be grouped with cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, tomato, okra,Swiss chard and squash. Herbs to plant near them include: basils, oregano, parsley and rosemary.PENNYROYAL: Repels fleas. The leaves when crushed and rubbed onto your skin will repelchiggers, flies, gnats, mosquitoes and ticks. Warning: Pennyroyal is highly toxic to cats. It should notbe planted where cats might ingest it and never rubbed onto their skin.PETUNIAS: They repel the asparagus beetle, leafhoppers, certain aphids, tomato worms, Mexicanbean beetles and general garden pests. A good companion to tomatoes, but plant everywhere. Theleaves can be used in a tea to make a potent bug spray.POACHED EGG PLANT: Grow poached egg plant with tomatoes, they will attract hover flies andhover flies eat aphids.POTATO: Companions for potatoes are bush bean, members of the cabbage family, carrot, celery,corn, dead nettle, flax, horseradish, marigold, peas, petunia, onion and Tagetes marigold. Protectthem from scab by putting comfrey leaves in with your potato sets at planting time. Horseradish,planted at the corners of the potato patch, provides general protection. Dont plant these aroundpotatoes: asparagus, cucumber, kohlrabi, parsnip, pumpkin, rutabaga, squash family, sunflower,turnip and fennel. Keep potatoes and tomatoes apart as they both can get early and late blightcontaminating each other.PUMPKINS: Pumpkin pals are corn, melon and squash. Marigold deters beetles. Nasturtium detersbugs, beetles. Oregano provides general pest protection.PURSLANE: This edible weed makes good ground cover in the corn patch. Use the stems, leavesand seeds in stir-frys. Pickle the green seed pod for caper substitutes. If purslane is growing in yourgarden it means you have health, fertile soil!RADISH: One of the workhorses for the garden. Companions for radishes are: radish, beet, bushbeans, pole beans, carrots, chervil, cucumber, lettuce, melons, nasturtium, parsnip, peas, spinach andmembers of the squash family. Why plant radishes with your squash plants? Radishes may protectthem from squash borers. Anything that will help keep them away is worth a try. Radishes are adeterrent against cucumber beetles and rust flies. Chervil and nasturtium improve radish growth andflavor. Planting them around corn and letting them go to seed will also help fight corn borers.Chinese Daikon and Snow Belle radishes are favorites of flea beetles. Plant these at 6 to 12 inchintervals amongst broccoli. In one trial, this measurably reduced damage to broccoli. Radishes willlure leafminers away from spinach. The damage the leafminers do to radish leaves does not stop theradish roots from growing, a win-win situation. Keep radishes away from hyssop plants, cabbage,cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and turnips.RHUBARB: A good companion to all brassicas. Try planting cabbage and broccoli plants your
  8. 8. rhubarb patch watch them thrive. Rhubarb protects beans against black fly. Some other interestingcompanions for rhubarb are the beautiful columbine flowers, garlic, onion and roses! It helps deterred spider mites from the columbines. A spray made from boiled rhubarb leaves, which contain thepoison oxalic acid may be used to prevent blackspot on roses and as an aphicide.ROSEMARY: Companion plant to cabbage, beans, carrots and sage. Deters cabbage moths, beanbeetles, and carrot flies. Use cuttings to place by the crowns of carrots for carrot flies. Zones 6 andcolder can overwinter rosemary as houseplants or take cuttings.RUE: Deters aphids, fish moths, flea beetle, onion maggot, slugs, snails, flies and Japanese beetlesin roses and raspberries. Companions for rue are roses, fruits (in particular figs), raspberries andlavender. To make it even more effective with Japanese beetles: crush a few leaves to release thesmell. Has helped repel cats for us. You should not plant rue near cucumbers, cabbage, basil or sage.A pretty perennial with bluish-gray leaves. May be grown indoors in a sunny window. Rue maycause skin irritation in some individuals.RYE: An excellent use of plant allelopathy is the use of mow-killed grain rye as a mulch. Theallelochemicals that leach from the rye residue prevent weed germination but do not harmtransplanted tomatoes, broccoli, or many other vegetables.SAGE: Use as a companion plant with broccoli, cauliflower, rosemary, cabbage, and carrots to detercabbage moths, beetles, black flea beetles and carrot flies. Do not plant near cucumbers, onions orrue. Sage repels cabbage moths and black flea beetles. Allowing sage to flower will also attract manybeneficial insects and the flowers are pretty. There are some very striking varieties of sage withvariegated foliage that can be used for their ornamental as well as practical qualities.SPINACH: Plant with peas and beans as they provide natural shade for the spinach. Gets along withcabbage, cauliflower, celery, eggplant, onion, peas, strawberries.SOUTHERNWOOD: Plant with cabbage, and here and there in the garden. Wonderful lemonyscent when crushed or brushed in passing. Roots easily from cuttings. Does not like fertilizer! It is aperennial that can get quite bushy. We have started to cut it back every spring and it comes back innot time. A delightful plant that is virtually pest free.SOYBEANS: They add nitrogen to the soil making them a good companion to corn. They repelchinch bugs and Japanese beetles. Why not try soybeans, they are good for you. They are many tastyways to prepare them.SQUASH: Companions: Corn, cucumbers, icicle radishes, melon and pumpkin. Helpers: Boragedeters worms, improves growth and flavor. Marigolds deters beetle. Nasturtium deters squash bugsand beetles. Oregano provides general pest protection.STRAWBERRY: Friends are beans, borage, lettuce, onions, spinach and thyme. Foes: Cabbage,broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and kohlrabi. Allies: Borage strengthens resistance to insectsand disease. Thyme, as a border, deters worms.
  9. 9. SUMMER SAVORY: Plant with beans and onions to improve growth and flavor. Discouragescabbage moths, Mexican bean beetles and black aphids. Honey bees love it.SUNFLOWERS: Planting sunflowers with corn is said by some to increase the yield. Aphids aproblem? Definitely plant a few sunflowers here and there in the garden. Step back and watch theants herd the aphids onto them. We have been doing this for years and it is remarkable. Thesunflowers are so tough that the aphids cause very little damage and you will have nice seed headsfor the birds to enjoy. Sunflowers also attract hummingbirds which eat whiteflies. Talk about asymbiotic relationship!SWEET ALYSSUM: Direct seed or set out starts of sweet alyssum near plants that have beenattacked by aphids in the past. Alyssum flowers attract hoverflies whose larva devour aphids.Another plus is their blooms draw bees to pollinate early blooming fruit trees. They will reseed freelyand make a beautiful groundcover every year.TANSY: Plant with fruit trees, roses and raspberries keeping in mind that it can be invasive and isnot the most attractive of plants. Tansy which is often recommended as an ant repellant may onlywork on sugar type ants. These are the ones that you see on peonies and marching into the kitchen.At least for us placing tansy clippings by the greenhouse door has kept them out. Deters flyinginsects, Japanese beetles, striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs, ants and mice! Tie up and hang abunch of tansy leaves indoors as a fly repellent. Use clippings as a mulch as needed. Dont be afraidto cut the plant up as tansy will bounce back from any abuse heaped on it! It is also a helpful additionto the compost pile with its high potassium content. Tansy Warning: You do not want to plant Tansy anywhere that livestock can feed on it as it is toxic to many animals. Do not let it go to seed either as it may germinate in livestock fields.TARRAGON: Plant throughout the garden, not many pests like this one. Recommended to enhancegrowth and flavor of vegetables.THYME: Deters cabbage worms. Wooly thyme makes a wonderful groundcover. You may want touse the upright form of thyme in the garden rather than the groundcover types. Thyme is easy togrow from seeds or cuttings. Older woody plants should be divided in spring.TOMATOES: Tomato allies are many: asparagus, basil, bean, carrots, celery, chive, cucumber,garlic, head lettuce, marigold, mint, nasturtium, onion, parsley, pepper, marigold, pot marigold andsow thistle. One drawback with tomatoes and carrots: tomato plants can stunt the growth of yourcarrots but the carrots will still be of good flavor. Basil repels flies and mosquitoes, improves growthand flavor. Bee balm, chives and mint improve health and flavor. Borage deters tomato worm,improves growth and flavor. Dill, until mature, improves growth and health, mature dill retardstomato growth. Enemies: corn and tomato are attacked by the same worm. Kohlrabi stunts tomatogrowth. Keep potatoes and tomatoes apart as they both can get early and late blight contaminatingeach other. Keep cabbage and cauliflower away from them. Dont plant them under walnut trees asthey will get walnut wilt: a disease of tomatoes growing underneath walnut trees.WHITE GERANIUMS: These members of the pelargonum family draw Japanese beetles to feaston the foliage which in turn kills them.
  10. 10. WORMWOOD: Keeps animals out of the garden when planted as a border. An excellent deterrentto most insects. Don’t plant wormwood with peas or beans. A tea made from wormwood will repelcabbage moths, slugs, snails, black flea beetles and fleas effectively. The two best varieties formaking insect spray are Silver King and Powis Castle. Adversely Powis castle attracts ladybugswhich in turn breed directly on the plant. Silver Mound is great as a border plant and the most toxicwormwood. Note: As wormwood actually produces a botanical poison do not use it directly on foodcrops.YARROW: Yarrow has insect repelling qualities and is an excellent natural fertilizer. A handful ofyarrow leaves added to the compost pile really speeds things up. Try it! It also attracts predatorywasps and ladybugs to name just two. It may increase the essential oil content of herbs when plantedamong them. Yarrow has so many wonderful properties to it and is an ingredient in our ownZINNIA: Pretty zinnias attract hummingbirds which eat whiteflies. Alternately the pastel varieties ofzinnias can be used as a trap crop for Japanese beetles. All zinnias attract bees and other insectpollinators.
  11. 11. Plant DiseaseSpraying Basics
 1. It is best to use any type of spray in the early morning or the cool of evening.Do not spray when temps are above 80 degrees Fahrenheit! Your plants may "burn" or have areaction to what you are using in excessive heat. This is known as "phytotoxicity."
 2. Alwaysperform a test on a small portion of the plant material first. Wait 24 hours to observe any negativereaction. Proceed if there is no damage.
 3. Really and truly...more is not better. If you are notgetting good results dont increase the strength of these remedies without testing first.
 4. Target justthe area you need to treat. Be careful... try not to harm the good bugs! You dont want to run off yourallies.
 5. When working with sprays or dusts always protect your exposed skin and face. Some ofthese ingredients can be very irritating to your skin, eyes and mucous membranes, especially any hotpepper sprays.Specific Disease ControlsApple tree scab: Grow any member of the onion family around the base of the tree. Chives work thebest. You can also make a tea from chives and use as a spray on your apple trees to help protect fromscab.Brassicas: Keeping the soil pH around 7.0 to prevent club root disease.Peach tree leaf curl: This is a common disease of peach trees. Sprays of horsetail tea, garlic (lookfurther down the page for recipes) and seaweed can help to prevent this problem. Growing chivesunderneath them also helps.Neem Oil will help prevent rust disease, black spot and can act as a general fungicide.Potato scab: When planting your potato sets put some wilted comfrey leaves in with them to preventscab. Also keeping the soil for your potato patch with a pH of 5 or below (acid) or a pH of 7 or above(alkaline) to prevent scab.General Disease ControlsApple Cider Vinegar Fungicide
 For leafspot, mildew, and scab Mix 3 tablespoons of cider vinegar (5% acidity) with one gallon water and spray in the morning on infested plants. Good for black spot on roses and aspen trees too.Baking Soda Spray
 For anthracnose, early tomato blight, leaf blight and spots, powdery mildew,and as a general fungicide
 Sodium bicarbonate commonly known as baking soda has been found toposses fungicidal properties. It is recommended for plants that already have powdery mildew to hosedown all the infected leaves prior to treatment. This helps to dislodge as many of the spores aspossibly to help you get better results. Use as a prevention or as treatment at first signs of any of thediseases.To make: Mix 1 tablespoon baking soda, 2 1/2 tablespoons vegetable oil with one gallon of water.Shake this up very thoroughly. To this mix add 1/2 teaspoon of pure Castile soap and spray. Be sureto agitate your sprayer while you work to keep the ingredients from separating. Cover upper andlower leaf surfaces and spray some on the soil. Repeat every 5-7 days as needed.
  12. 12. Chive Spray:
 For preventing apple scab and downy mildew on cucumber, pumpkin and zucchini.To make: Put a bunch of chopped chives in a heat proof glass container, cover with boiling water.Let this sit until cool, strain and spray as often as two to three times a week.Compost and Manure Teas
 Many people have success with manure tea keeping blight and otherpathogens away from plant. Soak the area around plants and use as a foliar spray. Do not use onseedlings as it may encourage damping-off disease.
 Fill a 30 gallon trash can with water. Let sit for24 hours to evaporate the additives (use rain water if you can). Add about 4 shovels worth of manureto this and cover. Let it sit for 2-3 weeks, stirring once a day. Strain and apply as needed.Various manures supply nutrients as follows: Chicken manure: nitrogen rich: use for heavy feeders such as corn, tomatoes and squash. Cow Manure: potash: use for root crops. Rabbit manure: promotes strong leaves and stems. Horse manure: leaf development.Compost Tea: Make and use just the same as you would the manure tea. This is another terrificreason to compost all those prunings, grass clipping and kitchen wastes. Or you can use ourHumAcid for a ready made foliar spray with all the goodness of compost!Corn and Garlic Spray Fungus Preventative
 This blend is surprisingly potent preventative sprayto protect your plants. To make: Gather a handful of corn leaves, clematis leaves (any kind) and as much of the papery outer leaves of garlic as you can. Process thoroughly in a blender. The mix with sufficient water to make a thin liquid. Let sit for an hour, strain and spray on plants as a preventative.Couch Grass Rhizome Tea:
 for preventing mildew and fungus disease
 To make: Put a handful offresh rhizomes in a glass pot. Pour 1 quart of boiling water over rhizomes, cover and let steep for 10minutes. Strain, let cool and use right away.Elder Leaf Spray:
 Elder leaves have fungicidal properties and may be useful against mildew andblack spot diseases. To make: simmer 8 ounces of leaves in 16 ounces of water for 30 minutes. Stir this thoroughly, then strain. Take 16 ounces of warm water and mix with 1 tablespoon of Castile soap. Add soap mixture to the elder water, spray as needed. Note: Set your sprayer to a coarse or large droplet setting as this mixture will tend to plug a fine setting.Garlic Fungicide Spray 1:
 For leaf spot and mildews To make: Combine 3 ounces of minced garlic cloves with 1 ounce of mineral oil. Let soak for 24 hours or longer. Strain. Next mix 1 teaspoon of fish emulsion with 16 ounces of water. Add 1 tablespoon of castile soap to this. Now slowly combine the fish emulsion water with the garlic oil. Kept in a sealed glass container this mixture will stay viable for several months. To use: Mix 2 tablespoons of garlic oil with 1 pint of water and spray.Garlic Fungicide Spray 2: 
 Fungicide and Insect repellent
  13. 13. Put in a blender: 1 whole head of garlic, 3 cups water, 2 Tbs canola oil, 4 hot peppers and a wholelemon. Blend until finely chopped. Steep mixture overnight. Strain through fine cheesecloth. Use at arate of 4Tbs per gallon of water. Store unused portion in the refrigerator.Horseradish
 (preventative for fungal disease)
 Penn State University announced in 1995 thatminced horseradish holds promise in decontaminating wastewater and now says it may cleancontaminated soils as well!
 Penn States center for Bioremediation and Detoxification reports thatminced horseradish combined with hydrogen peroxide can completely remove chlorinated phenolsand other contaminants found in industrial wastes. Experiments involve applying the mixture directlyto tainted soils or growing horseradish in contaminated soil and roto-tilling the roots just beforeapplying hydrogen peroxide!
 The cleansing properties of horseradish have been known for morethan a decade, however creating a purified form has been far too expensive. This method has provedto be just as effective, but at a fraction of the cost!
 Horseradish Tea: You can also make a teafrom horseradish roots to use as a preventative spray for fungal diseases. This is especially usefulagainst brown rot in apple trees. The white flesh of the horseradish root also contains significantamounts of calcium, magnesium and vitamin C.
 To make: Process one cup of roots in foodprocessor till finely chopped. Combine this with 16 ounces of water in a glass container and let soakfor 24 hours. Strain liquid, discard the solids. Now mix the liquid with 2 quarts of water and spray.Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment
 To prevent bacterial and fungal problems on outdoor plants usehydrogen peroxide! Hydrogen peroxide will prevent the disease spores from adhering to the planttissue. It causes no harm to plants or soil, however dont use on young transplants or direct seededcrops until they have become established. Warning: Always test on a small portion of plant tissuefirst to check for any negative reactions. Do not proceed if there is any damage to plant tissue. Do notsubstitute food grade H2O2 for the common H2O2. Spray plants with undiluted 3 percent hydrogenperoxide that you can buy most anywhere. Be sure to cover tops and bottoms of leaves. Do this oncea week during dry weather and twice a week in wet weather. This works as a preventative. If youalready have problems use this as a direct treatment.Milk for Mildew
 Milk with its natural enzymes and simple sugar structures can be used to combatvarious mildews on cucumber, asters, tomato, squash and zinnia foliage. This works by changing thepH on the surface of the leaves, so they are less susceptible to mildew. Use a 50/50 mixture of milkand water. Thoroughly spray plants every 3 to 4 days at first sign of mildews or use weekly as apreventative measure.Milk can also be mixed at a rate of 2 ounces milk to 18 ounces of water and used as a spray every 7to 10 days to treat mosaic disease on cucumber, tomato and lettuce.Tomato Virus Protective Spray
 To prevent the many viruses that attack tomato plants this simpleremedy really works! The antitranspirant protects the plant surface against disease spores. The skimmilk provides the tomato plant with calcium. A calcium deficiency is common in tomatoplants.
 Antitranspirants can be used to protect many plants against bacterial disease before theyattack. They are harmless and will not block the pores of the plant tissue.
 To make: Mix 1/2teaspoon of antitranspirant (like Cloudcover, Wiltpruf etc.) with 8 ounces of skim milk, and 1 gallonof water. Spray plants. Clean out your sprayer when done and flush with fresh water..
 NOTE: anequivalent of prepared powdered milk may be substituted for the skim milk.
 Removing leaves onthe lower portion of the plant may help lessen contact with disease spores and certainly wont hurtthe plant.
  14. 14. Seedlings: Damping off disease
 Always use a sterile growing medium like mixes with vermiculiteand perlite for your seed starting as these should not contain the fungi that cause damping-off. Wateryour seedlings with warm water that has been left to sit for an hour or more to dissipate most of thechemicals that are present in tap water. Using cold water stresses the seedlings leaving themvulnerable to harmful organisms.1. Chamomile Spray: Chamomile tea is an excellent preventative for damping-off. Use on seedstarting soil, seedlings and in any humid planting area. Chamomile is a concentrated source ofcalcium, potash and sulfur. The sulfur is a fungus fighter. This can also be used as a seed soak priorto planting.
 To make: Pour 2 cups boiling water over 1/4 cup chamomile blossoms. Let steep untilcool and strain into a spray bottle. Use as needed. This keeps for about a week before going rancid.Spray to prevent damping off and anytime you see any fuzzy white growth on the soil. Chamomileblossoms can be purchased at health food stores and usually grocery stores.2. Seaweed Spray: A seaweed spray which is so rich in nutrients and everything that seedlingsrequire can also be used to prevent damp-off. Make a strong mixture adding 2/3 cup of kelpconcentrate to 1 gallon of water, spray.3. Horsetail Tea (Equisetum arvense)
 The common horsetail plant, which is very invasive, is richin silicon and helps plants to resist fungal diseases via increasing their light absorbing capabilities.Use on peach trees to control peach leaf curl. Use on most plants to combat powdery fungi, and onvegetables and roses to control mildew. You can use this on seedlings and plants in closedenvironments too! Great in greenhouses! Prevents damping off. Horsetail is one of the ingredients inGolden Harvest Fertilizer.To make: In a glass or stainless steel pot, mix 1/8 cup of dried leaves in 1 gallon of unchlorinated water. Bring to a boil, then let simmer for at least 1/2 hr. Cool and strain. Store extra concentrate in a glass container. Will keep for a month. Dilute this mix, adding 5-10 parts of unchlorinated water to one part concentrate. Spray plants that show any symptoms of fungal type disease once every 4 days. Spray your seed starting mixtures to prevent damping off.4. Spread finely milled sphagnum peat moss on the soil surface of your seed beds or flats.5. The best damping off remedy: Powdered cinnamon!
 Sprinkle powdered cinnamon on thesoiless medium surface. Dont worry if you get cinnamon on your plants as it will not hurt the tenderseedlings. We have been using this method for years with near 100% effectiveness.
  15. 15. African violets: Use chamomile tea to produce the best blooms they have ever had! Another plus isthe tannic acid in the tea helps the plants retain moisture making this a good choice for other plantstoo. This works almost as well as our Golden Harvest Natural Fertilizer does for violets. To make: Pour 2 cups boiling water over 1/4 cup chamomile blossoms. Let steep until cool and strain bottle. Use as needed. This keeps for about a week before going rancid. Chamomile blossoms can be purchased at health food stores and usually grocery stores. Use as you would any African violet fertilizer.Brassicas: Keeping the soil pH around 7.0 to prevent club root disease.Chapped hands: Make a very strong tea of spearmint leaves. Rub on your hands to heal them.Cut flowers: To make them last longer try this: Combine 8 ounces of water with 8 ounces ofgingerale or clear soda (7-Up) and 1/2 teaspoon bleach. The sugar in the soda provides the flowerswith carbohydrates (energy) and the bleach acts to control bacteria.Ferns Ailing? A bit of caster oil can help save your ferns: add 1 tablespoon of castor oil, 1tablespoon of mild shampoo to a quart of warm water. Treat each fern with a 4 ounces of the tonic.Onions: To raise onions for winter storage grow them from seeds. For summer eating grow themfrom sets.Plant Markers: If you write on your wooden or plastic plant markers with pencil instead of apermanent marker they will last much longer!Potato scab: When planting your potato sets put some wilted comfrey leaves in with them to preventscab. Also keeping the soil for your potato patch with a pH of 5 or below (acid) or a pH of 7 or above(alkaline) to prevent scab. As an alternative pine needles may be used instead of comfrey leaves.Rhizome or tuber rot: When dividing perennials with rhizomes or tubers dust the freshly cut partswith sulfur to prevent rotting.Natural Rooting Hormone:
 Rooting hormones available as liquids or powders contain a syntheticform of indolebutyric acid (IBA). IBA in its natural state is a plant hormone or growth regulator.You can make your own rooting hormone from the ever versatile willow tree. Willow contain a highconcentration of IBA however the effectiveness can vary by the amount of twigs you use, the level ofIBA that is present when you take your cuttings and the amount of time that you soak your mixture.Any willow (salix) trees or shrub species will work.Cut a good handful of willow twigs. Then cut them into two to three inch pieces. Put them in a glassor plastic container with a few inches of lukewarm water. Soak for 24-48 hours. You will then usethe water to soak your cuttings in overnight. Another method is to water your soil with willow waterinto which you have placed your cuttings. Two applications should be sufficient. Other types ofcuttings may be rooted directly in a jar of the water. You will need to make a fresh batch of willowwater for each use.
  16. 16. Plant Willows: Why?
 Willows consume carbon as they grow. This means they effectively reducethe amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide!When the catkins open in early spring they provide an abundant food source for pollinating insectswhen little else is available to them.Willows can be planted as a sound barrier, to filter waste and as a wild bird habitat.Willows are also humus builders for the soil provided from their leaves falling at the end of theseason. A good excuse not to rake them up.Little Bits of TriviaMonarch Butterflies and Milkweed Plants
 The growing larvae (caterpillars) eat milkweed leaves.These leaves contain toxins- poisonous chemicals. These toxins don’t hurt the caterpillar, but they domake the caterpillar poisonous to most predators. Because it eats milkweed leaves as a caterpillar, themonarch butterfly is also poisonous. The survival of the monarch butterfly depends on this self-defense system provided by the milkweed.Sap from milkweed was used by pioneers as a cure for wartsThe airborne fluffy parachute of the seed was used by Native Americans to insulate moccasins.The dried empty seed pods were used as Christmas tree decorations by early pioneers.The boys and girls from Wisconsin schools collected 283,000 bags of milkweed fluff for use inmilitary life jackets during World War II.It is used as an indicator of ground-level ozone air pollution.BIRDS!
 Woodpeckers are voracious ant eaters. You may see them also pick up ants in their beaksand crush them on their feathers. What are they doing this for? Crushing the ants bodies releasestannic acid which in turn protects the bird from parasites!Hummingbirds, those wonderful creatures, favor brilliant red and orange flowers the most.Following are some of their favorite flowers: Perennials: Coral Bells (heuchera), Indian paintbrush, columbine, hollyhock, jewelweed, bee Balm (monarda), phlox, daylilies, cardinal flower, lupines, penstemons, butterfly weed- which is very pretty and attracts butterflies too like its name. Annuals: 4 Oclocks, cleome, petunias, impatiens, scarlet runner bean, red salvia, verbena, zinnias, lantana Shrubs and Vines: Butterfly bushes, creeping trumpet vine, rose-of-sharon, flowering quince, trumpet honeysuckleBEES!!
 Did you know that the flowers bees love usually close at night? The reason is bees only fly
  17. 17. during the daytime. Bees are attracted to flowers that are bright in color and have strong fragrance.Bees are responsible for the existence of many flowers. without bees over 100.000 plant specieswould cease to exist!Bees, feeling the rise in humidity, will usually go back in their hive to avoid a coming rainfall.FLOWERS!!!
 The largest rose in the world resides in Tombstone, Arizona. Rosa Bankiae plantedin 1855 at the Rose Tree Inn now covers over 8,000 square feet on a massive trellis. If you are everin Tombstone this would be worth seeing.The most expensive flowers: a hyacinth bulb from a variety called " king of Great Britain" sold in1774 for L100. This equates to over 200,000 dollars in todays economy!A scarlet and white tipped tulip (Semper augustus) sold for the amount of 5,500 florins. This wouldgive it a current value of 70,000 dollars today!TREES!!!!
 The oldest living tree is the bristlecone pine (pinus aristata). The oldest one found is4,900 years old. What an amazing specimen to have survived through so many eras! It resides in theWheeler Peak area of Nevada.The gingko tree dates back to the Mesozoic era. The same tree today closely resembles its ancestorand is also known as the "maidenhair" tree. Possibly one of the first fruit trees the ginko produces anedible fruit that is similar to a persimmon.The fastest growing tree in the world is the acacia. Certain varieties can grow as much as 2 1/2 feet amonth, which translates into a little over an inch a day! Fast and furious the acacia does not livemuch longer than 30 years.Ever wonder where that cork in the wine bottle comes from?
 It comes from the cork oak which isthe only tree that can survive "bark harvesting" as it has two layers of bark.BEEFY TOMATO
 The biggest tomato on record weighed in at a hefty 7 pounds 12 ounces. It wasgrown by Gordon Graham of Oklahoma.Did you know?
 Slugs are hermaphrodites: they all have male and female reproductive systems.Yes, they can mate with themselves!!! They can stretch to 20 times their normal length enablingthem to squeeze through openings to get at food.Cinch bugs overwinter by producing an antifreeze chemical that protects their innards frombecoming frozen. A plant that everyone detests was found in an area where several feet of rock andplastic sheeting were removed. This area had been untouched for at least 20 years. At the bottom waspure white bindweed, quite alive!Tall grass: The giant bamboo originating from Asia can reach heights of 50 feet! It is a true grass.
  18. 18. Earth Worms: Have the power to move stones that weigh 50 times their own weight. They alsoingest soil and organic matter equal to the amount of their body weight each day.~Companion Planting INCREASES Food Production by 250 PercentOne of the goals of research in South Africa is to look at ways to boost food production with thepractice of intercropping (companion planting, or growing crops together) a cereal grain crop, likesorghum, with bean crops. We have been intercropping sorghum with legumes planted in row of zaipits.Why grow beans? Being legumes, bean crops can improve soils by converting nitrogen from the airinto forms that crops can use. The crops we are working with are quite tolerant of dry conditions andproduce vines that cover the ground, protect6ing it from the intense tropical sun and creating anenvironments in which soil microorganisms, can thrive. Moreover, the legumes provide the farmerwith a harvest of dried, edible beans.What are zai holes? The zai system originated in West Africa as a way to cope with drought and hardencrusted soil. Drought tolerant grain crops such as sorghum or millet are planted in pits about 12inches, 6 inches deep. With the excavated soil thrown to the downhill side, the pits act as tiny watercatchment basins, making maximum use of what little rainfall is received. Several handfuls ofmanure are traditionally placed in each pit, concentrating nutrients near the crop roots.Have we seen any benefits? The results we have so far are from year one of a sorghum-legumesintercropping strategy within the zai system. Most of the legumes we have tried have grown verywell, but cowpea produced the most dried beans.It increase total grain production from 400 kilograms per hectare when grown sorghum alone toabout 1400 kilograms per hectare when grown together with cowpeas.It also increased soil nitrogen as well as nitrogen taken up by the sorghum plants.All of this is very encouraging from the perspective of the smallholder farmer, because it means theyhave a way to improve their soils while greatly increasing food production.
  19. 19. ~NATURAL SOLUTIONS in Africa by Using Companion PlantingAcross East Africa, thousands of farmers are planting weeds in their maize fields (CompanionPlanting). Bizarre as it sounds, their technique is actually raising yields by giving the insect pestssomething else to chew on besides maize.It is better than pesticides and a lot cheaper, said Ziadin Khan, whose idea it is.And it has raised farm yields by 60-70 Percents.In East Africa, maize fields face two major pests, and Khan has a solution to both. The first is aninsect called the stem borer. True to its name, it s larvae eat their way through a third of the regionsmaize most years.But Khan discovered that the borer in even fonder of a local weed, napier grass. By planting napiergrass in their fields , farmers can lure the stem borers away from the maize and into a honey trap. Forthe grass produces a sticky substance that traps and kills stem borer larvae.The second major pest is Striga, a parasitic plant that wrecks 10 billion dollars worth damage onmaize crops every year, threating the livelihoods of one hundred million Africans.Weeding Striga is one of the most time consuming activities for millions of African women farmers,says Khan.But he has an antidote: another weed, called Desmodium. It seems to release some sort of chemicalthat Striga does not like. At any rate, where farmers plant Desmodium between rows of maize, Strigawill not grow.Khans cheap fixes for Striga and stem borer are spreading like wildfire through the fields of EastAfrica.Trials on more than 2,000 farms are finished. It is out of our hands now, says Khans boss HansHerren , who is the director of the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi.The ideas are being taken up by framers in countries such as Ethiopia where we have never worked.Khans novel way of fighting pests is one of the host of Low-Tech Innovations boostingproduction by 100 percent or more on millions of poor Thirds World farms in the pastdecade.This Sustainable Agriculture just happens to be the biggest movement in Third World Farmingtoday, dwarfing the tentative forays in genetic manipulation.It seems peasant farmers have a long way to go before they exhaust the possibilities of traditionalagriculture
  20. 20. ~COMPANION PLANTING BOOKS(Intercropping Gardening, Mixed Vegetables Gardening, Polycultures Gardening):Carrots Love Tomatoes and Roses Love Garlic: Secrets of Companion Planting for SuccessfulGardening; by Louise Riotte booksprice.comA-Z of Companion Planting; by Pamela Allardice booksprice.comA Crash Course on Companion Planting; by Ralph Cummings~ Nook book yahoo.comBobs Basics Companion Planting; by Bob Flowerdew booksprice.comBiological Pest Control, including: Bird, Bacillus Thuringiensis, Predation, Companion Planting,Disease Resistance In Fruit And Vegetables, Biocide, Parasitoid, Pyrethrum, Beetle Bank, Scoliidae,Pyrethrin, Fire Ant, Integrated Pest Management, Tansy; by Hephaestus Books Gardening in New Zealand: Working with Mother Nature; by Judith Collins Planting; by Jeannine Davidoff - South African Organic Gardener
  21. 21. ~Companion Planting; by Margaret Roberts Planting; by Richard Bird booksprice.comCompanion Planting and Intensive Cultivation; by Nancy Lee Maffia booksprice.comCompanion Planting Boost Your Gardens Health, Secure It From Pests And Grow More Vegetables ;by Ephraim Acre Kindle book yahoo.comCompanion Planting for Australian Gardens; by Kelly Morris Planting For Beginners; by Wendi Eaton~ Kindle book yahoo.comCompanion Planting for Successful Gardening; by Louise Riotte Planting for Veggies; by Annette Welsford Planting Guide; by Julie Villani
  22. 22. ~Companion Planting In Australia; by Brenda Little booksprice.comCompanion Planting in New Zealand; by Brenda Little booksprice.comCompanion Planting Made Easy; by Editors of Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comCompanion Planting: Successful Gardening the Organic Way; by Gertrud Franck booksprice.comCompanion Plants and How to Use Them: A Guide to Planting the Right Plants to Ward off PlantDiseases; by Helen Louise Porter Philbrick booksprice.comComplete Guide to Companion Planting: Everything You Need to Know to Make Your GardenSuccessful; by Dale Mayer booksprice.comGarden Companion to Native Plants. Selecting, Planting and Caring for over 400 Australian NativePlants; by Allan Seale
  23. 23. ~Good Companions: A Guide to Gardening with Plants that Help Each Other; by Bob Flowerdew booksprice.comGood Neighbors: Companion Planting for Gardeners; by Anna Carr booksprice.comGreat Garden Companions: A Companion-Planting System for a Beautiful, Chemical-Free VegetableGarden; by Sally Jean Cunningham booksprice.comGrowing Together: the A to Z of Companion Planting; by Susan Tomnay booksprice.comHow to Grow World Record Tomatoes: a Guinness World Record Holder, Reveals HisAll-Organic Secrets. His organic methods work with other crops; by Charles Wilber booksprice.comIntercropping: A Step Towards Sustainability; by Haseeb ur Rehman Frenchs Guide to Companion Planting in Australia and New Zealand; by Jackie French
  24. 24. ~List of Companion Plants; by Frederic P Millerhttp://www.alibris.com Garden Companion: A Complete Guide for the Beginner, With a Special Emphasis on UsefulPlants and Intensive Planting in the Wayside, Dooryard, Patio, Rooftop, and Vacant Lot ; by JamieJobb booksprice.comOrganic Gardening Books, Eco Farming Books, DVDs, Newsletter and Much Morehttp://www.acresusa.comPlanting The Future: Saving Our Medicinal Herbs; by Rosemary Gladstar booksprice.comPrimer of Companion Planting: Herbs and Their Part in Good Gardening ; by Richard B. Gregg booksprice.comPrinciples and Practice of Plant Conservation; by David R. Given booksprice.comRodales Successful Organic Gardening: Companion Planting; by Susan McClure
  25. 25. ~Sharing the Harvest: A Citizens Guide to Community Supported Agriculture ; by Elizabeth of Companion Planting: Plants That Help, Plants That Hurt; by Brenda Little booksprice.comSoil Mates: Companion Plants for Your Vegetable Garden; by Sara Alway booksprice.comSouth African Planting and Companion Planting Guide; by Jeannine Davidoff Gardening, including: Raised Bed Gardening, Energy-efficient Landscaping,Permaculture, Masanobu Fukuoka, Companion Planting, Biological Pest Control, Leaf Mold, SpentMushroom Compost, Green Roof, Agroecology, Wildlife Garden, Mulch ; by Hephaestus Books The Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of Californias NaturalResources; by M. Kat Anderson booksprice.comThe A-Z of Companion Planting; by Jayne Neville
  26. 26. ~The Best Gardening Ideas I Know: Foolproof way to start any seed, Compost piles that work,Practical companion planting, More vegetables in less space, Succession planting chart, Naturalweed controls, Mulching with weeds, Midsummer feeding; by Robert Rodale booksprice.comClimate Change, Intercropping, Pest Control and Beneficial Microorganisms ; by Eric Lichtfouse And The Scientific Basis Of Traditional Agriculture; by Donald Quayle Innis Complete Book of Herbs: A Practical Guide to Cultivating, Drying, and Cooking With MoreThan 50 Herbs; by Emma Callery booksprice.comThe Complete Guide to Companion Planting: Everything You Need to Know to Make Your GardenSuccessful; by Dale Mayer booksprice.comThe Cook and the Gardener: A Year of Recipes and Writings for the French Countryside; by AmandaHesser
  27. 27. ~The Ecology of Intercropping; by John H. Vandermeer booksprice.comThe Huge Book of Organic Gardening and Companion Planting; by Billie Rex Natural Garden: A New Zealanders Guide to Companion Gardening, Natural Pest Control andSoil Health; by Michael Crooks Backyard Herb Garden: A Gardeners Guide to Growing Over 50 Herbs Plus How to Use Themin Cooking, Crafts, Companion Planting and More; by Miranda Smith booksprice.comSWAP your Books with Other People
  28. 28. ~ORGANIC GARDENING TECHNOLOGIESINCREASING Plant Yields by over 400 PERCENT your Soil ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://remineralize.orgSoil Regeneration with Volcanic Rock Dust Rock Dust added to soil can double plant or lawn growth.Compost Tea Making: For Organic Healthier Vegetables, Flowers, Orchards, Vineyards, Lawns; byMarc Worm Tea Primer: how to make and use worm tea for a vibrant organic garden; by CassandraTruax~ Kindle book yahoo.comhttp://vermico.comSoilSoup Compost Tea ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://soilsoup.comSoilSoup Compost Tea is an excellent soil builder and organic fertilizer.Soil Soup is very easy to handle and use.Growing Solutions ~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://www.growingsolutions.comZing Bokashi: Recycling Organic Waste with Effective Microorganisms (EM) Earth Saving Revolution (Volume 2) EM: Amazing Applications to Agricultural,Environmental, and Medical Problems; by Dr. Teruo Higa ~ EM = Effective Microorganism
  29. 29. ~ORGANIC GARDENING and Eco Gardening~ Healthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy PeopleAdvanced Aeroponics; by Chad Peterson~ Kindle book yahoo.com20 Best Small Gardens: Innovative Designs for every Site and Situation; by Tim Newbury booksprice.com101 Ideas for Veg from Small Spaces: Delicious Crops from Tiny Plots; by Jane Moore booksprice.com101 Organic Gardening Tips; by Sheri Ann Richerson Kindle book yahoo.com300 of the Most Asked Questions About Organic Gardening; by Charles Gerras; Rodale OrganicGardening Magazine booksprice.com365 Down-To-Earth Gardening Hints and Tips; by Susan McClure,001 Old-Time Garden Tips: Timeless Bits of Wisdom on How to Grow Everything Organically,from the Good Old Days When Everyone Did; by Roger Yepsen
  30. 30. ~A Beginners Guide to Organic Vegetable Gardening: Introduction to Composting, Worm Farming,No Dig Raised and Wicking Gardens Plus More; by Mel Jeffreys Kindle book yahoo.comA Brief Guide to Organic Gardening; by Irish Seed Savers Associationhttp://www.irishseedsavers.ie Childs Organic Garden: Grow Your Own Delicious Nutritious Foods, Australia ; by Lee Fryer booksprice.comA Guide to Organic Gardening in Australia; by Michael J. Roads Patch of Eden: Americas Inner-City Gardeners; by H. Patricia Hynes booksprice.comA Treatise on the Management of Peach and Nectarine Trees: Either in Forcing-Houses, or on Hotand Common Walls. Containing an Effectual and Easy Process for Preventing Them from BeingInfected with Any Species of Insects; by Thomas Kyle Year on the Garden Path: A 52-Week Organic Gardening Guide; by Carolyn Herriot
  31. 31. ~Adobe and Rammed Earth Buildings: Design and Construction; by Paul G. McHenry booksprice.comAdvanced Organic Gardening (Rodales Grow-It Guides); by Anna Carr booksprice.comAdvancing Biological Farming: Practicing Mineralized, Balanced Agriculture to Improve Soils andCrops; by Gary F. Zimmer in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba; by Maria Caridad Cruz booksprice.comAgricultural Options of the Poor: A Handbook for Those Who Serve Them; by Timothy N. Motts Best Gardening Secrets; by the Editors of Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comAllergy-Free Gardening: The Revolutionary Guide to Healthy Landscaping; by Thomas Leo Ogren
  32. 32. ~Allotment Gardening: An Organic Guide For Beginners; by Susan Berger, the Organic Centre, Ireland Kindle book yahoo.comAlternatives to Peat; by Pauline Pears to Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing Food Under Difficult Conditions; by Laura S. Meitzner booksprice.comAn Earth Saving Revolution (Volume 2) EM: Amazing Applications to Agricultural,Environmental, and Medical Problems; by Dr. Teruo Higa ~ EM = Effective Microorganism booksprice.comAny Size, Anywhere Edible Gardening: The No Yard, No Time, No Problem Way to Grow YourOwn Food; by William Moss Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAnything Grows: Ingenious Ways To Grow More Food In Front Yards, Backyards, Side Yards, InThe Suburbs, In The City, On Rooftops, Even Parking Lots; by Sheryl London
  33. 33. ~Apartment Gardening: Plants, Projects, and Recipes for Growing Food in Your Urban Home; byAmy Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAquaponic Gardening: A Step-By-Step Guide to Raising Vegetables; by Sylvia Bernstein Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAsphalt to Ecosystems: Design Ideas for Schoolyard Transformation; by Sharon Gamson Danks booksprice.comAttracting Native Pollinators: The Xerces Society Guide Protecting North Americas Bees andButterflies Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comAustralia and New Zealand Guide to Compost Gardening: A Guide to Gardening Without Digging:by David Hornblow booksprice.comBackyard Farming: Growing Your Own Fresh Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs in a Small Space; by LeeFoster booksprice.comBack to Eden; by Jethro Kloss - he was curing cancer in the Kindle book ~ Nook book
  34. 34. ~Backyard Organic Gardening in Australia; by Brenda Little booksprice.comBackyard Bounty: The Complete Guide to Year-Round Organic Gardening in the Pacific Northwest;by Linda A Gilkeson Kindle book ~ Nook book booksprice.comBalcony Gardening : Growing Herbs and Vegetables in a Small Urban Space; by Jeff Haase Kindle book yahoo.comBasic Book of Cloche and Frame Gardening; by W E Shewell-Cooper Book of Natural Gardening; by Wilfred Edward Shewell-Cooper booksprice.comBasic Vegetable Gardening: Small-Scale Vegetable Production in Tropical Climates; by E.D. Adams Ideas for Organic Vegetable Growing; by Glenn F. Johns
  35. 35. ~Best Methods for Growing Fruits and Berries; by Rodale Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comBetter Vegetable Gardens the Chinese Way: Peter Chans Raised-Bed System; by Peter Chan Plants for American Gardens; by Eleanor Anthony King booksprice.comBig Ideas for Northwest Small Gardens; by Marty Wingate booksprice.comBiodynamics for the Home Garden, New Zealand; by Peter Proctor booksprice.comBiofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture; by Arun K. Sharma Transmutations; by C. Louis Kervran booksprice.comBioshelter Market Garden: A Permaculture Farm; by Darrell Kindle book ~ Nook book
  36. 36. ~Botanicas Organic Gardening: The Healthy Way to Live and Grow; by Judyth McLeond. booksprice.comBreaking Through Concrete: Building an Urban Farm Revival; by David Hanson Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comBuilding and Using Cold Frames; by Charles Siegchrist Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comBuilding Soils Naturally: Innovative Methods for Organic Gardeners; by Phil Nauta With Cob: A Step-by-step Guide; by Adam Weismann Kindle book bookfinder.comBush-Fruits: A Horticultural Monograph of Raspberries, Blackberries, Dewberries, Currants,Gooseberries, and Other Shrub-Like Fruits; by Fred W. Card Nook book yahoo.comCharles Dowdings Vegetable Course; by Charles Dowding
  37. 37. ~Chicos Organic Gardening and Natural Living; by Frank Bucaro booksprice.comCity Bountiful: A Century of Community Gardening in America; by Laura J. Lawson booksprice.comCity Peoples Book of Raising Food; by Helga Olkowski booksprice.comCity Permaculture, Volume 1: Sustainable Living in Small Spaces; by Earth Garden Publication Permaculture, Volume 2; by Earth Garden Publication Soil Gardening - Australasian Edition; by Michael Carr~ Kindle book yahoo.comCold-Climate Gardening; by Lewis Hill booksprice.comComfrey: Fodder, Food and Remedy, United Kingdom; by Lawrence Donegan Hills
  38. 38. ~Comfrey Report: The Story of the Worlds Fastest Protein Builder and Herbal Healer; by Lawrence D.Hills booksprice.comCommonsense Gardening in Australia: Organic Growing for All Gardeners ; by Panorama Books booksprice.comCommon Sense Organic Gardening; by Warner Fremont Bower Gardening, New Zealand; by Stephen Trinder Organic Gardening: A Comprehensive Guide to Better Gardening and Increased SelfSufficiency; by Jonathan Sturm booksprice.comCompost and Mulch Gardening; by Rodale Organic Gardening Magazine booksprice.comCompost Gardening: A New Time-Saving System for More Flavorful Vegetables, Bountiful Blooms,and the Richest Soil Youve Ever Seen; by by Wilfred Edward Shewell-Cooper
  39. 39. ~Compost, Vermicompost, and Compost Tea; by Grace Gershuny Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comComposting: The Ultimate Organic Guide to Recycling Your Garden, Australia; by Tim Marshall booksprice.comComposting for Manure Management; by The Staff of BioCycle Inside And Out: The Comprehensive Guide To Reusing Trash, Saving Money AndEnjoying The Benefits Of Organic Gardening; by Stephanie Davies Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comCountry Wisdom and Know-How: Everything You Need To Know to Live Off the Land; by StoreyPublishing Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comContour Farming with Living Barriers; by World Neighbors to Organic Farming; by Nicolas Lampkin
  40. 40. ~Converting to Organic Farming; by David Younie to Organic Farming; by Hartmut Vogtmann Sustainable Gardening for the Twenty-First Century, New Zealand; by Diana Anthony Vegetable Gardening; by Joy Larkcom booksprice.comCrop Rotation and Cover Cropping: Soil Resiliency and Health on the Organic Farm; by Seth Kroeck Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comCultivating Community: Principles and Practices for Community Gardening as a Community-Building Tool; by Karen Payne booksprice.comDesert Gardening for Beginners: How to Grow Vegetables, Flowers and Herbs in an Arid Climate; byCathy Cromell
  41. 41. ~Desert Gardening: Fruits and Vegetables; by George Brookbank booksprice.comDesert Harvest: A Guide to Vegetable Gardening in Arid Lands; by Jane Nyhuis booksprice.comDigging Deeper: Integrating Youth Gardens into Schools and Communities, A ComprehensiveGuide; by Joseph Kiefer booksprice.comDont Throw It, Grow It: 68 Windowsill Plants From Kitchen Scraps; by Millicent Selsam Kindle book ~ Nook book booksprice.comDown to Earth: The Absolute Beginners Guide to Growing Organic Vegetables, New Zealand; byDavid Prosser booksprice.comDr. Shewell-Coopers Basic Book of Fruit Growing, United Kingdom; by Wilfred Edward Shewell-Cooper
  42. 42. ~Drip Irrigation for Every Landscape and All Climates: Helping Your Garden Flourish, WhileConserving Water; by Robert Kourik booksprice.comEarthbag Building: The Tools, Tricks and Techniques; by Kaki Hunter Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comEasy Garden Projects to Make, Build, and Grow: 200 Do-It-Yourself Ideas to Help You Grow YourBest Garden Ever, by Barbara Pleasant booksprice.comEasy Organic Gardening and Moon Planting; Lyn Bagnall Kindle book ~ Nook book bookfinder.comEat More Dirt: Diverting and Instructive Tips for Growing and Tending an Organic Garden; by EllenSandbeck booksprice.comEat the Weeds; by Ben Charles Harris