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Information and the Architecture of Choices: IA Summit 2018 Presentation by Jay McCormick and Kaila Manca

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The key insight of behavioral economics is that information influences choices. Thus, how we architect information is how we architect choices. That choices are dependent on information rather than independent and stable, along with the insight that people are heuristic problem solvers who pay attention to salient rather than relevant feedback, is the basis of a 3-part Choice Architecture framework we present.

This framework has implications not just for the design of products, but also for the models we use to represent the problem and solution spaces, as well as for the strategy we develop for products.

The general framework – Relative Prefences; Heuristic Decision Making; and Salient Feedback – generalizes across domains and can be readily applied.

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Information and the Architecture of Choices: IA Summit 2018 Presentation by Jay McCormick and Kaila Manca

  1. 1. Information and the Architecture of Choices Kaila Manca & Jay McCormick
  2. 2. 1: A CHOICE IS MADE Personal Story
  3. 3. 2: DEFINITION What is choice architecture, and how do I use it?
  4. 4. Designing the context in which people make decisions to encourage better choices. Choice Architecture:
  5. 5. 3 : FOUNDATION Context shapes behavior
  6. 6. Context & Behavior CLASSICAL
  7. 7. CONTEXT BEHAVIOR
  8. 8. People are consistent
  9. 9. Context & Behavior CHOICE ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. CONTEXT BEHAVIOR
  11. 11. People are systematically biased
  12. 12. context Heuristics Relativity Salience
  13. 13. Relativity
  14. 14. 12 % 99 %
  15. 15. Relative to the frame
  16. 16. 1. Default 2. Free 3. Weak Alternative 4. Social / Individual Four Frames:
  17. 17. DESIGN How to design, knowing that choices are relative.
  18. 18. If we know that choices are relative to context, then as a designer, you set that context.
  19. 19. FREE!
  20. 20. User preferences are variable, the way you present information (and when) will have an impact.
  21. 21. Identify the challenges and anchors—And then do what you can to ease them. Provide other reference points—What else might they want to know? Highlight points of contrast—the more expensive dropbox model is worth it because _____. DESIGN TAKEAWAY
  22. 22. Heuristics
  23. 23. Heuristics = shortcuts
  24. 24. Shortcut to: easier question
  25. 25. What is my evidence? What is my confidence?
  26. 26. Substitution
  27. 27. Physics Computer Science Law
  28. 28. Subconscious Substitution
  29. 29. Actual: Hire the Best Candidate Heuristic: Hire the Candidate I Like
  30. 30. Untested Substitution
  31. 31. Actual: Annual Earning Goal Heuristic: Daily Earning Goal
  32. 32. ● Approximate Shortcut ● An Easier Question ● Substitution Heuristics:
  33. 33. DESIGN How to understand heuristics so that we can use them to the benefit of design.
  34. 34. How much?
  35. 35. Nutritious Moderate Limit What is healthy?
  36. 36. ● Labels ● Size ● Distance (barrier) Heuristics in Google’s Cafeteria:
  37. 37. Understand heuristics in decision making, and use design to make complex problems more simple.
  38. 38. Understand the heuristics people are using—what “shortcuts” have they taken to reach this conclusion? Understanding helps us predict their decisions. How can I think for my user, so they don’t have to?—predicting the decisions they are likely to make allows us to do work to either support or challenge that decision. Make it clear [and scannable]—deliver your solution in as consumable a manner as possible. DESIGN TAKEAWAY
  39. 39. Salience
  40. 40. The pattern that pops out
  41. 41. What you see is all there is. WYSIATI:
  42. 42. WYSIATI Pattern
  43. 43. Pattern mismatching
  44. 44. Get Pizza!
  45. 45. Donate Blood!
  46. 46. ● Pattern ● WYSIATI & The Coherence Machine ● Mismatching Salience:
  47. 47. DESIGN Deciding what is salient, and providing that information to the user choosing whether or not (and how) to present that information.
  48. 48. Make the most important information the salient information.
  49. 49. Facilitate easy comparison & provide other reference points—what information about this dictionary should I be evaluating? “The average number of entries in a dictionary is 1,500.” Give a sense of control, when possible—even if I can’t cross the street faster, I want to feel involved in the process. Show what is salient (and not more). Highlight points of contrast—this dictionary has 1000 entries vs. 2000. DESIGN TAKEAWAY
  50. 50. 4 : PUTTING IT TOGETHER Where should I take my time off?
  51. 51. ● People’s choices are relative ● People use heuristics to make those choices ● By understanding those heuristics, we can guess at and influence choice ● Highlighting what is salient helps people make better choices Summary:
  52. 52. A choice architected design:
  53. 53. Set the context
  54. 54. Understand heuristics people are using
  55. 55. Provide other reference points
  56. 56. Identify the challenges and anchors (staying home is free, and Iceland is just another alternative)
  57. 57. How can I think for my user, so they don’t have to?
  58. 58. 6: Conclusion From random to designed
  59. 59. Choices are context-driven, not preference-driven.
  60. 60. Design to support what they should choose instead of what they could choose.
  61. 61. THANK YOU! jaymccormi@gmail.com | kaila.manca@gmail.com

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