Medieval Music


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Medieval Music

  1. 1. Medieval Music 600-1450
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Medium Aevum – Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Began after the fall of the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>A period of stagnation and great change </li></ul><ul><li>Events and ideas from the Medieval period became the foundation of our modern institutions (Roman Catholic Church, universities and schools, guilds) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Political Situation <ul><li>Rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlemagne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warring invaders and Royal Dynasties </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of political organization that governed everyone’s role in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobility, Clergy and Peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of contracts between the nobles (seigneurials) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free (craftsmen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servile (agricultural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy were the 2 nd rank in feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two branches: Eastern and Western </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Pope (Western) had great influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of laws, courts and properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence spread by the monastic system </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Crusades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 major crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimages to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 1095 Pope Urban II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Trade </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Black Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of bubonic plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originated in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average life expectancy in the 20’s </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Inquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adherence to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established in 1231 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. The Arts <ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beowulf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chaucer – Canterbury Tales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sir Thomas Malory – La Mort d’Arthur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubadours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trouvères </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nibelungenlied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dante – Divine Comedy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petrarch - Canzoniere </li></ul></ul></ul>Chaucer Canterbury Tales Dante Divine Comedy
  11. 13. <ul><li>Theatre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liturgical Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miracle and Mystery Plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality Play </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanesque (1000 to 1250) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stone vaulted buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Castles: moat, drawbridge, keep </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Gothic (1140 to 1400) <ul><li>Ribbed Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Flying buttresses </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Visual Arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stain Glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frescoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illuminated Manuscripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapestries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. Music in the Medieval Period <ul><li>Sacred Tradition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plainchant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monophonic vocal music of the church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 3,000 extant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sung as solo, unison or antiphonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-metric, modal, in Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on modes: Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Pope Gregory
  17. 23. <ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ite, missa est </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin Texts: Proper and Ordinary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kyrie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kyrie eleison Lord have mercy upon us </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christe eleison Christ have mercy upon us </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kyrie eleison Lord have mercy upon us </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gloria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to people of good will. We praise you. We bless you. We adore you. We glorify you. We give thanks to you for your great glory. Lord God, Heavenly King, God Almighty Father. Lord Only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ. Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father. You who take away the sins of the world have mercy on us. You who take away the sins of the world hear our prayer. You who sit at the Father's right hand, have mercy on us. For you alone are holy. You alone, Lord. You alone the Most High, Jesus Christ. With the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father. Amen . Gloria in excelsis deo, et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex caelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius patris. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram patris miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. Tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen.
  19. 25. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>I believe in one God, The Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God. Born of the Father before all ages. God of God, Light of Light, true God of true God. Begotten, not made, of one substance with the Father. By whom all things were made. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven. (here all present kneel) And became incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary: AND WAS MADE MAN. (here all arise) He was also crucified for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was buried. And on the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead and His kingdom will have no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, Who proceeds from the Father and the Son. Who together with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, and who spoke through the prophets. And one holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the forgiveness of sins and I await the resurrection of the dead and the life + of the world to come. Amen. Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, not factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: ET HOMO FACTUS EST. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis; sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad desteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est com gloria judicare vivos et mortuos. cujus regni non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam ventura saeculi. Amen.
  20. 26. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are filled with your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is He Who comes in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua. Hosanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Hosanna in excelsis.
  21. 27. - Agnus Dei Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, grant us peace. Agnus Dei, qui tolis peccata mundi, misere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, misere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.
  22. 28. <ul><ul><li>Polyphony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved from 10 th to 11 th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cantus firmus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><ul><li>Notation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As amounts of chants grew, notation needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neumes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>Two lines: one red for F, one yellow for C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 th century – Guido of Arezzo </li></ul></ul></ul>Ut queant laxis Re sonare fileris Mi ra gestorum Fa muli tuorum Sol ve polutte La bi reaturm
  25. 32. <ul><ul><ul><li>12 th century – four lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13 th century – mensural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16 th century </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><ul><li>Composers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O frondens virga </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 34. <ul><li>Notre Dame School </li></ul><ul><li>Leonin (c. 1135-1201) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced definite rhythm patterns to chants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perotin (c. 1160-1240) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student of Leonin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First to compose music based on chants with more than two voices </li></ul></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300-1377) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agnus Dei </li></ul></ul>Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, Who take away the sins of the world, grant us peace. Agnus Dei, qui tolis peccata mundi, misere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, misere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.
  29. 36. <ul><li>Secular Tradition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle with the church for power in influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Musicians hired to entertain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental music most prominent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estampie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Musician/poets: Troubadours, Trouvères </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minstrels and Jongleurs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 37. Medieval Instruments <ul><li>String, Woodwind, Brass, Percussion, Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Soft (bas) or loud (haut) – Inside or outside </li></ul><ul><li>Families: </li></ul><ul><li>String: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plucked: Lute, harp, psaltery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowed: Viele, rebec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodwind: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bagpipe, shawm, crumhorn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brass: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide trumpet, sackbut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drums (tabors, nakers), cymbals, bells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portative organ, organ, hurdy-gurdy </li></ul></ul>
  31. 38. String Lute Hurdy-gurdy Psaltery Viele
  32. 39. Woodwind Bagpipe Recorders Pipe Krummhorn Gemshorn
  33. 40. Brass and Percussion Sackbut Bell Tree Drum
  34. 41. Keyboard Organ 11 th century France Portative Organ Hurdy-gurdy
  35. 42. <ul><ul><li>Composers of Secular Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ars Antiqua </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubadour: Guillaume de Poitiers, Duke of Aquitaine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trouvères: Richard the Lion Heart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ars Nova </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>