Seams And Stitching Problems And Causes


Published on

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Seams And Stitching Problems And Causes

  1. 1. Different types of Seams, Seam Problems & their Solutions By Apparel United
  2. 3. Introduction to Seams <ul><li>A seam can be defined as : the application of a series of stitches or stitch types to one or several layers of material. </li></ul><ul><li>Seams are described as : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superimposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lapped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decorative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>edge finishing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A seam is load bearing and should be similar in physical properties to the material being sewn. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Flat Seams In these seams, sometimes called Butt Seams, two fabric edges, flat or folded, are brought together and oversewn with a zig-zag lockstitch, chainstitch or covering stitch (Class 600). Application: The purpose is to produce a join where no extra thickness of fabric can be tolerated at the seam, as in underwear or in foundation garments.
  4. 5. Superimposed Seams These generally start with two or more pieces of material superimposed over each other and joined near an edge, with one or more rows of stitches. There are various types of seams within the SS class. Application: Superimposed seams is used to create neat load bearing seams for lingerie, shirts, etc.
  5. 6. Lapped Seams <ul><li>Two or more plies of material are lapped (i.e. with edges overlapped, plain, or folded) and joined with one or more rows of stitches. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: </li></ul><ul><li>Lapped seams is commonly used for rainwear. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Lap Felled Seams <ul><li>The Lap Felled type, involves only one stitching operation - a strong seam with fabric edges protected from fraying. </li></ul><ul><li>Application: </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used for making up jeans or similar garments. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Bound Seams These are formed by folding a binding strip over the edge of the plies of material and joining both edges of the binding to the material with one or more rows of stitching. Application: This produces a neat edge on a seam exposed to view or to wear.
  8. 9. Decorative Seams A series of stitches along a straight or curved line or following an ornamental design, on a single ply of material. More complex types include various forms of piping, producing a raised line along the fabric surface. Application: This type of seam is generally used for decorative purpose.
  9. 10. Edge Finishing Seams Finishing the edge of a single ply of material by folding it or covering it with a stitch. The simplest of these operations is Serging, in which a cut edge of a single ply is reinforced by overedge stitching to neaten and prevent fraying Includes other popular methods of producing a neat edge like hemming and Blind Stitch hemming. Application: The main purpose of this type of seam is to produce a neat edge.
  10. 11. Some common seam problems, related stitch problem & their solutions 1. Puckering 2. Seam grin 3. Seam slippage 4. Skipped stitches 5. Unbalanced stitches 6. Uneven SPI
  11. 12. Skipped Stitches Causes Solutions
  12. 13. Staggered Stitches Causes Solutions
  13. 14. Unbalanced or Variable Stitches Solutions Causes
  14. 15. Variable Stitch Density Solutions Causes
  15. 16. Seam Grin <ul><li>When two pieces of fabric are pulled at right angles to the seam, a gap is revealed between the two pieces of fabric revealing the thread in this gap. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase stitching tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a higher stitch rating </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Seam Slippage <ul><li>A fabric related issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Happens mainly in this types of fabric : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fabrics with low no. of warp & weft yarns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fabric on either side of the seam distorts as the fabric yarns slide away resulting in a permanent gap. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase seam allowance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a higher stitch density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opt for a lapped fell seam </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Seam Pucker <ul><li>Tension pucker </li></ul><ul><li>Feed pucker </li></ul><ul><li>Shrinkage pucker </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric flagging </li></ul>
  18. 19. Tension Pucker <ul><li>Caused by high thread tension during sewing. </li></ul><ul><li>More pronounced when synthetic threads are used. </li></ul><ul><li>These threads on account of high stretch properties elongate more during sewing. </li></ul><ul><li>After sewing the threads recover from the stretched state pulling the fabric with it. </li></ul>Remedy: Thread tensions have to be kept as low as possible.
  19. 20. Feed Pucker <ul><li>Encountered when sewing very fine fabrics. </li></ul><ul><li>The plies of fabric tend to slip over each other resulting in uneven feed leading to pucker. </li></ul><ul><li>Remedy : </li></ul><ul><li>Opting for advanced types of feed systems like compound or unison feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Puller feed is more cost effective. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Shrinkage Pucker <ul><li>Wash pucker - during the wash process the thread in the seam shrinks, pulling the fabric with it. More so when using cotton threads. </li></ul><ul><li>Ironing pucker - normally happens when synthetic threads are used. The heat destabilizes the molecular structure of the thread causing it to contract. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing threads with low shrinkage properties. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Fabric Flagging <ul><li>A machine related issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the throat plate aperture enlarges due to wear & tear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while sewing the needle pushes the fabric through the aperture before penetrating the fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this can also happen when the needle size (thickness) is changed and if the throat plate is not changed accordingly. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 45. Remedy <ul><li>throat plates must be changed at regular intervals after checking for wear & tear </li></ul><ul><li>throat plates must be changed in accordance with the needle size even if there are no signs of wear & tear. </li></ul>
  23. 46. THANK YOU
  24. 47. <ul><li>? </li></ul>