No building material is perfectly fire proof. Every building contains some
materials (such as furniture clothing eatables etc.) which can either easily
catch fire or which are vulnerable to fire. However,the endeavor of the
architects and engineers should be to plan, design and construct the
building in such a way that safety of occupants may be ensured to the
maximum possible extent in the event of outbreak of fire in the building
due to any reason whatsoever. The technical interpretation of fire safety of
building is to convey the fire resistace of buildings in terms of hours when
subjected to fire of known intensity. It should have structural time interval
so that adequate protection to the occupants is afforded. A wider
interpretation of fire safety may be deemed to cover the following aspects
: Fire prevention and reduction of number of outbreaks of fire,
Spread of fire, both internally and externally,
Safe exit of any and all occupants in the event of an outbreak of fire
Fire extinguishing apparatus.
HISTORY OF FIRE FIGHTING
History of firefighting
The history of organized firefighting began in ancient Rome while under the rule of
Augustus. Prior to that, there is evidence of fire-fighting machinery in use in Ancient Egypt,
including a water pump invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria in the third century BC which was
later improved upon in a design by Hero Of Alexandria in the first century BC.
3 United States
4 Modern development
5 Firefighting today
The first Roman fire brigade of which we have any substantial history was created by Marcus
Licinius Crassus. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born into a wealthy Roman family around the
year 115 BC, and acquired an enormous fortune through (in the words of Plutarch) "fire and
rapine." One of his most lucrative schemes took advantage of the fact that Rome had no fire
department. Crassus filled this void by creating his own brigade—500 men strong—which
rushed to burning buildings at the first cry of alarm. Upon arriving at the scene, however, the
fire fighters did nothing while their employer bargained over the price of their services with
the distressed property owner. If Crassus could not negotiate a satisfactory price, his men
simply let the structure burn to the ground, after which he offered to purchase it for a
fraction of its value. Augustus took the basic idea from Crassus and then built on it to form
the Vigiles in AD 6[contradictory] to combat fires using bucket brigades and pumps, as well as
poles, hooks and even ballistae to tear down buildings in advance of the flames. The Vigiles
patrolled the streets of Rome to watch for fires and served as a police force. The later
brigades consisted of hundreds of men, all ready for action. When there was a fire, the men
would line up to the nearest water source and pass buckets hand in hand to the fire.
Rome suffered a number of serious fires, most notably the fire on 19 July AD 64 and
eventually destroyed two thirds of Rome.
This picture published in 1808 shows firefighters tackling a fire in London using hand-pumped
In Europe, firefighting was quite rudimentary until the 17th century. In
1254, a royal decree of King Saint Louis of France created the so-called guet
bourgeois ("burgess watch"), allowing the residents of Paris to establish
their own night watches, separate from the king's night watches, to prevent
and stop crimes and firesIn
London suffered great fires in 798, 982, 989, 1212 and above all in 1666 (Great Fire of London). The Great
Fire of 1666 started in a baker's shop on Pudding Lane, consumed about two square miles (5 km²) of the city,
leaving tens of thousands homeless. Prior to this fire, London had no organized fire protection system.
Afterwards, insurance companies formed private fire brigades to protect their clients’
property. Insurance brigades would only fight fires at buildings the company insured. These buildings were
identified by fire insurance marks. The key breakthrough in firefighting arrived in the 17th century with the
first fire engines. Manual pumps, rediscovered in Europe after 1500 (allegedly used in Augsburg in 1518 and
in Nuremberg in 1657), were only force pumps and had a very short range due to the lack of hoses. German
inventor Hans Hautsch improved the manual pump by creating the first suction and force pump and adding
some flexible hoses to the pump. In 1672, Dutch artist,and inventor Jan Van der Heyden's workshop
developed the fire hose. Constructed of flexible leather and coupled every 50 feet (15 m) with brass fittings.
The length remains the standard to this day in mainland Europe whilst in the UK the standard length is either
23m or 25m. The fire engine was further developed by the Dutch inventor, merchant and manufacturer, John
Lofting (1659–1742) who had worked with Jan Van der Heyden in Amsterdam. Lofting moved to London in
or about 1688, became an English citizen and patented (patent number 263/1690) the "Sucking Worm
Engine" in 1690. There was a glowing description of the firefighting ability of his device in The London
Gazette of 17 March 1691, after the issue of the patent. The British Museum has a print showing Lofting's
fire engine at work in London, the engine being pumped by a team of men. In the print three fire plaques of
early insurance companies are shown, no doubt indicating that Lofting collaborated with them in firefighting.
A later version of what is believed to be one of his fire engines has been lovingly restored by a retired
firefighter, and is on show in Marlow Buckinghamshire where John Lofting moved in 1700. Patents only
lasted for fourteen years and so the field was open for his competitors after 1704.
Richard Newsham of Bray in Berkshire (just 8 miles from Lofting) produced a similar engine in 1725,
patented it in America and cornered the market there.
Pulled as a cart to the fire, these manual pumps were manned by teams of men and could deliver up to 160
gallons per minute (12 L/s) at up to 120 feet (36 m).
Victor Pierson, Paul Poincy. Volunteer Firemen's
Parade, March 4th 1872, representing the gathering
of the New Orleans fire brigades around the statue
of Henry Clay
The Chicago Fire Department used this White Motor
Company truck from 1930 to 1941
In 1631 Boston's governor John Winthrop outlawed wooden chimneys and thatched roofs. In 1648, the
New Amsterdam governor Peter Stuyvesant appointed four men to act as fire wardens. They were
empowered to inspect all chimneys and to fine any violators of the rules. The city burghers later appointed
eight prominent citizens to the "Rattle Watch" - these men volunteered to patrol the streets at night carrying
large wooden rattles. If a fire was seen, the men spun the rattles, then directed the responding citizens to
form bucket brigades. On January 27, 1678 the first fire engine company went into service with its captain
(foreman) Thomas Atkins. In 1736 Benjamin Franklin established the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia.
George Washington was a volunteer firefighter in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1774, as a member of the
Friendship Veterans Fire Engine Company, he bought a new fire engine and gave it to the town, which was its
very first. However the United States did not have government-run fire departments until around the time
of the American Civil War. Prior to this time, private fire brigades compete with one another to be the first to
respond to a fire because insurance companies paid brigades to save buildings. Underwriters also
employed their own Salvage Corps in some cities. The first known female firefighter Molly Williams took her
place with the men on the dragropes during the blizzard of 1818 and pulled the pumper to the fire through
the deep snow.
On April 1st of 1853 Cincinnati OH became the first professional fire department by being made up of 100%
full-time, paid employees.
In 2010, 70 percent of firefighters in the United States were volunteer. Only 5% of calls were actual fires.
65% were medical aid. 8% were false alarms.
The first fire brigades in the modern sense were created in France in the early 18th century. In 1699, a man
with bold commercial ideas, François du Mouriez du Périer (grandfather of French Revolution's general
Charles François Dumouriez), solicited an audience with King Louis XIV. Greatly interested in Jan Van der
Heyden's invention, he successfully demonstrated the new pumps and managed to convince the king to
grant him the monopoly of making and selling "fire-preventing portable pumps" throughout the kingdom of
France. François du Mouriez du Périer offered 12 pumps to the City of Paris, and the first Paris Fire
Brigade, known as the Compagnie des gardes-pompes (literally the "Company of Pump Guards"), was
created in 1716. François du Mouriez du Périer was appointed directeur des pompes de la Ville de Paris
("director of the City of Paris's pumps"), i.e. chief of the Paris Fire Brigade, and the position stayed in his
family until 1760. In the following years, other fire brigades were created in the large French cities. Around
that time appeared the current French word pompier ("firefighter"), whose literal meaning is "pumper." On
March 11, 1733 the French government decided that the interventions of the fire brigades would be free of
charge. This was decided because people always waited until the last moment to call the fire brigades to
avoid paying the fee, and it was often too late to stop fires. From 1750 on, the French fire brigades became
para-military units and received uniforms. In 1756 the use of a protective helmet for firefighters was
recommended by King Louis XV, but it took many more years before the measure was actually enforced on
In North America, Jamestown, Virginia was virtually destroyed in a fire in January, 1608. There
were no full-time paid firefighters in America until 1850. Even after the formation of paid fire
companies in the United States, there were disagreements and often fights over territory. New
York City companies were famous for sending runners out to fires with a large barrel to cover the
hydrant closest to the fire in advance of the engines. Often fights would break out
between the runners and even the responding fire companies for the right to fight the fire and
receive the insurance money that would be paid to the company that fought it.[citation needed
Interestingly, during the 19th century and early 20th century volunteer fire companies served not only as fire
protection but as political machines. The most famous volunteer firefighter politician is Boss Tweed, head of
the notorious Tammany Hall political machine, who got his start in politics as a member of the Americus
Engine Company Number 6 ("The Big Six") in New York City.
Napoleon Bonaparte, drawing from the century-old experience of the gardes-pompes, is generally attributed
as creating the first "professional" firefighters, known as Sapeurs-Pompiers ("Sappers-Firefighters"), from the
French Army. Created under the Commandant of Engineers in 1810, the company was organized after a fire
at the ballroom in the Austrian Embassy in Paris which injured several dignitaries.
Indian Home Guards fire fighting demonstration
In the UK, the Great Fire of London in 1666 set in motion changes which laid the foundations for organised
firefighting in the future. In the wake of the Great Fire, the City Council established the first fire insurance
company, "The Fire Office", in 1667, which employed small teams of Thames watermen as firefighters and
provided them with uniforms and arm badges showing the company to which they belonged.
However, the first organised municipal fire brigade in the world was established in Edinburgh, Scotland,
when the Edinburgh Fire Engine Establishment was formed in 1824, led by James Braidwood. London
followed in 1832 with the London Fire Engine Establishment.
On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati Fire Department became the first full-time paid professional fire department
in the United States, and the first in the world to use steam fire engines. [dead link
The Sandgate Fire Brigade, Queensland, Australia, outside the Sandgate Fire-Brigade Station in 1923
The first horse-drawn steam engine for fighting fires was invented in 1829, but not accepted in structural
firefighting until 1860, and ignored for another two years afterwards. Internal combustion engine fire
engines arrived in 1907, built in the United States, leading to the decline and disappearance of steam
engines by 1925.
HISTORY OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUPMENTS
Fire fighting tools in Germany. Note the picture of a hand squirt
(rear wall on right side), one of the most ancient devices for
applying water to a fire.
One of the simplest forms of hand tub type fire engines, engraving from the
mid 17th century in Germany
Illustration of a 1670s fire engine (pumper) made in London by John Keeling
of Blackfriars. Note the nozzle is mounted to the engine; later nozzles were
mounted to hoses. Also, the earliest engines wheels do not turn to the side,
the men moving the engine to the fire would forcibly change the direction
of the engine as needed.
Manually drawn fire pump in service in Edinburgh in
A 1905 article in the magazine Popular Mechanics described the motorization of
fire engines that was advancing rapidly in England and would soon occur elsewhere
in Europe and North America.
A Knox fire engine, one of the first modern fire engines, manufactured in 1905
in Springfield, Massachusetts by the Knox Automobile Company.
An early device used to squirt water onto a fire is a squirt or fire syringe. Hand squirts and hand pumps are
noted before Ctesibius of Alexandria invented the first fire pump around the 2nd century B.C., and an
example of a force-pump possibly used for a fire-engine is mentioned by Heron of Alexandria. The fire pump
was reinvented in Europe during the 16th century, reportedly used in Augsburg in 1518 and Nuremberg in
1657. A book of 1655 inventions mentions a steam engine (called a fire engine) pump used to "raise a
column of water 40 feet [12 m]", but there was no mention of whether it was portable.
Colonial laws in America required each house to have a bucket of water on the front stoop during fires at
night. These buckets were intended for use by the initial bucket brigade that would supply the water at fires.
Philadelphia obtained a hand-pumped fire engine in 1719, years after Boston's 1654 model appeared there,
made by Joseph Jencks, but before New York's two engines arrived from London.
By 1730, Richard Newsham, in London, had made successful fire engines; the first used in New York City (in
1731) were of his make (six years before formation of the NYC volunteer fire department). The amount of
manpower and skill necessary for firefighting prompted the institution of an organized fire company by
Benjamin Franklin in 1737. Thomas Lote built the first fire engine made in America in 1743. These earliest
engines are called hand tubs because they are manually (hand) powered and the water was supplied by
bucket brigade dumped into a tub (cistern) where the pump had a permanent intake pipe. An important
advancement around 1822 was the invention of an engine which could draft water from a water source
doing away with the bucket brigade. Philadelphia fire engine manufacturers Sellers and Pennock model the
Hydraulion is said to be the first suction engine produced in 1822. Some models had the hard, suction
hose fixed to the intake and curled up over the apparatus known as a squirrel tail engine
The earliest engines were small and were carried by four men or mounted on skids and dragged
to a fire. The earliest four-wheel carriage mounted engines were pulled to the fire by hand. As
the engines grew larger they became horse-drawn and later self-propelled by steam engines.
John Ericsson is credited with building the first American steam-powered fire engine. George
Braithwaite built the first steam fire-engine in Britain
Until the mid-19th century, most fire engines were maneuvered by men, but the introduction of horsedrawn fire engines considerably improved the response time to incidents. The first self-propelled steamdriven fire engine was built in New York in 1841. It was the target of sabotage by firefighters and its use was
discontinued, and motorized fire engines did not become commonplace until the early 20th century. By
1905, the idea of combining gas engine motor trucks into fire engines was attracting great attention;
according to a Popular Mechanics article in that year, such trucks were rapidly gaining popularity in
England. That same year, the Knox Automobile Company of Springfield, Massachusetts began selling what
some have described as the world's first modern fire engine. A year later, the City of Springfield had an
entire modern fire department supplied with Knox fire engines.
For many years firefighters sat on the sides of the fire engines, or even stood on the rear of the vehicles,
exposed to the elements. This arrangement was uncomfortable and dangerous (some firefighters were
thrown to their deaths when their fire engines made sharp turns on the road), and today nearly all fire
engines have fully enclosed seating areas for their crews.
Early pumpers used cisterns as a source of water. Water was later put into wooden pipes under the streets
and a "fire plug" was pulled out of the top of the pipe when a suction hose was to be inserted. Later systems
incorporated pressurized fire hydrants, where the pressure was increased when a fire alarm was sounded.
This was found to be harmful to the system, and unreliable, and today's valved hydrant systems are kept
under pressure at all times, although additional pressure may be added when needed. Pressurized hydrants
eliminate much of the work in obtaining water for pumping through the engine and into the attack hoses.
Many rural fire engines still rely upon cisterns or other sources for drafting water into the pumps.
Comparison of fire classes
Cooking oil or fat
In firefighting, fires are identified according to one or more fire classes. Each class designates the fuel
involved in the fire, and thus the most appropriate extinguishing agent. The classifications allow selection of
extinguishing agents along lines of effectiveness at putting the type of fire out, as well as avoiding unwanted
side-effects. For example, non-conductive extinguishing agents are rated for electrical fires, so to avoid
electrocuting the firefighter.
Multiple classification systems exist, with different designations for the various classes of fire. The United
States uses the NFPA system. Europe use the European Standard "Classification of fires" (EN 2:1992,
incorporating amendment A1:2004). Australasia uses yet another.
•1 Ordinary combustibles
•2 Flammable liquid and gas
•5 Cooking oils and fats (kitchen fires)
"Ordinary combustible" fires are the most common type of fire, and are designated Class A under both
systems. These occur when a solid, organic material such as wood, cloth, rubber, or some plastics become
heated to their ignition point. At this point the material undergoes combustion and will continue burning as
long as the four components of the fire tetrahedron (heat, fuel, oxygen, and the sustaining chemical
reaction) are available.
This class of fire is commonly used in controlled circumstances, such as a campfire, match or wood-burning
stove. To use the campfire as an example, it has a fire tetrahedron—the heat is provided by another fire
(such as a match or lighter), the fuel is the wood, the oxygen is naturally available in the open-air
environment of a forest, and the chemical reaction links the three other facets. This fire is not dangerous,
because the fire is contained to the wood alone and is usually isolated from other flammable materials, for
example by bare ground and rocks. However, when a class-A fire burns in a less-restricted environment the
fire can quickly grow out of control and become a wildfire. This is the case when firefighting and fire control
techniques are required.
This class of fire is fairly simple to fight and contain—by simply removing the heat, oxygen, or fuel, or by
suppressing the underlying chemical reaction, the fire tetrahedron collapses and the fire dies out. The most
common way to do this is by removing heat by spraying the burning material with water; oxygen can be
removed by smothering the fire with foam from a fire extinguisher; forest fires are often fought by removing
fuel by backburning; and an ammonium phosphate dry chemical powder fire extinguisher (but not sodium
bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate both of which are rated for B-class fires) breaks the fire's underlying
As these fires are the most commonly encountered, most fire departments have equipment to handle them
specifically. While this is acceptable for most ordinary conditions, most firefighters find themselves having to
call for special equipment such as foam in the case of other fire.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND GAS
A CO2 fire extinguisher rated for flammable liquids and gasses
These are fires whose fuel is flammable or combustible liquid or gas. The US system designates all such fires
"Class B". In the European/Australian system, flammable liquids are designated "Class B", while burning
gases are separately designated "Class C". These fires follow the same basic fire tetrahedron
(heat, fuel, oxygen, chemical reaction) as ordinary combustible fires, except that the fuel in question is a
flammable liquid such as gasoline, or gas such as natural gas. A solid stream of water should never be used
to extinguish this type because it can cause the fuel to scatter, spreading the flames. The most effective way
to extinguish a liquid or gas fueled fire is by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of the fire, which is done
by dry chemical and Halon extinguishing agents, although smothering with CO2 or, for liquids, foam is also
effective. Halon has fallen out of favor in recent times because it is an ozone-depleting material; the
Montreal Protocol declares that Halon should no longer be used. Chemicals such as FM-200 are now the
recommended halogenated suppressant.
Electrical fires are fires involving potentially energized electrical equipment. The US system designates these
"Class C"; the Australian system designates them "Class E". This sort of fire may be caused by short-circuiting
machinery or overloaded electrical cables. These fires can be a severe hazard to firefighters using water or
other conductive agents: Electricity may be conducted from the fire, through water, to the firefighter's body,
and then earth. Electrical shocks have caused many firefighter deaths.
Electrical fire may be fought in the same way as an ordinary combustible fire, but water, foam, and other
conductive agents are not to be used. While the fire is or possibly could be electrically energized, it can be
fought with any extinguishing agent rated for electrical fire. Carbon dioxide CO2, FM-200 and dry chemical
powder extinguishers such as PKP and even baking soda are especially suited to extinguishing this sort of
fire. PKP should be a last resort solution to extinguishing the fire due to its corrosive tendencies. Once
electricity is shut off to the equipment involved, it will generally become an ordinary combustible fire. In
Europe "Electrical Fires" are no longer a class of fire as electricity can not burn. The items around the
electrical sources may burn. By turning the electrical source off, the fire can be fought by one of the other
class of fire extinguishers.
Some extinguishers are labeled as containing dry chemical extinguishing agents. This may be confused with
dry powder. The two are not the same.
Using one of these extinguishers in error, in place of dry powder, can be ineffective or actually increase the
intensity of a metal fire.
Metal fires represent a unique hazard because people are often not aware of the characteristics of these
fires and are not properly prepared to fight them.
Therefore, even a small metal fire can spread and become a larger fire in the surrounding ordinary
combustible materials. Only dry powder should ever be used to extinguish a metal fire.
Certain metals are flammable or combustible. Fires involving such are designated "Class D" in both systems.
Examples of such metals include sodium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, uranium, lithium, plutonium, and
calcium. Magnesium and titanium fires are common. When one of these combustible metals ignites, it can
easily and rapidly spread to surrounding ordinary combustible materials.
With the exception of the metals that burn in contact with air or water (for example, sodium), masses of
combustible metals do not represent unusual fire risks because they have the ability to conduct heat away
from hot spots so efficiently that the heat of combustion cannot be maintained—this means that it will
require a lot of heat to ignite a mass of combustible metal. Generally, metal fire risks exist when sawdust,
machine shavings and other metal 'fines' are present. Generally, these fires can be ignited by the same types
of ignition sources that would start other common fires.
Water and other common firefighting materials can excite metal fires and make them worse. The NFPA
recommends that metal fires be fought with "dry powder" extinguishing agents. Dry powder agents work by
smothering and heat absorption. The most common of these agents are sodium chloride granules and
graphite powder. In recent years powdered copper has also come into use.
COOKING OILS AND FATS (KITCHEN FIRES)
Laboratory simulation of a chip pan fire: a beaker containing wax is heated until it catches fire. A small
amount of water is then poured into the beaker. The water sinks to the bottom and vaporizes instantly,
ejecting a plume of burning liquid wax into the air.
Fires that involve cooking oils or fats are designated "Class K" under the American system, and "Class F"
under the European/Australasian systems. Though such fires are technically a subclass of the flammable
liquid/gas class, the special characteristics of these types of fires, namely the higher flash point, are
considered important enough to recognize separately. Saponification can be used to extinguish such fires, as
can dry-powder, CO2 or, for small fires, mechanical smothering. Appropriate fire extinguishers may also have
hoods over them that help extinguish the fire.
OF FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
1.FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM: Water being the main extinguishing medium, major fires have to be
controlled and extinguished by the use of water from fire fighting hoses operated by the regular fire
HYDRANT SYSTEM CAN BE OF TWO TYPES:
<a>EXTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEM: where the hydrants are installed in the open,like city or town
water mains or hydrant system is installed in the open area in the industrials and such other
occupancies. These systema are essential and important requirements for fire fighting in town and
cities. The capacity pumps required for these system have to be worked out based on requirements
of output and pressure for system.
Pressure requirement for this systems are normally designed based on practical consideration
and basic needs. A minimum residual pressure 1.5 kg/cm usually should be maintained at hydrant
FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM
<b>INTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEM: installed in building and other structure to be protected. An
internal hydrant system comprisses of following elements:
Static tank for storing water for fire fighting purpose.
Rising main down comer main and external main to feed water from source to the required point
Fire fighting pumps with all components.
Other necessary component like internal hydrants called as landing valves , external hydrants ,
hose reels, branch pipe in cabinets.
FIRE HYDRANTS: fire hydrant provide the meance of drawing water from the water mains for fire
fighting. The water main is provided with a branch or t-piece to which hydrant is attached either
directly or with a short length of pipe.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF HYDRANTS:
1.STAND POST TYPE
2. UNDERGROUND TYPE
1.STAND POST TYPE: GENERAL REQUIRMENTSShould have one or two sluice-valves
Road surface boxes
Duck foot bend
Figure of stand post hydrant system given below
UNDERGROUND TYPE HYDRANT SYSTEM:
These hydrants are placed underground alongside the water mains on a short branch water flowing horizontally past the
The hydrant consists of three main castings , the inlet piece which is connected to the pipe , the sluice valve itself and the
duckfoot bend leading to the outlet.
For operating the hydrant certain hydrant fitting are required such as hydrant stand pipe and hydrant cover key, hydrant key ,
water iron and hydrant bar etc.
For locating the hydrant ,prominently marked hydrants plates are provided on the ground surface. Figure of underground
sluice hydrant system is given below:
Typical hydrant box
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM:
Automatic sprinkler are devices for automatically distributing of water upon a fire at sufficient quantity to
extinguish completely or to prevent its spread by keeping the fire under control by the water discharged
from sprinklars. The water for fire fighting is fed to the sprinklers through a system of piping normally
suspended from ceiling with the sprinkler system at intervals along the pipes.
The orifice of sprinkler head, Incorporating the fusible link or fusible bulb of automatic sprinkler ,is normally
kept closed which is thrown open on the actuation of the temperature- sensitive fusible link or fusible
The figure depicting the layout of typical sprinkler system is given below:
These systems are quite effective for ensuring the life safety since they give early
warning of the existence of fire and simaltaniously start the application of water
on the fire, which will help in control on fire.the downward force of water spray
from sprinkler also helps minimize the smoke accumulation in the room of fire
beside cooling the environment and promoting survival for occupants.
TYPES OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM:
THERE ARE FOUR TYPE OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM:
1.WET-the pipes are permanently charged with water and usefull for all location
except where freezing temperature are likely to occur .
2. DRY- pipes are generally charged with air with under pressure.
3.ALTERNATE- can be arranged to be either wet or dry depending upon the ambient
4.PREACTION- the pipes are generally charged with air and get filled with water when
fire actuates a separate detection system.
WATER SUPPLIES :It is essential that sprinkler system are provided with a suitable and acceptable water supply. The rules
accept the following sources subject to certain specific condition.
• Town mains.
• Elevated private reservoirs
• Gravity tanks
• Automatic pump supply
• Pressure tanks.
SPRINKLER HEAD:.Their operation can be divided into two parts:
1.Those in which operating medium is fusible solder and
2.Those in which operating medium is a glass bulb.
• .Fusible solder type- in this type the body of sprinkler is held in place by two yokes and a flexible
diaphragm into which a valve is fitted. Three parts , viz., the strut the hook and the key are held
together with a special fusible solder. In the fire condition the fusible solder melt and the
component members are thrown clear of heads and allowing water to flow out in the form of spray
after heating the deflector.
4.Fusible bulb type:- the second type of operating sprinkler head utilizes a frangible bulb . in this a small bulb
of special type contains a liquid leaving a small air bubble entrapped in it. When exposed to heat from fire
, the liquid expands and the bubbles disappears . due to increase the pressure of the bulb shatters
realizing water in form of spray . the operating temperature is regulated by adjusting amount of liquid
A typical sprinkler bulb type sprinkler head showing components
TEMPERATURE RATING OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS
Automatic sprinklers have various ratings that are based on standardised test in which in which a sprinkler is
immersed in liquid and the temperature of liquid raised only slowly until the sprinkler operates. All heads
are marked with their operating temperature rating , and colour codes for easy identification.
TYPES OFSPRINKLERS:The following are types of sprinklers which are accept for general use:
Conventional sprinklers:- these produce a spherical type of discharge with a portion of water directed
upward to the ceiling .
Spray type:- these operates the hemispherical discharge below the water with no water being directed
Ceiling flush pattern:- the heads are installed with the base flush ceiling and the heat sensitive element
Side wall pattern:- these are installed along the wall of the room close to ceiling and produces a
horizontal pattern of spray .
Dry upright pattern:- these are same as pendent type sprinklers.
Ceiling flush 2.side wall 3. Pendent dry 4. Dry upright.
• SPRINKLER WATER SUPPLY:The water supply for any sprinkler system adequate and reliable pressure and flow as per sprinkler
system rules. Use of salt is not permitted, the supplies may be by 1. Town mains 2. Elevated
reservoir 3.gravity tanks 4. Automatic supply pump and 5. Pressurizes tanks . apart from primary
water supply , secondary water supply arrangements should also be made as stand by.
Diagrammatic layout of pipe work of sprinkler installation is given below:
Water spray system:Water spray system is special fixed pipe connected to a reliable source of pressurized water supply and equipped with water spray
nozzles for application on area to be protected .
This system can be used for one or more undersigned purpose:
Extinguishment of fire
Control of fire
Exposer protection and prevention of fire
The suppression of fire is achieved cooling ,dilution of oxygen supplies dilution of liquid fuils.
Water spray systems are generally used for fire protection of flammable liquid and and gas storage tank piping , pumping equipment ,
Types of water spray required will depend on the nature of hazard and protection required.
Size of the system: Since most systems perform as deluge systems, large quantities of water required.
TYPES OF WATER SPRAY SYSTEM:
There are basic two types of water spray system ,one of these is used to extinguish oil fires and usually
referred to as ‘water spray projector ’, other is mainly used to provide protection to plant, process and
equipment and to prevent explosion generally known as ‘water spray protector system’ .
<a> HIGH VELOCITY System: it is generally used for extinction of fire in flammable medium and heavy oils or
similar flammable liquid having a flash point above 65 degree.
Two types of high velocity water spray system
High velocity water spray system for transformers should be well designed to have adequate coverage of the
entire transformer unit , including the conservation tank .
The water spray system should have isolation facilities so as to enable periodic testing , maintenance , normally
all cut of valves should be loked open.
Automatic water spray projector system:
High velocity water spray system for transformer protection
Medium velocity water spray system :The system applies water in finely divided droplets at medium velocity this is mainly used for fire protection of
areas with fire risks from low FP flammable liquids and also for fire extinguishment of water miscible
liquids. It gives protection to tanks , structure by cooling by controlled flammable burning liquids and also
from dilution of explosive gases.
3.FIRE ALARM SYSTEM:It is essential that building where people congregate have a fire alarm system which is operable without exposing any
person to undue risk. Alarms in offices and shops may be audible or visible . in each case the alarm must be
distinctive in that it must not be capable of being confused with any other warning system on the premises.
TYPES OF ALARM SYSTEM:
MANUAL –MECHANICAL ALARMS:- manual warning systems may be mechanical or electrical . frequently used
mechanical devices are hand operated fire bells or triangles.
Hand operated appliances ,although they need little maintenance , have two disadvantages. First
fire warning should continue until everyone is off the premises and with manual –mechanical appliances this is
difficult ,if not impossible , to achieve. Even in a small building it is good practice to have at least two alarms , as
far apart as possible , so that there is a change of one being accessible if the other is isolated.
Second ,in a building of any size ,with a number of alarms ,a comprehensive can only be given
as a chain reaction , those hearing the first alarm sounding another , and so on . a simultaneous warning through
out the building is scarcely possible ; in fact ,an appreciable time lag can take place before the last warning is
MANUAL ELECTRICAL ALARMS:Electric bells actuated manually from one or more break glass call points are the usual type of manual – electrical alarm
the circuit being so arranged that the warning ,once initiated , continue to sound automatically .
The offices , shops and railway premises act of the united kingdom calls for an effective means of giving
warning in case of fire . this has been interpreted as allowing visual signal in place where , for examples, deaf
persons are employed , perhaps as office accounting machine operators . in this condition alarm must attract
attention by affecting a person’s peripheral vision .it must attract attention under all condition of lighting , ranging
from bright sunlight in southern facing room during the day, to various intensities of artificial light at night .
AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARMS:
Manual electrical break –glass point and automatic fire detectors can operate side by side on the same system , and
there is no technical objection to both being used on a same circuit . the object is to use and manual break glass
call point in occupied areas.
THERE ARE AT PRESENT , SEVEN SEPARATE AND CLEARLY DEFINED GROUPS OF FIRE DETECTORS.
Group 1.:- detectors for hazardous situations
Group 2.:- ionization detectors
Group 3.:- visible smoke detectors
Group 4.:- flame detectors
Group 5.:- ultra sonic and laser detectors
Group 6.:- combustion gas detectors
Group .7:- heat detectors
4. EVACUATION METHOD:The protection of every occupants of high rise building must be made a part of full service total fire safety program.
Regardless of the building construction sophisticated fire detection system , fire protection and fire fighting
apparatus used a building is only as “people save” as the building owners , managers and tenant spokemen want it
Fire prevention , fire protection , adequate evacuation programming planning and complete “rehearsal for
survival ”are needed to make sure losses will be minimal in the event of the fire .
EFFICIENT EVACUATION :SUCCESSFUL AND EFFICIENT EVACUATION DEPENDS UPON THE COMPLETE PLANNING AND PROGRAMING
ORGANISATION AND SUPERVISION . PLANNING SHOULD INCLUDE AT LEAST THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES.
Building evacuation organization
Evacuation policy and plans
Detection and reporting
Evacuation programe reporting
Communication to direct movement and evacuation
Inspection and evaluation
In event of fire:in event of fire the manager or chief engineer should have to assigned the authority to order evacuation of given floor
or several floors of buildings . additional floor may be evacuated at the direction of the local fire department.
Floors to be evacuated:Generally evacuation will be from the floor on which emergency has occurred and two floors immediately below and
above the “emergency floor” to a safe point below or above the critical area.
Evacuation should be accomplished by way of fire ‘stair wells’. If smoke or fire has penetrated a stairwell ,
alternate stairwell should be used.
Pressurisation systems protect escape routes and fire-fighting shafts against the ingress of smoke by
maintaining the pressure within the escape route higher than that in the adjacent spaces.
A pressurisation system consists of three main components: Supply Air (where air is injected into the area that
is to be protected), Pressure Relief (to avoid overpressure when doors are closed) and Air Release (air and
smoke is released from the adjoining fire area). Combining these elements creates a positive pressure
difference which prevents lobbies and staircases from filling up with smoke. Pressurisation systems should
meet the recommendations of Approved Document B and BS EN 12101-6 “Specification for
Pressure Differential Systems” or BS 5588-4 - “Code of practice for smoke control using pressure differentials”.
In commercial buildings pressurisation is normally carried through up to the final door to the accommodation,
with air release provided from the accommodation. In apartment buildings it is usually impractical
to carry pressurisation up to each apartment door due to the difficulty of providing air release from each
apartment. Therefore stairs and lobbies are usually pressurised with air release from the corridor.
The escape stair pressurization system is a mechanical ventilation system. In order to pressurize the stairs of
vertical buildings, it is necessary to install sets of motor-fans that suck air into the stairwell, keeping a
pressure of 40 to 60 pa. The main purpose is to prevent infiltration of smoke in the event of a fire.
The system consists of the installation of a fan with an electric motor mounted in an insolated compartment.
The outside air is captured through a shutter that has a particle filter. The insufflating of air to the escape
stair occurs through the air release pipe generated by the fan.
The pressurization system may be activated manually or through the systems and devices described
- Automatically, by means of a fire detection system;
- Manually, by buttonhole installed at the entrance gate of the building;
- Manually, directly on the electric fan panel.
The air pressure counterbalance that is required in the stair is controlled through manual and automatic
dampers properly calculated and installed at the release area of the fan and at the top of the stair.