Elysium Technologies Private Limited            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training            Singapore ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training      ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training      ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                              Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training    ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                             Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training     ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training      ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training      ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training      ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                              Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training    ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                            Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training      ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Elysium Technologies Private Limited                           Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training       ...
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing
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Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing

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Ieee projects 2012 2013 - Mobile Computing

  1. 1. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com IEEE FINAL YEAR PROJECTS 2012 – 2013 MOBILE COMPUTINGCorporate Office: Madurai 227-230, Church road, Anna nagar, Madurai – 625 020. 0452 – 4390702, 4392702, +9199447933980 Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysiumtechnologies@gmail.com Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Trichy 15, III Floor, SI Towers, Melapudur main road, Trichy – 620 001. 0431 – 4002234, +919790464324. Email: trichy@elysiumtechnologies.com, elysium.trichy@gmail.com. Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Coimbatore 577/4, DB Road, RS Puram, Opp to KFC, Coimbatore – 641 002. +919677751577 Website: Elysiumtechnologies.com, Email: info@elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Kollam Surya Complex, Vendor junction, Kollam – 691 010, Kerala. 0474 – 2723622, +919446505482. Email: kerala@elysiumtechnologies.com. Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.comBranch Office: Cochin 4th Floor, Anjali Complex, near south over bridge, Valanjambalam, Cochin – 682 016, Kerala. 0484 – 6006002, +917736004002. Email: kerala@elysiumtechnologies.com, Website: www.elysiumtechnologies.com IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  2. 2. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com MOBILE COMPUTING 2012 - 2013EGC A Statistical Mechanics-Based Framework to Analyze Ad Hoc Networks with Random4301 Access Characterizing the performance of ad hoc networks is one of the most intricate open challenges; conventional ideas based on information-theoretic techniques and inequalities have not yet been able to successfully tackle this problem in its generality. Motivated thus, we promote the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), a particle flow model in statistical mechanics, as a useful analytical tool to study ad hoc networks with random access. Employing the TASEP framework, we first investigate the average end-to-end delay and throughput performance of a linear multihop flow of packets. Additionally, we analytically derive the distribution of delays incurred by packets at each node, as well as the joint distributions of the delays across adjacent hops along the flow. We then consider more complex wireless network models comprising intersecting flows, and propose the partial mean-field approximation (PMFA), a method that helps tightly approximate the throughput performance of the system. We finally demonstrate via a simple example that the PMFA procedure is quite general in that it may be used to accurately evaluate the performance of ad hoc networks with arbitrary topologies.EGC A Fade-Level Skew-Laplace Signal Strength Model for Device-Free Localization with4302 Wireless Networks We propose a broadcast algorithm suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios, which only employs local information acquired via periodic beacon messages, containing acknowledgments of the circulated broadcast messages. Each vehicle decides whether it belongs to a connected dominating set (CDS). Vehicles in the CDS use a shorter waiting period before possible retransmission. At time-out expiration, a vehicle retransmits if it is aware of at least one neighbor in need of the message. To address intermittent connectivity and appearance of new neighbors, the evaluation timer can be restarted. Our algorithm resolves propagation at road intersections without any need to even recognize intersections. It is inherently adaptable to different mobility regimes, without the need to classify network or vehicle speeds. In a thorough simulation-based performance evaluation, our algorithm is shown to provide higher reliability and message efficiency than existing approaches for nonsafety applications.EGC Acknowledgment-Based Broadcast Protocol for Reliable and Efficient Data Dissemination4303 in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks We propose a broadcast algorithm suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios, which only employs local information acquired via periodic beacon messages, containing acknowledgments of the circulated broadcast messages. Each vehicle decides whether it belongs to a connected dominating set (CDS). Vehicles in the CDS use a shorter waiting period before possible retransmission. At time-out expiration, a vehicle retransmits if it is aware of at least one neighbor in need of the message. To address intermittent connectivity and appearance of new neighbors, the IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  3. 3. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com evaluation timer can be restarted. Our algorithm resolves propagation at road intersections without any need to even recognize intersections. It is inherently adaptable to different mobility regimes, without the need to classify network or vehicle speeds. In a thorough simulation-based performance evaluation, our algorithm is shown to provide higher reliability and message efficiency than existing approaches for nonsafety applications.EGC4304 Chameleon: A Color-Adaptive Web Browser for Mobile OLED Displays Displays based on organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology are appearing on many mobile devices. Unlike liquid crystal displays (LCD), OLED displays consume dramatically different power for showing different colors. In particular, OLED displays are inefficient for showing bright colors. This has made them undesirable for mobile devices because much of the web content is of bright colors. To tackle this problem, we present the motivational studies, design, and realization of Chameleon, a color adaptive web browser that renders webpages with power-optimized color schemes under user-supplied constraints. Driven by the findings from our motivational studies, Chameleon provides end users with important options, offloads tasks that are not absolutely needed in real time, and accomplishes real-time tasks by carefully enhancing the codebase of a browser engine. According to measurements with OLED smartphones, Chameleon is able to reduce average system power consumption for web browsing by 41 percent and is able to reduce display power consumption by 64 percent without introducing any noticeable delay.EGC An MIMO Configuration Mode and MCS Level Selection Scheme by Fuzzy Q-Learning for4305 HSPA+ Systems In this paper, we propose a fuzzy Q-learning-based MIMO configuration mode and MCS level (FQL-MOMS) selection scheme for high speed packet access evolution (HSPA+) systems. The FQL-MOMS selection scheme intends to enhance the system throughput under the block error rate (BLER) requirement guarantee. It will determine an appropriate MIMO configuration mode and MCS (modulation and coding scheme) level for packet data transmission in HSPA+ systems, under the situations that the channel status is varying and the channel quality indication (CQI) has report delay. The FQL-MOMS scheme considers not only the reported CQI and the last transmission result but also the BLER performance metric and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is effectively configured, where the fuzzy rules and the reinforcement signals for the Q-learning algorithm are sophisticatedly designed. Simulation results show that the proposed FQL-MOMS scheme increases the system throughput by up to 49.3% and 35.9%, compared to the conventional adaptive threshold selection (ATS) scheme [12] and the Q-HARQ scheme [14], respectively, under the BLER requirement fulfillment.EGC A Trigger Identification Service for Defending Reactive Jammers in WSN4306 During the last decade, Reactive Jamming Attack has emerged as a great security threat to wireless sensor networks, due to its mass destruction to legitimate sensor communications and difficulty to be disclosed and defended. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  4. 4. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Considering the specific characteristics of reactive jammer nodes, a new scheme to deactivate them by efficiently identifying all trigger nodes, whose transmissions invoke the jammer nodes, has been proposed and developed. Such a trigger-identification procedure can work as an application-layer service and benefit many existing reactive-jamming defending schemes. In this paper, on the one hand, we leverage several optimization problems to provide a complete trigger-identification service framework for unreliable wireless sensor networks. On the other hand, we provide an improved algorithm with regard to two sophisticated jamming models, in order to enhance its robustness for various network scenarios. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are included to validate the performance of this framework.EGC A Cost Analysis Framework for NEMO Prefix Delegation-Based Schemes4307 Collaborative Business Processes (cBPs) form the backbone of enterprise integration. With the growing reliance on the Network Mobility (NEMO) efficiently manages the mobility of multiple nodes that moves together as a mobile network. A major limitation of the basic protocol in NEMO is the inefficient route between end hosts. A number of prefix delegation- based schemes have been proposed in the literature to solve the route optimization problem in NEMO. Approaches used by the schemes trade off delivery of packets through the partially-optimized route with signaling and other processing overheads. Cost of delivering packets through the partially-optimized route along with signaling and other processing cost need to be measured to find out the gain from tradeoff. However, cost analysis performed so far on NEMO protocols consider only the cost of signaling. In this paper, we have developed analytical framework to measure the costs of the basic protocol for NEMO, and four representative prefix delegation-based schemes. Our results show that cost of packet delivery through the partially-optimized route dominates over other costs. Therefore, optimizing the route completely is preferable to reduction of signaling as far as cost of network mobility is concerned. Our cost analysis framework will help in decision making to select the best route optimization scheme depending on the load imposed by the scheme on the infrastructure.EGC A Novel MAC Scheme for Multichannel Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks4308 This paper proposes a novel medium access control (MAC) scheme for multichannel cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks, which achieves high throughput of CR system while protecting primary users (PUs) effectively. In designing the MAC scheme, we consider that the PU signal may cover only a part of the network and the nodes can have the different sensing result for the same PU even on the same channel. By allowing the nodes to use the channel on which the PU exists as long as their transmissions do not disturb the PU, the proposed MAC scheme fully utilizes the spectrum access opportunity. To mitigate the hidden PU problem inherent to multichannel CR networks where the PU signal is detectable only to some nodes, the proposed MAC scheme adjusts the sensing priorities of channels at each node with the PU detection information of other nodes and also limits the transmission power of a CR node to the maximum allowable power for guaranteeing the quality of service requirement of PU. The performance of the proposed MAC IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  5. 5. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com scheme is evaluated by using simulation. The simulation results show that the CR system with the proposed MAC accomplishes good performance in throughput and packet delay, while protecting PUs properly.EGC Approximation Algorithms for Data Broadcast in Wireless Networks4309 Large Broadcasting is a fundamental operation in wireless networks and plays an important role in the communication protocol design. In multihop wireless networks, however, interference at a node due to simultaneous transmissions from its neighbors makes it nontrivial to design a minimum-latency broadcast algorithm, which is known to be NP-complete. We present a simple 12-approximation algorithm for the one-to-all broadcast problem that improves all previously known guarantees for this problem. We then consider the all-to-all broadcast problem where each node sends its own message to all other nodes. For the all-to-all broadcast problem, we present two algorithms with approximation ratios of 20 and 34, improving the best result available in the literature. Finally, we report experimental evaluation of our algorithms. Our studies indicate that our algorithms perform much better in practice than the worst-case guarantees provided in the theoretical analysis and achieve up to 37 percent performance improvement over existing schemes.EGC Avoiding the Rush Hours: WiFi Energy Management via Traffic Isolation4310 WiFi continues to be a prime source of energy consumption in mobile devices. This paper observes that, despite a rich body of research in WiFi energy management, there is room for improvement. Our key finding is that WiFi energy optimizations have conventionally been designed with a single AP in mind. However, network contention among different APs can dramatically increase a clients energy consumption. Each client may have to keep awake for long durations before its own AP gets a chance to send it packets to it. As AP density increases, the waiting time inflates, resulting in a proportional decrease in battery life. We design SleepWell, a system that achieves energy efficiency by evading network contention. The APs regulate the sleeping window of their clients in a way that different APs are active/inactive during nonoverlapping time windows. The solution is analogous to the common wisdom of going late to office and coming back late, thereby avoiding the rush hours. We implement SleepWell on a testbed of eight Laptops and nine Android phones, and evaluate it over a wide variety of scenarios and traffic patterns. Results show a median gain of up to 2x when WiFi links are strong; when links are weak and the network density is high, the gains can be even more.EGC4311 Compressed-Sensing-Enabled Video Streaming for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks This paper presents the design of a networked system for joint compression, rate control and error correction of video over resource-constrained embedded devices based on the theory of Compressed Sensing (CS). The objective of this work is to design a cross-layer system that jointly controls the video encoding rate, the transmission rate, and the channel coding rate to maximize the received video quality. First, compressed sensing-based video encoding for transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) is studied. It is shown that compressed sensing can IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  6. 6. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com overcome many of the current problems of video over WMSNs, primarily encoder complexity and low resiliency to channel errors. A rate controller is then developed with the objective of maintaining fairness among different videos while maximizing the received video quality. It is shown that the rate of Compressed Sensed Video (CSV) can be predictably controlled by varying only the compressed sensing sampling rate. It is then shown that the developed rate controller can be interpreted as the iterative solution to a convex optimization problem representing the optimization of the rate allocation across the network. The error resiliency properties of compressed sensed images and videos are then studied, and an optimal error detection and correction scheme is presented for video transmission over lossy channels. Finally, the entire system is evaluated through simulation and test bed evaluation. The rate controller is shown to outperform existing TCP-friendly rate control schemes in terms of both fairness and received video quality. The test bed results show that the rates converge to stable values in real channels.EGC Chip Error Pattern Analysis in IEEE 802.15.44312 IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies physical layer (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) sublayer protocols for low-rate and low-power communication applications. In this protocol, every 4-bit symbol is encoded into a sequence of 32 chips that are actually transmitted over the air. The 32 chips as a whole is also called a pseudonoise code (PN-Code). Due to complex channel conditions such as attenuation and interference, the transmitted PN-Code will often be received with some PN-Code chips corrupted. In this paper, we conduct a systematic analysis on these errors occurring at chip level. We find that there are notable error patterns corresponding to different cases. We then show that recognizing these patterns enables us to identify the channel condition in great details. We believe that understanding what happened to the transmission in our way can potentially bring benefit to channel coding, routing, and error correction protocol design. Finally, we propose Simple Rule, a simple yet effective method based on the chip error patterns to infer the link condition with an accuracy of over 96 percent in our evaluations.EGC Converge Cast: On the Capacity and Delay Tradeoffs4313 In this paper, we define an ad hoc network where multiple sources transmit packets to one destination as Converge-Cast network. We will study the capacity delay tradeoffs assuming that n wireless nodes are deployed in a unit square. For each session (the session is a dataflow from k different source nodes to 1 destination node), k nodes are randomly selected as active sources and each transmits one packet to a particular destination node, which is also randomly selected. We first consider the stationary case, where capacity is mainly discussed and delay is entirely dependent on the average number of hops. We find that the per-node capacity is Θ (1/√(n log n)) (given nonnegative functions f(n) and g(n): f(n) = O(g(n)) means there exist positive constants c and m such that f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ m; f(n)= Ω (g(n)) means there exist positive constants c and m such that f(n) ≥ cg(n) for all n ≥ m; f(n) = Θ (g(n)) means that both f(n) = Ω (g(n)) and f(n) = O(g(n)) hold), which is the same as that of unicast, presented in (Gupta and Kumar, 2000). Then, node mobility is introduced to increase network capacity, for which our study is performed in two steps. The first step is to establish the delay in single-session transmission. We find that the delay is Θ (n log k) under 1-hop strategy, and Θ (n log k/m) IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  7. 7. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com under 2-hop redundant strategy, where m denotes the number of replicas for each packet. The second step is to find delay and capacity in multisession transmission. We reveal that the per-node capacity and delay for 2-hop nonredundancy strategy are Θ (1) and Θ (n log k), respectively. The optimal delay is Θ (√(n log k)+k) with redundancy, corresponding to a capacity of Θ (√((1/n log k) + (k/n log k)). Therefore, we obtain that the capacity delay tradeoff satisfies delay/rate ≥ Θ (n log k) for both strategies.EGC Characterizing the Security Implications of Third-Party Emergency Alert Systems over4314 Cellular Text Messaging Services Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during emergencies. Accordingly, a wide range of organizations including colleges and universities now partner with third- party providers that promise to improve physical security by rapidly delivering such messages. Unfortunately, these products do not work as advertised due to limitations of cellular infrastructure and therefore provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, we perform the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism. We show emergency alert systems built on text messaging not only can meet the 10 minute delivery requirement mandated by the WARN Act, but also potentially cause other voice and SMS traffic to be blocked at rates upward of 80 percent. We then show that our results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously understood failures. Finally, we analyze a targeted messaging mechanism as a means of efficiently using currently deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In so doing, we demonstrate that this increasingly deployed security infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations.EGC Coverage Verification without Location Information4315 Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently emerged as a prominent technology for environmental monitoring and hazardous event detection. Yet, their success depends considerably on their ability to ensure reliable event detection. Such guarantees can be provided only if the target field monitored by a WSN does not contain coverage holes that are not monitored by any sensor. Currently, the coverage hole detection solutions require accurate knowledge of the sensors locations, which cannot be easily obtained, or they cannot provide guarantees on the coverage quality. In this study, we address the challenge of designing an accurate k-coverage verification scheme, without using location information, for a predefined k ≥ 1. To this end, we present two efficient, distributed, and localized k-coverage verification schemes with proven guarantees on their coverage detection quality. Our simulations show that the schemes accurately detect coverage holes of various sizes. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  8. 8. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC Design of Efficient Multicast Protocol for IEEE 802.11n WLANs and Cross-Layer4316 Optimization for Scalable Video Streaming The legacy multicasting over IEEE 802.11-based WLANs has two well-known problems-poor reliability and low-rate transmission. In the literature, various WLAN multicast protocols have been proposed in order to overcome these problems. Existing multicast protocols, however, are not so efficient when they are used combining with the frame aggregation scheme of IEEE 802.11n. In this paper, we propose a novel MAC-level multicast protocol for IEEE 802.11n, named Reliable and Efficient Multicast Protocol (REMP). To enhance the reliability and efficiency of multicast services in IEEE 802.11n WLANs, REMP enables selective retransmissions for erroneous multicast frames and efficient adjustments of the modulation and coding scheme (MCS). In addition, we propose an extension of REMP, named scalable REMP (S- REMP), for efficient delivery of scalable video over IEEE 802.11n WLANs. In S-REMP, different MCSs are assigned to different layers of scalable video to guarantee the minimal video quality to all users while providing a higher video quality to users exhibiting better channel conditions. Our simulation results show that REMP outperforms existing multicast protocols for normal multicast traffic and S-REMP offers improved performance for scalable video streaming. EGC Design and Analysis of the Gateway Relocation and Admission Control Algorithm in 4317 Mobile WiMAX Networks The WiMAX Forum has defined a two-tiered mobility management to minimize handover delay and packet loss. However, it leads to another problem: When to perform ASN GW relocation? The standards only define the ASN GW relocation procedures without specifying when the ASN GW relocation should be performed. It is left for vendors and operators to develop their own proprietary solutions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, which incorporates traditional Admission Control (AC) and Wiener Process (WP)-based prediction algorithms to determine when to carry out ASN GW relocation. We further develop an analytical model to analyze the proposed algorithm. Simulations are also conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the performance significantly in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability, average serving rate, and average signaling overhead.EGC Cooperative Download in Vehicular Environments4318 We consider a complex (i.e., nonlinear) road scenario where users aboard vehicles equipped with communication interfaces are interested in downloading large files from road-side Access Points (APs). We investigate the possibility of exploiting opportunistic encounters among mobile nodes so to augment the transfer rate experienced by vehicular downloaders. To that end, we devise solutions for the selection of carriers and data chunks at the APs, and evaluate them in real-world road topologies, under different AP deployment strategies. Through extensive simulations, we show IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  9. 9. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com that carry&forward transfers can significantly increase the download rate of vehicular users in urban/suburban environments, and that such a result holds throughout diverse mobility scenarios, AP placements and network loads.EGC4319 Energy-Efficient Cooperative Video Distribution with Statistical QoS Provisions over Wireless Networks The WiMAX Forum has defined a two-tiered mobility management to minimize handover delay and packet loss. However, it leads to another problem: When to perform ASN GW relocation? The standards only define the ASN GW relocation procedures without specifying when the ASN GW relocation should be performed. It is left for vendors and operators to develop their own proprietary solutions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, which incorporates traditional Admission Control (AC) and Wiener Process (WP)-based prediction algorithms to determine when to carry out ASN GW relocation. We further develop an analytical model to analyze the proposed algorithm. Simulations are also conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the performance significantly in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability, average serving rate, and average signaling overhead.EGC Detection of Selfish Manipulation of Carrier Sensing in 802.11 Networks4320 Recently, tuning the clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold in conjunction with power control has been considered for improving the performance of WLANs. However, we show that, CCA tuning can be exploited by selfish nodes to obtain an unfair share of the available bandwidth. Specifically, a selfish entity can manipulate the CCA threshold to ignore ongoing transmissions; this increases the probability of accessing the medium and provides the entity a higher, unfair share of the bandwidth. We experiment on our 802.11 testbed to characterize the effects of CCA tuning on both isolated links and in 802.11 WLAN configurations. We focus on AP-client(s) configurations, proposing a novel approach to detect this misbehavior. A misbehaving client is unlikely to recognize low power receptions as legitimate packets; by intelligently sending low power probe messages, an AP can efficiently detect a misbehaving node. Our key contributions are: 1) We are the first to quantify the impact of selfish CCA tuning via extensive experimentation on various 802.11 configurations. 2) We propose a lightweight scheme for detecting selfish nodes that inappropriately increase their CCAs. 3) We extensively evaluate our system on our testbed; its accuracy is 95 percent while the false positive rate is less than 5 percent.EGC Efficient Virtual Backbone Constructionwith Routing Cost Constraint in4321 WirelessNetworks Using Directional Antennas Directional antennas can divide the transmission range into several sectors. Thus, through switching off sectors in unnecessary directions in wireless networks, we can save bandwidth and energy consumption. In this paper, we will study a directional virtual backbone (VB) in the network where directional antennas are used. When constructing a VB, IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  10. 10. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com we will take routing and broadcasting into account since they are two common operations in wireless networks. Hence, we will study a VB with guaranteed routing costs, named α Minimum rOuting Cost Directional VB (α- MOC-DVB). Besides the properties of regular VBs, α-MOC-DVB also has a special constraint — for any pair of nodes, there exists at least one path all intermediate directions on which must belong to α-MOC-DVB and the number of intermediate directions on the path is smaller than α times that on the shortest path. We prove that construction of a minimum α-MOC-DVB is an NP-hard problem in a general directed graph. A heuristic algorithm is proposed and theoretical analysis is also discussed in the paper. Extensive simulations demonstrate that our α-MOC-DVB is much more efficient in the sense of VB size and routing costs compared to other VBs. EGC Distributed Throughput Maximization in Wireless Networks via Random Power 4322 Allocation We develop a distributed throughput-optimal power allocation algorithm in wireless networks. The study of this problem has been limited due to the nonconvexity of the underlying optimization problems that prohibits an efficient solution even in a centralized setting. By generalizing the randomization framework originally proposed for input queued switches to SINR rate-based interference model, we characterize the throughput-optimality conditions that enable efficient and distributed implementation. Using gossiping algorithm, we develop a distributed power allocation algorithm that satisfies the optimality conditions, thereby achieving (nearly) 100 percent throughput. We illustrate the performance of our power allocation solution through numerical simulation.EGC Distributed and Online Fair Resource Management in Video Surveillance Sensor4323 Networks Visual capability introduced to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) render many novel applications that would otherwise be infeasible. However, unlike legacy WSNs which are commercially deployed in applications, visual sensor networks create additional research problems that delays the real-world implementations. Conveying real-time video streams over resource constrained sensor hardware remains to be a challenging task. As a remedy, we propose a fairness-based approach to enhance the event reporting and detection performance of the Video Surveillance Sensor Networks. Instead of achieving fairness only for flows or for nodes as investigated in the literature, we concentrate on the whole application requirement. Accordingly, our Event-Based Fairness (EBF) scheme aims at fair resource allocation for the application level messaging units called events. We identify the crucial network-wide resources as the in-queue processing turn of the frames and the channel access opportunities of the nodes. We show that fair treatment of events, as opposed to regular flow of frames, results in enhanced performance in terms of the number of frames reported per event and the reporting latency. EBF is a robust mechanism that can be used as a stand-alone or as a complementary method to other possible performance enhancement methods for video sensor networks implemented at other communication layers. EGC Efficient Rendezvous Algorithms for Mobility-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks 4324 IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  11. 11. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Recent research shows that significant energy saving can be achieved in mobility-enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that visit sensor nodes and collect data from them via short-range communications. However, a major performance bottleneck of such WSNs is the significantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement speed of mobile base stations. To address this issue, we propose a rendezvous-based data collection approach in which a subset of nodes serve as rendezvous points that buffer and aggregate data originated from sources and transfer to the base station when it arrives. This approach combines the advantages of controlled mobility and in-network data caching and can achieve a desirable balance between network energy saving and data collection delay. We propose efficient rendezvous design algorithms with provable performance bounds for mobile base stations with variable and fixed tracks, respectively. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations.EGC Distributed Throughput Maximization in Wireless Networks via Random Power4325 Allocation Scalable video transmission over a network is easily adaptable to different types of mobile experiencing different network conditions. However the transmission of differentiated video packets in an error-prone wireless environment remains problematic. We propose and analyze a cross-layer error control scheme that exploits priority-aware block interleaving (PBI) in the MAC layer for video broadcasting in CDMA2000 systems. The PBI scheme allocates a higher priority to protecting the data which are more critical to the decoding of a video stream, and therefore has more effect on picture quality in the application layer. The use of Reed-Solomon coding in conjunction with PBI in the MAC layer can handle error bursts more effectively if its implementation takes account of underlying error distributions in the physical layer, and differentiates between different types of video packets in the application layer. We also calculate the maximum jitter from the variability of the Reed-Solomon decoding delay and determine the size of jitter buffer needed to prevent interruptions due to buffer underrun. Simulations demonstrate the extent to which we can improve the perceived quality of scalable video.EGC Energy-Efficient Strategies for Cooperative Multichannel MAC Protocols4326 Distributed Information SHaring (DISH) is a new cooperative approach to designing multichannel MAC protocols. It aids nodes in their decision making processes by compensating for their missing information via information sharing through neighboring nodes. This approach was recently shown to significantly boost the throughput of multichannel MAC protocols. However, a critical issue for ad hoc communication devices, viz. energy efficiency, has yet to be addressed. In this paper, we address this issue by developing simple solutions that reduce the energy consumption without compromising the throughput performance and meanwhile maximize cost efficiency. We propose two energy- IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  12. 12. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com efficient strategies: in-situ energy conscious DISH, which uses existing nodes only, and altruistic DISH, which requires additional nodes called altruists. We compare five protocols with respect to these strategies and identify altruistic DISH to be the right choice in general: it 1) conserves 40-80 percent of energy, 2) maintains the throughput advantage, and 3) more than doubles the cost efficiency compared to protocols without this strategy. On the other hand, our study also shows that in-situ energy conscious DISH is suitable only in certain limited scenarios.EGC Enhancing Privacy and Accuracy in Probe Vehicle-Based Traffic Monitoring via Virtual4327 Trip Lines Traffic monitoring using probe vehicles with GPS receivers promises significant improvements in cost, coverage, and accuracy over dedicated infrastructure systems. Current approaches, however, raise privacy concerns because they require participants to reveal their positions to an external traffic monitoring server. To address this challenge, we describe a system based on virtual trip lines and an associated cloaking technique, followed by another system design in which we relax the privacy requirements to maximize the accuracy of real-time traffic estimation. We introduce virtual trip lines which are geographic markers that indicate where vehicles should provide speed updates. These markers are placed to avoid specific privacy sensitive locations. They also allow aggregating and cloaking several location updates based on trip line identifiers, without knowing the actual geographic locations of these trip lines. Thus, they facilitate the design of a distributed architecture, in which no single entity has a complete knowledge of probe identities and fine- grained location information. We have implemented the system with GPS smartphone clients and conducted a controlled experiment with 100 phone-equipped drivers circling a highway segment, which was later extended into a year-long public deployment.EGC Directed by Directionality: Benefiting from the Gain Pattern of Active RFID Badges4328 Tracking of people via active badges is important for location-aware computing and for security applications. However, the human body has a major effect on the antenna gain pattern of the device that the person is wearing. In this paper, the gain pattern due to the effect of the human body is experimentally measured and represented by a first-order directional gain pattern model. A method is presented to estimate the model parameters from multiple received signal strength (RSS) measurements. An alternating gain and position estimation (AGAPE) algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the orientation and the position of the badge using RSS measurements at known-position anchor nodes. Lower bounds on mean squared error (MSE) and experimental results are presented that both show that the accuracy of position estimates can be greatly improved by including orientation estimates in the localization system. Next, we propose a new tracking filter that accepts orientation estimates as input, which we call the orientation-enhanced extended Kalman filter (OE-EKF), which improves tracking accuracy in active RFID tracking systems. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  13. 13. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC Fault Localization Using Passive End-to-End Measurements and Sequential Testing for4329 Wireless Sensor Networks Traffic Faulty components in a network need to be localized and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that carefully combines active and passive measurements to localize faults in wireless sensor networks. More specifically, we formulate a problem of optimal sequential testing guided by end-to-end data. This problem determines an optimal testing sequence of network components based on end-to-end data in sensor networks to minimize expected testing cost. We prove that this problem is NP-hard, and propose a recursive approach to solve it. This approach leads to a polynomial-time optimal algorithm for line topologies while requiring exponential running time for general topologies. We further develop two polynomial-time heuristic schemes that are applicable to general topologies. Extensive simulation shows that our heuristic schemes only require testing a very small set of network components to localize and repair all faults in the network. Our approach is superior to using active and passive measurements in isolation. It also outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches that localize and repair all faults in a network.EGC FESCIM: Fair, Efficient, and Secure Cooperation Incentive Mechanism for Multi-hop4330 Cellular Networks Faulty components in a network need to be localized and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that carefully combines active and passive measurements to localize faults in wireless sensor networks. More specifically, we formulate a problem of optimal sequential testing guided by end-to-end data. This problem determines an optimal testing sequence of network components based on end-to-end data in sensor networks to minimize expected testing cost. We prove that this problem is NP-hard, and propose a recursive approach to solve it. This approach leads to a polynomial-time optimal algorithm for line topologies while requiring exponential running time for general topologies. We further develop two polynomial-time heuristic schemes that are applicable to general topologies. Extensive simulation shows that our heuristic schemes only require testing a very small set of network components to localize and repair all faults in the network. Our approach is superior to using active and passive measurements in isolation. It also outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches that localize and repair all faults in a network.EGC Estimating Parameters of Multiple Heterogeneous Target Objects Using Composite4331 Sensor Nodes We propose a method for estimating parameters of multiple target objects by using networked binary sensors whose locations are unknown. These target objects may have different parameters, such as size and perimeter length. Each sensors, which is incapable of monitoring the target objects parameters, sends only binary data describing whether or not it detects target objects coming into, moving around, or leaving the sensing area at every moment. We previously developed a parameter estimation method for a single target object. However, a straight-forward extension of this method is not applicable for estimating multiple heterogeneous target objects. This is because a networked binary IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  14. 14. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com sensor at an unknown location cannot provide information that distinguishes individual target objects, but it can provide information on the total perimeter length and size of multiple target objects. Therefore, we propose composite sensor nodes with multiple sensors in a predetermined layout for obtaining additional information for estimating the parameter of each target object. As an example of a composite sensor node, we consider a two-sensor composite sensor node, which consists of two sensors, one at each of the two end points of a line segment of known length. For the two-sensor composite sensor node, measures are derived such as the two sensors detecting target objects. These derived measures are the basis for identifying the shape of each target object among a given set of categories (for example, disks and rectangles) and estimating parameters such as the radius and lengths of two sides of each target object. Numerical examples demonstrate that networked composite sensor nodes consisting of two binary sensors enable us to estimate the parameters of target objects.EGC Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network4332 In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility, communication cost, and average query delay.EGC Fast Data Collection in Tree-Based Wireless Sensor Networks4333 We investigate the following fundamental question-how fast can information be collected from a wireless sensor network organized as tree? To address this, we explore and evaluate a number of different techniques using realistic simulation models under the many-to-one communication paradigm known as convergecast. We first consider time scheduling on a single frequency channel with the aim of minimizing the number of time slots required (schedule length) to complete a convergecast. Next, we combine scheduling with transmission power control to mitigate the effects of interference, and show that while power control helps in reducing the schedule length under a single frequency, scheduling transmissions using multiple frequencies is more efficient. We give lower bounds on the schedule length when interference is completely eliminated, and propose algorithms that achieve these bounds. We also evaluate the performance of various channel assignment methods and find empirically that for moderate size networks of about 100 nodes, the use of multifrequency scheduling can suffice to eliminate most of the interference. Then, the data collection rate no longer remains limited by interference but by the topology of the routing tree. To this end, we construct degree- IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  15. 15. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com constrained spanning trees and capacitated minimal spanning trees, and show significant improvement in scheduling performance over different deployment densities. Lastly, we evaluate the impact of different interference and channel models on the schedule length. EGC Error Resilient Estimation and Adaptive Binary Selection for Fast and Reliable 4334 Identification of RFID Tags in Error-Prone Channel In RFID systems, far field passive tags send information using back scattering. The signal level is typically very small, so channel error during transmission may occur frequently. Due to channel error, performance of RFID tag identification under error-prone channel is degraded compared to that under error-free channel. In this paper, we propose a novel error resilient estimation and adaptive binary selection to overcome the problem of channel errors. Our proposed error resilient estimation algorithm can estimate the number of tags and the channel state accurately regardless of frame errors. And our proposed adaptive binary selection reduces the idle slots caused by frame errors. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm consumes up to 20% less time slots than the binary tree protocol and dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA) in various bit error rate (BER) conditions. EGC Fast Capture—Recapture Approach for Mitigating the Problem of Missing RFID Tags 4335 The technology of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) enables many applications that rely on passive, battery-less wireless devices. If a RFID reader needs to gather the ID from multiple tags in its range, then it needs to run an anticollision protocol. Due to errors on the wireless link, a single reader session, which contains one full execution of the anticollision protocol, may not be sufficient to retrieve the ID of all tags. This problem can be mitigated by running multiple, redundant reader sessions and use the statistical relationship between these sessions. On the other hand, each session is time consuming and therefore the number of sessions should be kept minimal. We optimize the process of running multiple reader sessions, by allowing only some of the tags already discovered to reply in subsequent reader sessions. The estimation procedure is integrated with an actual tree-based anticollision protocol, and numerical results show that the reliable tag resolution algorithm attain high speed of protocol execution, while not sacrificing the reliability of the estimators used to assess the probability of missing tags.EGC Geometry and Motion-Based Positioning Algorithms for Mobile Tracking in NLOS4336 Environments In This paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based mobile tracking in severe non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  16. 16. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com positioning systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the hostile environment. Two positioning methods with NLOS mitigation are proposed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which takes account of the NLOS error. Mobile velocity and heading angle information is exploited to greatly enhance position accuracy. It is observed through simulation that the proposed methods significantly outperform other cellular network based positioning algorithms. Further, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived when the distance measurement error is the sum of an exponential and a Gaussian variable. RFID systems, far field passive tags send information using back scattering. The signal level is typically very small, so channel error during transmission may occur frequently. Due to channel error, performance of RFID tag identification under error-prone channel is degraded compared to that under error-free channel. In this paper, we propose a novel error resilient estimation and adaptive binary selection to overcome the problem of channel errors. Our proposed error resilient estimation algorithm can estimate the number of tags and the channel state accurately regardless of frame errors. And our proposed adaptive binary selection reduces the idle slots caused by frame errors. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm consumes up to 20% less time slots than the binary tree protocol and dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA) in various bit error rate (BER) conditions.EGC Local Broadcast Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Reducing the Number of4337 Transmissions This paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based mobile tracking in severe non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based positioning systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the hostile environment. Two positioning methods with NLOS mitigation are proposed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which takes account of the NLOS error. Mobile velocity and heading angle information is exploited to greatly enhance position accuracy. It is observed through simulation that the proposed methods significantly outperform other cellular network based positioning algorithms. Further, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived when the distance measurement error is the sum of an exponential and a Gaussian variable.EGC Leveraging the Algebraic Connectivity of a Cognitive Network for Routing Design4338 In this paper, we consider the implications of spectrum heterogeneity on connectivity and routing in a Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN). We study the Laplacian spectrum of the CRAHN graph when the activity of primary users is considered. We introduce the cognitive algebraic connectivity, i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph, in a cognitive scenario. Throughout this notion we provide a methodology to evaluate the connectivity of CRAHNs and consequently introduce a utility function that is shown to be effective in capturing key characteristics of CRAHN paths. This model provides a unique metric that captures network connectivity, path length, and impact of IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  17. 17. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com primary users. Moreover, the proposed metric penalizes paths where spectrum band switchings are highly probable. We design all the components of our routing framework, named Gymkhana, and we present a twofold performance verification: one from a topological perspective to show all the potentialities of the proposed routing approach, and the other considering network traffic to evaluate the performance in terms of end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio.EGC Local Construction of Spanners in the 3D Space4339 In this paper, we present local distributed algorithms for constructing spanners in wireless sensor networks modeled as unit ball graphs (shortly UBGs) and quasi-unit ball graphs (shortly quasi-UBGs), in the 3D euclidean space. Our first contribution is a local distributed algorithm that, given a UBG U and a parameter alpha < pi/3, constructs a sparse spanner of U with stretch factor 1/(1-2sin {(alpha/2)}), improving the previous upper bound of 1/(1-alpha ) by Althöfer et al. which is applicable only when alpha < 1/(1+2sqrt{2}) < pi/3. The second contribution of this paper is in presenting the first local distributed algorithm for the construction of bounded-degree lightweight spanners of UBGs and quasi-UBGs. The simulation results we obtained show that, empirically, the weight and the stretch factor of the spanners, and the locality of the algorithms, are much better than the theoretical upper bounds proved in this paper.EGC Investigation of Context Prediction Accuracy for Different Context Abstraction Levels4340 Context prediction is the task of inferring information about the progression of an observed context time series based on its previous behavior. Prediction methods can be applied at several abstraction levels in the context processing chain. In a theoretical analysis as well as by means of experiments we show that the nature of the input data, the quality of the output, and finally the flow of processing operations used to make a prediction, are correlated. A comprehensive discussion of basic concepts in context prediction domains and a study on the effects of the context abstraction level on the context prediction accuracy in context prediction scenarios is provided. We develop a set of formulae that link scenario-dependent parameters to a probability for the context prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated that the results achieved in our theoretical analysis can also be confirmed in simulations as well as in experimental studies.EGC Hop-by-Hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Bandwidth Guarantees4341 Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) has become an important edge network to provide Internet access to remote areas and wireless connections in a metropolitan scale. In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the maximum available IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  18. 18. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com bandwidth path, a fundamental issue in supporting quality-of-service in WMNs. Due to interference among links, bandwidth, a well-known bottleneck metric in wired networks, is neither concave nor additive in wireless networks. We propose a new path weight which captures the available path bandwidth information. We formally prove that our hop-by- hop routing protocol based on the new path weight satisfies the consistency and loop-freeness requirements. The consistency property guarantees that each node makes a proper packet forwarding decision, so that a data packet does traverse over the intended path. Our extensive simulation experiments also show that our proposed path weight outperforms existing path metrics in identifying high-throughput paths.EGC Investigation of Context Prediction Accuracy for Different Context Abstraction Levels4342 Context prediction is the task of inferring information about the progression of an observed context time series based on its previous behavior. Prediction methods can be applied at several abstraction levels in the context processing chain. In a theoretical analysis as well as by means of experiments we show that the nature of the input data, the quality of the output, and finally the flow of processing operations used to make a prediction, are correlated. A comprehensive discussion of basic concepts in context prediction domains and a study on the effects of the context abstraction level on the context prediction accuracy in context prediction scenarios is provided. We develop a set of formulae that link scenario-dependent parameters to a probability for the context prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated that the results achieved in our theoretical analysis can also be confirmed in simulations as well as in experimental studies.EGC Link Positions Matter: A Non-commutative Routing Metric for Wireless Mesh Networks4343 We revisit the problem of computing the path with the minimum cost in terms of the expected number of link layer transmissions (including retransmissions) in wireless mesh networks. Unlike previous efforts, such as the popular ETX, we account for the fact that MAC protocols (including the IEEE 802.11 MAC) incorporate a finite number of transmission attempts per packet. This in turn leads to our key observation: the performance of a path depends not only on the number of the links on the path and the quality of its links, but also, on the relative positions of the links on the path. Based on this observation, we propose ETOP, a path metric that accurately captures the expected number of link layer transmissions required for reliable end-to-end packet delivery. We analytically compute ETOP, which is not trivial, since ETOP is a noncommutative function of the link success probabilities. Although ETOP is a more involved metric, we show that the problem of computing paths with the minimum ETOP cost can be solved by a greedy algorithm. We implement and evaluate a routing approach based on ETOP on a 25-node indoor mesh network. Our experiments show that the path selection with ETOP consistently results in superior TCP goodput (by over 50 percent in many cases) compared to path selection based on ETX. We also perform an in-depth analysis of the measurements to better understand why the paths selected by ETOP improve the TCP performance. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  19. 19. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC Local Greedy Approximation for Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Networks4344 In recent years, there has been a significant amount of work done in developing low-complexity scheduling schemes to achieve high performance in multihop wireless networks. A centralized suboptimal scheduling policy, called Greedy Maximal Scheduling (GMS) is a good candidate because its empirically observed performance is close to optimal in a variety of network settings. However, its distributed realization requires high complexity, which becomes a major obstacle for practical implementation. In this paper, we develop simple distributed greedy algorithms for scheduling in multihop wireless networks. We reduce the complexity by relaxing the global ordering requirement of GMS, up to near zero. Simulation results show that the new algorithms approximate the performance of GMS, and outperform the state- of-the-art distributed scheduling policies.EGC Improving QoS in High-Speed Mobility Using Bandwidth Maps4345 It is widely evidenced that location has a significant influence on the actual bandwidth that can be expected from Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs), e.g., 3G. Because a fast-moving vehicle continuously changes its location, vehicular mobile computing is confronted with the possibility of significant variations in available network bandwidth. While it is difficult for providers to eliminate bandwidth disparity over a large service area, it may be possible to map network bandwidth to the road network through repeated measurements. In this paper, we report results of an extensive measurement campaign to demonstrate the viability of such bandwidth maps. We show how bandwidth maps can be interfaced with adaptive multimedia servers and the emerging vehicular communication systems that use on-board mobile routers to deliver Internet services to the passengers. Using simulation experiments driven by our measurement data, we quantify the improvement in Quality of Service (QoS) that can be achieved by taking advantage of the geographical knowledge of bandwidth provided by the bandwidth maps. We find that our approach reduces the frequency of disruptions in perceived QoS for both audio and video applications in high-speed vehicular mobility by several orders of magnitude.EGC Jointly Optimal Source-Flow, Transmit-Power, and Sending-Rate Control for Maximum-4346 Throughput Delivery of VBR Traffic over Faded Links Emerging media overlay networks for wireless applications aim at delivering Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encoded media contents to nomadic end users by exploiting the (fading-impaired and time-varying) access capacity offered by the "last- hop” wireless channel. In this application scenario, a still open question concerns the closed-form design of control IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  20. 20. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com policies that maximize the average throughput sent over the wireless last hop, under constraints on the maximum connection bandwidth available at the Application (APP) layer, the queue capacity available at the Data Link (DL) layer, and the average and peak energies sustained by the Physical (PHY) layer. The approach we follow relies on the maximization on a per-slot basis of the throughput averaged over the fading statistic and conditioned on the queue state, without resorting to cumbersome iterative algorithms. The resulting optimal controller operates in a cross-layer fashion that involves the APP, DL, and PHY layers of the underlying protocol stack. Finally, we develop the operating conditions allowing the proposed controller also to maximize the unconditional average throughput (i.e., the throughput averaged over both queue and channel-state statistics). The carried out numerical tests give insight into the connection bandwidth-versus-queue delay trade-off achieved by the optimal controller.EGC Low Power Consumption Solutions for Mobile Instant Messaging4347 Instant messaging (IM) services enable real-time text and multimedia exchange and online presence awareness. Users typically log onto instant messaging services persistently to discover available friends and also to be discovered. However, our analysis shows that the frequency exchange of presence information incurs massive power consumption to mobile devices over cellular or wireless local area networks. Such power consumption penalty can render persistent- instant messaging infeasible for battery-powered mobile devices. In this paper, we propose several solutions to mitigate the power consumption problem. By reducing the network access and keeping mobile devices in the sleep mode as much as possible, these solutions achieve significant power saving. The power consumption of the proposed solutions is derived analytically in this paper and the proposed solutions are implemented using a Jabber-based architecture. Actual power measurement results show that the power consumption of the proposed solutions agrees well with our analysis, and significant power saving can be achieved on mobile handsets with our low power consumption solutions implemented.EGC Heuristic Burst Construction Algorithm for Improving Downlink Capacity in IEEE4348 802.16 OFDMA Systems IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems have gained much attention for their ability to support high transmission rates and broadband access services. For multiuser environments, IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems require a resource allocation algorithm to use the limited downlink resource efficiently. The IEEE 802.16 standard defines that resource allocation should be performed with a rectangle region of slots, called a burst. However, the standard does not specify how to construct bursts. In this paper, we propose a heuristic burst construction algorithm, called HuB, to improve the downlink capacity in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems. To increase the downlink capacity, during burst constructions HuB reduces resource wastage by considering padded slots and unused slots and reduces resource usage by considering the power boosting possibility. For simple burst constructions, HuB makes a HuB-tree, in which a node represents an IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  21. 21. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com available downlink resource and edges of a node represent a burst rectangle region. Thus, making child nodes of a parent node is the same as constructing a burst in a given downlink resource. We analyzed the proposed algorithm and performed simulations to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with existing algorithms. Our simulation study results show that HuB shows improved downlink capacity over existing algorithms.EGC Investigation of Context Prediction Accuracy for Different Context Abstraction Levels4349 Context prediction is the task of inferring information about the progression of an observed context time series based on its previous behavior. Prediction methods can be applied at several abstraction levels in the context processing chain. In a theoretical analysis as well as by means of experiments we show that the nature of the input data, the quality of the output, and finally the flow of processing operations used to make a prediction, are correlated. A comprehensive discussion of basic concepts in context prediction domains and a study on the effects of the context abstraction level on the context prediction accuracy in context prediction scenarios is provided. We develop a set of formulae that link scenario-dependent parameters to a probability for the context prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated that the results achieved in our theoretical analysis can also be confirmed in simulations as well as in experimental studies.EGC Measurement-Based Bandwidth Scavenging in Wireless Networks4350 Dynamic Spectrum Access can enable a secondary user in a cognitive network to access unused spectrum, or whitespace, found between primary user transmissions in a wireless network. The key design objective for a secondary user access strategy is to "scavenge” the maximum amount of spatio-temporally fragmented whitespace while limiting the amount of disruption caused to the primary users. In this paper, we first measure and analyze the whitespace profiles of an 802.11 network (using ns-2 simulation) and a non-802.11 (CSMA)-based network (developed on TelosB Motes). Then we propose two novel secondary user access strategies, which are based on measurement and statistical modeling of the whitespace as perceived by the secondary users. Afterward, we perform simulation experiments to validate the effectiveness of the proposed access strategies under single and multiple secondary user scenarios, and evaluate their performance numerically using the developed analytical expressions. The results show that the proposed access strategies are able to consistently scavenge between 90 and 96 percent of the available whitespace capacity, while keeping the primary users disruption less than 5 percent.EGC Mobile Ad Hoc Nanonetworks with Collision-Based Molecular Communication4351 IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  22. 22. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com Context Recent developments in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanomachines with very limited sensing, computation, communication, and action capabilities. The network of communicating nanomachines is envisaged as nanonetworks that are designed to accomplish complex tasks such as drug delivery and health monitoring. For the realization of future nanonetworks, it is essential to develop novel and efficient communication and networking paradigms. In this paper, the first step toward designing a mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (MAMNET) with electrochemical communication is taken. MAMNET consists of mobile nanomachines and infostations that share nanoscale information using electrochemical communication whenever they have a physical contact with each other. In MAMNET, the intermittent connectivity introduced by the mobility of nanomachines and infostations is a critical issue to be addressed. An analytical framework that incorporates the effect of mobility into the performance of electrochemical communication among nanomachines is presented. Using the analytical model, numerical analysis for the performance evaluation of MAMNET is obtained. Results reveal that MAMNET achieves adequately high throughput to enable frontier nanonetwork applications with acceptable communication latency.EGC Modeling and Performance Analysis for Duty-Cycled MAC Protocols with Applications4352 to S-MAC and X-MAC Wireless sensor networks are often battery-powered, and hence extending the network lifetime is one of the primary concerns in the ubiquitous deployment of wireless sensor networks. One approach to efficiently utilize the limited energy supplies of the sensors is to have the medium access control (MAC) protocol duty-cycle the sensors, periodically putting the sensors to sleep and waking them up to reduce idle listening, which is energy intensive. Among duty-cycled MAC protocols, some protocols are synchronized so that nodes wake up at the same time in each cycle, and other protocols are asynchronous, where nodes have arbitrary offsets to start their cycles. For protocol designers, it is important to understand which type of duty-cycled MAC protocol should be chosen (synchronized or asynchronous), as well as what values should be assigned to the protocol parameters under a given network scenario in order to achieve a desirable performance for throughput, delay, or energy consumption. However, previous work to analyze the performance of different duty-cycled MAC protocols is either protocol-specific, or limited to one aspect of the performance metric. In this paper, we propose a Markov queuing model to analyze the throughput, delay, and energy consumption of both synchronized and asynchronous duty-cycled MAC protocols with applications to S-MAC and X- MAC. Our contributions include: 1) proposing a Markov queuing model to describe the queuing behavior of both synchronous and asynchronous duty-cycled nodes, 2) modeling the queue dynamics and the stationary probability of packet transmissions for S-MAC, a synchronized duty-cycled MAC protocol, to analyze its performance, 3) modeling the queue dynamics and the stationary probability of packet transmissions for X-MAC, an asynchronous duty-cycled MAC protocol, to analyze its performance, 4) providing comprehensive performance estimation and comparison for different duty-cycled MAC protocols, and 5) providing flexibility to - radeoff different performance metrics by optimizing the protocol parameters. Our model results are validated by comparing with NS-2 and Matlab simulations. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  23. 23. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.comEGC Mining Spectrum Usage Data: A Large-Scale Spectrum Measurement Study4353 Context Dynamic spectrum access has been a subject of extensive study in recent years. The increasing volume of literatures calls for a deeper understanding of the characteristics of current spectrum utilization. In this paper, we present a detailed spectrum measurement study, with data collected in the 20 MHz to 3 GHz spectrum band and at four locations concurrently in Guangdong province of China. We examine the statistics of the collected data, including channel vacancy statistics, channel utilization within each individual wireless service, and the spectral and spatial correlation of these measures. Main findings include that the channel vacancy durations follow an exponential-like distribution, but are not independently distributed over time, and that significant spectral and spatial correlations are found between channels of the same service. We then exploit such spectrum correlation to develop a 2D frequent pattern mining algorithm that can predict channel availability based on past observations with considerable accuracy.EGC Maximum Entropy Principle-Based Algorithm for Simultaneous Resource Location and This paper presents a framework that develops algorithms for solving combined locational and multihop routing4354 Multihop Routing in Multiagent Networks optimization problems. The objective is to determine resource node locations in a multiagent network and to specify the multihop routes from each agent to a common destination through a network of resource nodes that minimize total communication cost. These problems are computationally complex (NP-hard) where the cost functions are riddled with multiple minima. Algorithms based on Maximum Entropy Principle, which guarantee local minima and are heuristically designed to seek the global minimum are presented. These algorithms accommodate practical constraints on resource nodes as well as on the routing network architectures. Simulation results show that the multihop routes and resource locations allocated by these algorithms achieve lower costs (as low as 47 percent) than those algorithms where resource locational optimization is done without multihop routing or where the locational and routing optimization objectives are separated. The enabling feature of these algorithms is accommodating problems with resource constraints which is demonstrated through simulations. .EGC4355 MAC in Motion: Impact of Mobility on the MAC of Drive-Thru Internet The pervasive adoption of IEEE 802.11 radios in the past decade has made possible for the easy Internet access from a vehicle, notably drive-thru Internet. Originally designed for the static indoor applications, the throughput performance of IEEE 802.11 in the outdoor vehicular environment is, however, still unclear especially when a large number of fast- moving users transmitting simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the highly mobile vehicular networks. We first propose a simple yet accurate analytical model to evaluate the throughput of DCF in the large scale drive-thru Internet scenario. Our model incorporates the high-node mobility with the modeling of IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  24. 24. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com DCF and unveils the impacts of mobility (characterized by node velocity and moving directions) on the resultant throughput. Based on the model, we show that the throughput of DCF will be reduced with increasing node velocity due to the mismatch between the MAC and the transient high-throughput connectivity of vehicles. We then propose several enhancement schemes to adaptively adjust the MAC in tune with the node mobility. Extensive simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy of the developed analytical model and the effectiveness of the proposed enhancement schemes.EGC Mobile Data Offloading through Opportunistic Communications and Social4356 Participation 3G networks are currently overloaded, due to the increasing popularity of various applications for smartphones. Offloading mobile data traffic through opportunistic communications is a promising solution to partially solve this problem, because there is almost no monetary cost for it. We propose to exploit opportunistic communications to facilitate information dissemination in the emerging Mobile Social Networks (MoSoNets) and thus reduce the amount of mobile data traffic. As a case study, we investigate the target-set selection problem for information delivery. In particular, we study how to select the target set with only k users, such that we can minimize the mobile data traffic over cellular networks. We propose three algorithms, called Greedy, Heuristic, and Random, for this problem and evaluate their performance through an extensive trace-driven simulation study. Our simulation results verify the efficiency of these algorithms for both synthetic and real-world mobility traces. For example, the Heuristic algorithm can offload mobile data traffic by up to 73.66 percent for a real-world mobility trace. Moreover, to investigate the feasibility of opportunistic communications for mobile phones, we implement a proof-of-concept prototype, called Opp-off, on Nokia N900 smartphones, which utilizes their Bluetooth interface for device/service discovery and content transfer.EGC Moderated Group Authoring System for Campus-Wide Workgroups4357 This paper describes the design and implementation of a file system-based distributed authoring system for campus- wide workgroups. We focus on documents for which changes by different group members are harder to automatically reconcile into a single version. Prior approaches relied on using group-aware editors. Others built collaborative middleware that allowed the group members to use traditional authoring tools. These approaches relied on an ability to automatically detect conflicting updates. They also operated on specific document types. Instead, our system relies on users to moderate and reconcile updates by other group members. Our file system-based approach also allows group members to modify any document type. We maintain one updateable copy of the shared content on each group members node. We also hoard read-only copies of each of these updateable copies in any interested group members node. All these copies are propagated to other group members at a rate that is solely dictated by the wireless user availability. The various copies are reconciled using the moderation operation; each group member manually incorporates updates from all the other group members into their own copy. The various document versions eventually IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  25. 25. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com converge into a single version through successive moderation operations. The system assists with this convergence process by using the made-with knowledge of all causal file system reads of contents from other replicas. An analysis using a long-term wireless user availability traces from a university shows the strength of our asynchronous and distributed update propagation mechanism. Our user space file system prototype exhibits acceptable file system performance. A subjective evaluation showed that the moderation operation was intuitive for students.EGC4358 On the Cost of Knowledge of Mobility in Dynamic Networks:An Information-Theoretic Approach This In this paper, we extend an information-theoretic approach for characterizing the minimum cost of tracking the motion state information, such as locations and velocities, of nodes in dynamic networks. A rate-distortion formulation is proposed to solve this minimum-cost motion-tracking problem, where the minimum cost is the minimum information rate required to identify the network state at a sequence of tracking time instants within a certain distortion bound. The formulation is applicable to various mobility models, distortion criteria, and stochastic sequences of tracking time instants and hence is general. Under Brownian motion and Gauss-Markov mobility models, we evaluate lower bounds on the information rate of tracking the motion state information of nodes, where the motion state of a node is 1) the nodes locations only, or 2) both its locations and velocities. We apply the obtained results to analyze the geographic routing overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. We present the minimum overhead incurred by maintaining the geographic information of nodes in terms of node mobility, packet arrival process, and distortion bounds. This leads to precise characterizations of the observation that given certain state-distortion allowance, protocols aimed at tracking motion state information may not scale beyond a certain level of node mobility.EGC On Reliable Broadcast in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks4359 Broadcast is one of the most fundamental services in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It facilitates sensor nodes to propagate messages across the whole network, serving a wide range of higher level operations and thus being critical to the overall network design. A distinct feature of WSNs is that many nodes alternate between active and dormant states, so as to conserve energy and extend the network lifetime. Unfortunately, the impact of such cycles has been largely ignored in existing broadcast implementations that adopt the common assumption of all nodes being active all over the time. In this paper, we revisit the broadcast problem with active/dormant cycles. We show strong evidence that conventional broadcast approaches will suffer from severe performance degradation, and, under low duty cycles, they could easily fail to cover the whole network in an acceptable time frame. To this end, we remodel the broadcast problem in this new context, seeking a balance between efficiency and latency with coverage guarantees. We demonstrate that this problem can be translated into a graph equivalence, and develop a centralized optimal solution. It provides a valuable benchmark for assessing diverse duty-cycle-aware broadcast strategies. We then extend it to an efficient and IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects
  26. 26. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Approved by ISO 9001:2008 and AICTE for SKP Training Singapore | Madurai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Kollam | Chennai http://www.elysiumtechnologies.com, info@elysiumtechnologies.com scalable distributed implementation, which relies on local information and operations only, with built-in loss compensation mechanisms. The performance of our solution is evaluated under diverse network configurations. The results suggest that our distributed solution is close to the lower bounds of both time and forwarding costs, and it well resists to the wireless loss with good scalability on the network size and density. In addition, it enables flexible control toward the quality of broadcast coverage.EGC Network Connectivity with a Family of Group Mobility Models4360 We investigate the communication range of the nodes necessary for network connectivity, which we call bidirectional connectivity, in a simple setting. Unlike in most of existing studies, however, the locations or mobilities of the nodes may be correlated through group mobility: nodes are broken into groups, with each group comprising the same number of nodes, and lie on a unit circle. The locations of the nodes in the same group are not mutually independent, but are instead conditionally independent given the location of the group. We examine the distribution of the smallest communication range needed for bidirectional connectivity, called the critical transmission range (CTR), when both the number of groups and the number of nodes in a group are large. We first demonstrate that the CTR exhibits a parametric sensitivity with respect to the space each group occupies on the unit circle. Then, we offer an explanation for the observed sensitivity by identifying what is known as a very strong threshold and asymptotic bounds for CTR.EGC OMAN: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network Design System4361 We present a software library that aids in the design of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The OMAN design engine works by taking a specification of network requirements and objectives, and allocates resources which satisfy the input constraints and maximize the communication performance objective. The tool is used to explore networking design options and challenges, including: power control, adaptive modulation, flow control, scheduling, mobility, uncertainty in channel models, and cross-layer design. The unaddressed niche which OMAN seeks to fill is the general framework for optimization of any network resource, under arbitrary constraints, and with any selection of multiple objectives. While simulation is an important part of measuring the effectiveness of implemented optimization techniques, the novelty and focus of OMAN is on proposing novel network design algorithms, aggregating existing approaches, and providing a general framework for a network designer to test out new proposed resource allocation methods. In this paper, we present a high-level view of the OMAN architecture, review specific mathematical models used in the network representation, and show how OMAN is used to evaluate tradeoffs in MANET design. Specifically, we cover three case studies of optimization. The first case is robust power control under uncertain channel information for a single physical layer snapshot. The second case is scheduling with the availability of directional radiation patterns. The third case is optimizing topology through movement planning of relay nodes. IEEE Final Year Projects 2012 |Student Projects | Mobile Computing Projects

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