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Motivation PowerPoint

  1. 1. The major motives of life: Love, sex, food, and work chapter 14
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Motives to love </li></ul><ul><li>Motives for sex </li></ul><ul><li>Motives to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Motives to achieve </li></ul>chapter 14
  3. 3. Defining motivation <ul><li>An inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation: the pursuit of an activity for its own sake </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation: the pursuit of an activity for external rewards such as money or fame </li></ul>chapter 14
  4. 4. The biology of love <ul><li>Neurological origins of passionate love begin in infancy when infants attach to mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain neurotransmitters and hormones involved in pleasure and reward are activated in mother-baby, adult lover, and close friend bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphins </li></ul><ul><li>Functional MRI’s have shown other neurological similarities. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain parts of the brains light up when people look at pictures of sweethearts and biological children. </li></ul>chapter 14
  5. 5. The psychology of love <ul><li>The need for affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>The motive to associate with other people, by seeking friends, companionship, or love </li></ul><ul><li>Predictors of love </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity: choosing friends and lovers from the set of people who are closest to us </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity: choosing friends and lovers who are like us in looks, attitudes, beliefs, personality, and interests </li></ul>chapter 14
  6. 6. The attachment theory of love <ul><li>Like infants to their caregivers, adults have attachment styles to their partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Secure: rarely jealous or worried about abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidant: distrustful, avoids intimate attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious-ambivalent: agitated and worried partner will leave </li></ul>chapter 14
  7. 7. Ingredients of love <ul><li>Sternberg’s triangular theory of love </li></ul><ul><li>Passion: euphoria and sexual excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy: being free to talk about things, feeling close to and understood by loved ones </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment: needing to be with the other person, being loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal love involves all three. </li></ul>chapter 14
  8. 8. Hormones and sexual response <ul><li>Testosterone appears to promote sexual desire in both sexes. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation included several studies of men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>However, not a simple relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior also increases testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological factors are usually more important than hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual offenders who are chemically castrated don’t always lose sexual desires. </li></ul>chapter 14
  9. 9. Arousal and orgasm <ul><li>Freud differentiated between “immature” clitoral orgasms and “mature” vaginal orgasms. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinsey suggested that males and females had similar orgasms but that females were less sexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Masters and Johnson asserted that women’s capacity for sexual responses surpassed men’s. </li></ul><ul><li>But didn’t examine differences based on developmental, experiential, or cultural factors </li></ul>chapter 14
  10. 10. Arousal and orgasm <ul><li>Physiological responses don’t always correlate with subjective experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists still disagree on whether there are sex differences in sex drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychologists suggest </li></ul><ul><li>Males’ sexual behavior is more biologically determined </li></ul><ul><li>Females’ sexual desires and responsiveness are more affected by circumstances, the specific relationship, and cultural norms. </li></ul>chapter 14
  11. 11. Sexual-response cycle chapter 14
  12. 12. The psychology of desire <ul><li>Motives for sex </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Self-affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Partner approval </li></ul><ul><li>Peer approval </li></ul>chapter 14
  13. 13. Sexual coercion & rape <ul><li>Persistent gender differences occur in perceptions of, and experiences with, sexual coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>Of a representative sample of 3000 people 25% of the women said that a man (usually husband or boyfriend) had forced them to do something sexually. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3% of men said they had ever forced a woman into a sexual act. </li></ul>chapter 14
  14. 14. Culture of desire <ul><li>Sexual scripts: sets of implicit rules that specify proper sexual behavior for a person in a given situation, varying with the person’s age, culture, and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Role of sexual scripts in African American women’s behavior </li></ul>chapter 14
  15. 15. Your turn <ul><li>Is sexual orientation more a matter of nature or nurture? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nature </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nurture </li></ul>chapter 14
  16. 16. The riddle of sexual orientation <ul><li>Factors which do not explain homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>A smothering mother </li></ul><ul><li>An absent father </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional problems </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex play in childhood and adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Parental practices </li></ul><ul><li>Role models </li></ul><ul><li>Seduction by an older adult </li></ul>chapter 14
  17. 17. Biological explanations <ul><li>Studies demonstrating brain differences have not been replicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal exposure and androgens </li></ul><ul><li>May be moderately heritable </li></ul>chapter 14
  18. 18. Genetic links <ul><li>Identical twins have highest concordance rates for sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests some genetic link in sexual orientation </li></ul>chapter 14
  19. 19. Difficulty in identifying causes <ul><li>Sexual identity and behavior are different and occur in different combinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are sexually attracted to both men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are heterosexual in behavior but have homosexual fantasies. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual behaviors can differ in different cultures. </li></ul>chapter 14
  20. 20. Your turn <ul><li>Which is the biggest influence on bodyweight for most people? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Genetic predisposition </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mood effects of eating </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fat content of foods </li></ul><ul><li>4. Quantity of food </li></ul>chapter 14
  21. 21. The genetics of weight <ul><li>Heavy people are no more or less emotionally disturbed than average weight people. </li></ul><ul><li>Heaviness is not always caused by overeating. </li></ul><ul><li>Set point </li></ul><ul><li>The genetically influenced weight range for an individual, maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves, and metabolism </li></ul>chapter 14
  22. 22. Body weights of twins <ul><li>Identical twins are more similar in body weight than fraternal twins </li></ul><ul><li>Whether raised together or apart </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors play a large role in body weight. </li></ul>chapter 14
  23. 23. The role of leptin <ul><li>Leptin alters the brain chemistry that influences how animals eat as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates weight by strengthening neural circuits in hypothalamus that reduce appetite and weakening neural circuits that strengthen appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Has led to hypothesis that overfeeding infants while hypothalamus is developing may produce childhood obesity </li></ul>chapter 14
  24. 24. The complexity of weight <ul><li>Appetite suppressants alone often fail to help individuals lose weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors </li></ul><ul><li>Other genes and body chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones which regulate hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors in nose, mouth, and stomach </li></ul>chapter 14
  25. 25. The overweight debate <ul><li>Weight or fitness? </li></ul><ul><li>Many researchers believe that individuals who are overweight and physically fit are actually healthier than individuals who are sedentary and thin. </li></ul>chapter 14
  26. 26. Environment and obesity <ul><li>Environmental factors affecting weight: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased abundance of low cost, very high fat foods </li></ul><ul><li>Eating on the run instead of leisurely meals </li></ul><ul><li>Energy saving devices such as remote controls </li></ul><ul><li>Driving rather than walking or biking </li></ul><ul><li>Watching television or videos instead of exercising </li></ul>chapter 14
  27. 27. Cultural attitudes <ul><li>In many cultures, where food is a rarer commodity, fat is viewed as a sign of health and affluence in men, sexual desirability in women. </li></ul><ul><li>While people of all ethnicities and social classes have been getting heavier, the cultural ideal for white women has been getting thinner. </li></ul><ul><li>The cultural ideal for men has also changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles used to mean working class, now muscular bodies symbolize affluence. </li></ul>chapter 14
  28. 28. Biology vs. culture <ul><li>People from cultures that regard overweight as a sign of health and sexiness are more likely to be obese. </li></ul><ul><li>People from cultures emphasizing thinness are more likely to have eating disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Many with eating disorders have an irrational terror of being too fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia nervosa </li></ul>chapter 14
  29. 29. Ideal body image <ul><li>Which image is ideal for your sex? </li></ul><ul><li>Which comes closest to your body? </li></ul>chapter 14
  30. 30. Bulimia and anorexia <ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating (binges) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging) </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>An eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation </li></ul>chapter 14
  31. 31. Influences on eating disorders <ul><li>Extremely slim television stars </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic mutations or set points that conflict with cultural standards </li></ul><ul><li>For men, desire to be more “manly” </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic standards of beauty and self-criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological factors such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism, distorted body image, and pressure from others </li></ul>chapter 14
  32. 32. Motives to achieve <ul><li>Need for achievement: a learned motive to meet personal standards of success and excellence in a chosen area </li></ul>chapter 14
  33. 33. Importance of goals <ul><li>Goals improve motivation when. . . </li></ul><ul><li>the goal is specific. </li></ul><ul><li>the goal is challenging but achievable. </li></ul><ul><li>the goal is framed in terms of approach goals instead of avoidance goals. </li></ul>chapter 14
  34. 34. Types of goals <ul><li>Performance goals: goals framed in terms of performing well in front of others, being judged favorably, and avoiding criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery goals: goals framed in terms of increasing one’s competence and skills </li></ul>chapter 14
  35. 35. Effort vs. intelligence chapter 14
  36. 36. Expectations and self-efficacy <ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>An expectation that comes true because of the tendency to act in ways to bring it about </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s belief that he/she is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and reaching goals </li></ul>chapter 14
  37. 37. Working conditions <ul><li>Conditions that increase job involvement, motivation, and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Work provides sense of meaningfulness. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees have control over part of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks are varied. </li></ul><ul><li>Company maintains clear and consistent rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees have supportive relationships with superiors and co-workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees receive useful feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Company offers opportunities for growth. </li></ul>chapter 14
  38. 38. Opportunities to achieve <ul><li>When a person lacks fair chance to make it, he or she may be less than successful. </li></ul>chapter 14
  39. 39. Motivational conflicts <ul><li>Approach-approach conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Equally attracted to two activities or goals </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance-avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing between the “lesser of two evils” </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>One activity or goal has both positive and negative elements </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Several choices, each with advantages and disadvantages </li></ul>chapter 14
  40. 40. Maslow’s pyramid of needs <ul><li>Needs arranged hierarchically. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-level needs must be met before higher-level needs will be addressed. </li></ul>chapter 14