Chapter 26: Section 1, Paths to WarAggressive moves by Germany and Japan set the stage for World War II. In 1935 Adolf Hitlerbegan a massive military buildup and instituted a draft, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. In1936, Hitler sent German troops into the Rhineland which alarmed France, but neither Francenor Britain responded with force. In 1936, Germany and Italy became allies, as did Germanyand Japan. Germany annexed Austria in 1938. Appeasement of Germany peaked at theMunich Conference where Hitler claimed he sought only onefinal territory, the Czech Sudetenland and Britain and Franceagreed to Hitlers demands. This soon proved false as Hitlercontinued his invasions. When Hitler signed theNonaggression Pact with Stalin and invaded Poland, Britainand France declared war on Germany. Japanese expansioninto Manchuria and northern China brought condemnationfrom the League of Nations. Japan was at war with China. InDecember 1937 Japan destroyed Nanjing and massacred100,000 civilians and prisoners of war. Next, Japan wasrebuked by the United States for its efforts to exploitresources in French Indochina.
Chapter 26: Section 1, Paths to War 1st Steps New Alliances Union Demands & Great Britain & France Hitler & the Soviets w/Austria Appeasement ReactHitler formed a new Air Hitler & 1938 - Hitler September 15th, The Munich Conference Hitler met withForce, then built the Mussolini forced 1938, Hitler showed Hitler that the Stalin(USSR), Augarmy from 100k-550k (Italy) wanted Austrian demanded the leaders were weak and 23, 1939 Nazi-soldiers (other to create a new Chancellor to Sudetenland and would not fight him, so, he Sovietcountries were Roman Empire. put Nazis in at the Munich took over Czechoslovakia. Nonaggressiondistracted by the 10/1935 Italy charge of the Conference, Great Britain realized the Pact. They agreedDepression). 3/7/36 invaded government. leaders Hitler could not be trusted not to attack eachHitler sent troops to the Ethiopia. Both Germany ‘appeased’ him so negotiations began with other. Stalin tookRhineland . Germany Helped Franco controlled by allowing him Stalin (USSR) and Great Eastern Poland,was NOT supposed to in the Spanish Austria by to occupy that Britain. Hitler could havebe there or do any of Civil war. March 13th, land. the rest. Sept. 1,these things according Roman-Berlin 1938. 1939, Hitlerto the Treaty of Axis became an attacked Poland,Versailles at the end of alliance the beginning ofWWI. between Italy & WWII in Europe.Great Britain & France Germany.could attack, butdecided on‘appeasement,” whichis a diplomatic policyaimed at avoiding warby making concessionsto an aggressor
Chapter 26: Section 1, Paths to WarWar with China The New Asian Order1931, Japan attacked China (in Manchuria) to take natural Under Japan’s control, the New Asian Order would uniteresources. Japanese soldiers were disguised as Chinese. Manchuria, China and Japan. Japan began to work with theThough the League of Nations investigated, the Japanese Nazis to attack the Soviets, but Nazi’s signed a Nonkept a strong hold on the area. China worried about Aggression Pact with USSR. The US threatened sanctionsCommunists to the West and Japanese to the East. (restrictions intended to enforce law), Japan did not want to“Appeasement” began with Japan, but in 1937, Japan risk losing US products, but decided to attack Southeast Asiadeclared war on China and seized Nanjing. & with US and European colonies.
Chapter 26: Section 2, The Course of World War II• Hitler was incredibly successful at the beginning of the war. German forces swept through central and northern Europe early in the war. After Germany occupied three-fourths of France, Hitler set up the Vichy government in France.• Meanwhile, the United States followed a policy of isolationism. German air attacks on Great Britain resulted in fierce British retaliation.• In the east, harsh weather and a resolute Soviet Union defeated an invading German army.• The Japanese conquered the Pacific but miscalculated when they attacked the U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor. The United States surprised Japan by abandoning its neutrality and entering the war to retake the Pacific.• By the end of 1943, the tide had turned against Germany, Italy, and Japan.• After the invasion of Normandy, the Allies liberated Paris and defeated Germany.• The war in Asia continued until the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing massive casualties and bringing Japans surrender.
Chapter 26: Section 2, The Course of World War IIAxis Powers:Germany, Italy &Japan Which countries had theAllied Powers: mostUnited Kingdom battles?(N.Ireland, Wales, Scotland,England), USA, SovietUnion(USSR), Mostof the major citiesdamaged by warwere found inGermany andEngland.
Chapter 26: Section 2, The Course of World War II Hitler’s early Victories Battle of Britain Attack on the Soviet UnionBlitzkrieg = lightning war. Luftwaffe=German Air Hitler did not want a twoAfter the slow trench warfare Force front war, but he thought the USSRof WWI, Hitler knew that was supplying Great Britain. Hitler In August 1940, Germany tried to attack the USSR, but wasfighting fast was the key to attacked Great Britain from the delayed in his attack AND hewinning, with his ‘Panzer’ air; they attacked not just attacked a large front 800 milesdivisions of 300 tanks, he was military targets, but civilian. long. Hitler did not studyable to move quickly. April 9, The British people were Napoleon’s problems of invading1940 (after dividing Poland with resilient to the attacks. The Russia and the early winter andUSSR) Hitler attacked Denmark British used blackout paper to fierce Soviet Resistance halted the& Norway. Then 5/7/40 he German advance. block light from their windows,attacked the Netherlands, and used the subway stationsBelgium & France. Hitler as bomb shelters duringattacked France in an German raids.unexpected way so Francesigned an armistice on June 22.France was now occupied byGermany. The US denouncedHitler, but did not enter thefight.
Chapter 26: Section 2, The Course of World War II Japan in the PacificJapan attacks Pearl Harbor onDec. 7th, 1941, This is a militarybase in Hawaii, on the island ofOahu. This was before Hawaiibecame a state. On the sameday, the Japanese also attackedPhilippines and the Britishcolony of Malaya. By the springof 1942, Japan controlled all ofSoutheast Asia & much of thewestern Pacific. Japan nowdeclared Greater East-AsiaProsperity Sphere.
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor is a deep water harbor that could hold large battle ships close to shore. That and its location in the Pacific were reasons why the US used this port.
Chapter 26: Section 2, The Course of World War II Island Hopping was the term used to describe the US advance across the Pacific to gain control over Japan’s hold on the many islands.
Chapter 26: Section 2, The Course of World War II Allies Advance Last Years of the War European Theater Asian Theater European Theater Asian TheaterThe Big 3: The leaders of By 1942 the battle in the Africa had fallen, so the President Roosevelt died inGreat Britain, Winston East also started to change. Americans attacked Italy April 1945 (He had PolioChurchill, US, Franklin D. By May 7th, 1942 through the island of Sicily. and could not walk) HarryRoosevelt, and USSR, Americans stopped the Mussolini was removed Truman became President;Joseph Stalin, decided to Japanese and saved from office by the Italians. was developing an atomicfight until Germany and Australia from invasion. Germany controlled parts weapon. He used theJapan surrendered. Hitler On June 4th, the Battle of of Italy until June 4, 1944. bombs on Hiroshima Augsaw victories in North Midway Island US planes The Allies (UK, US & USSR) 6,1945 and Nagasaki AugAfrica, but by the fall of destroyed 4 attacking had a plan to attack 9th. Thousands of civilians1942 Rommel (Hitler’s Japanese aircraft carriers, Germany through France. died and the cities wereleader in Africa) had to this defeated the Japanese D-Day was June 6, 1944 leveled. Japanretreat. Hitler wanted to navy and established US U.S. General Dwight surrendered V-J Day Augattack the USSR in superiority in the Pacific. Eisenhower landed in 14th, 1945.Stalingrad By 1942 Douglas McArthur Normandy, France. 2 mil. was in charge of US troops were there within 3 50,000,000 people died operations in the Pacific. months. By January, 1945 during the war. Hitler moved into his bunker 55 ft under ground. May 7, 1945, V-E Day Victory in Europe was achieved.
Chapter 26: Section 3, The New Order & the HolocaustTo further their war effort and Hitlers plans for Aryan expansion, First they came for thethe Nazis forced millions of people to resettle in Germany as forced communists,speak out and I didn’tlaborers. No aspect of the Nazi New Order was more terrifying than because I wasn’t athe deliberate attempt to exterminate the Jews. As part of the Nazis communist.Final Solution, Jews were locked into cramped, unsanitary ghettos Then they came for the socialists,or forced to dig their own mass graves before being killed. When and I didn’t speak outthis proved too slow for the Nazis, they transported Europes Jews because I wasn’t a socialist.to death camps where they were starved, worked to death, sent to Then they came for thedie in gas chambers, or subjected to cruel "medical experiments". trade unionists, and I didn’t speak outThe Nazis killed approximately six million Jews and nine to ten because I wasn’t a trademillion non-Jewish people. unionist.Japan showed little respect for the peoples it conquered in Then they came for me, andSoutheast Asia in its effort to secure industrial markets and raw there was no one left to speak for me.materials. Japanese treatment of prisoners of war was equally What do you think this poemharsh. Japan professed a commitment to ending Western means? In the part thatcolonialism, but the brutality of the Japanese convinced many says, “Then they came for me…” how would youAsians to resist Japanese occupation. describe ‘you’ that would make them want to ‘come’ for?
Chapter 26: Section 3, The New Order & the HolocaustResettlement in the East Slave Labor in Germany: Hitler’s use of the SwastikaHitler had many To accomplish Hitler’s vision, The swastika is an extremely powerful symbol. The Nazis usedprejudices and not all laborers were needed. By it to murder millions of people, but for centuries it hadwere associated with 1944, 7,000,000 European positive meanings.Judaism. To the east, in workers were forced into The Oldest Known SymbolPoland, the Nazi’s felt labor. To put this into The swastika is an ancient symbol that has been used for overthat the Slavic people perspective over 300 years, 3,000 years. Artifacts such as pottery and coins from ancient(Czech, Polish, Serbo- covering 2 continents there Troy show that the swastika was a commonly used symbol asCroation, Slovene & were 12 million slaves in the ‘ far back as 1000 BCE.Ukrainian) were also Americas’. Hitler had more In 1920, Adolf Hitler decided that the Nazi Party needed itsinferior. Himmler, leader own insignia and flag. For Hitler, the new flag had to be "a than half that in just 2 years.of the secret police or SS, symbol of our own struggle" as well as "highly effective as a poster." On August 7, 1920, at the Salzburg Congress, the redwas assigned the task of flag with a white circle and black swastika became the officialmoving these people out emblem of the Nazi Party.and moving German, In Mein Kampf, Hitler described the Nazis new flag: "In redAryans, in. The Germans we see the social idea of the movement, in white thewanted to “colonize” nationalistic idea, in the swastika the mission of the strugglethese areas. Himmler for the victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, thestated that 30,000,000 victory of the idea of creative work, which as such always hasSlavs could die to achieve been and always will bethis. anti-Semitic." Because of the Nazis flag, the swastika soon became a symbol of hate, anti- Semitism, violence, death, and murder.
Chapter 26: Section 3, The New Order & the Holocaust The Death Camps The Death Toll Children at War(look at the next two maps) 6,000,000 Jews died Children were moved around,Hitler’s FINAL SOLUTION was 1.2 million were children away from parents. Sometimes togenocide, the physical 10,000,000 non-Jews died, protect them and other times toextermination of an entire race, in including the Roma, or gypsies, kill them. In England, 6 millionthis case, Jews. Heydrich was and Slavic peoples. were moved out of cities. (Theplaced in charge of the Final book, The Lion, The Witch and TheSolution. The Einsatzgruppen These are CIVILIANS or non- Wardrobe shows this) Manycarried out the Nazi plans. In combat deaths. Some of whom young teenagers fought on bothPoland, Jews were first placed in were considered German citizens sides.ghettos, to starve out. Then, they prior to Hitler.became mobile killing units. Massexecutions with mass graves.Approx. 1,000,000 Jews were killedthis way, which was too slow forthe Nazis.Camps were built to kill Jews fasterand in larger amounts. Auschwitzis one of the most well known.Some were experimented onbefore being killedIt is difficult to explain all of thesehorrors in such a short amount oftime in World History Class. Pleaseresearch this topic.
Chapter 26: Section 3, The New Order & the Holocaust
Chapter 26: Section 3, The New Order & the Holocaust The ‘death camps’ were located in Poland Which country had the most concentration camps?
PLEASE: visit thesesites for theseHolocaustMuseums. There ismore to see.http://www.ushmm.org/http://www.lamoth.org/https://www.hmh.org/
Chapter 26: Section 3, The New Order & the HolocaustJapanese Policies Japanese BehaviorMany locals in the many countries of Southeast Asia At first, the countries of Southeast Asia thought thatagreed with the Japanese because these locals were removing colonial rule from American and Europeantired of colonial rule (powers from America or Europe powers might benefit them and believed the Japanesecontrolling them) Japan was supposed to give power rhetoric of being a large Asian power together.to the anti-colonialists, but the Japanese military had Japanese military were largely in control of localthe real power. governments though and the Japanese felt the locals were inferior. They made them bow towards Tokyo and recognize the emperor as being divine. Many people were killed or forced into labor. AGAIN: This is just scratching the surface. Please research further. Chinese being buried alive by the Japanese.
Chapter 26: Section 4, Home Front & Aftermath of War• Section 4 Home Front and Aftermath of War World War II reached almost every area of the world, and mobilization for war brought widespread suffering and even starvation. The war caused about 20 million civilian deaths.• The Soviet Union won the war by using its income for war materials; there were food and housing shortages.• The United States, which did not fight the war on its own territory, sent its forces to fight and produced much of the military equipment for the Allies.• Segregation in the U.S. military later led African-Americans to demand civil rights.• Racism and suspicion led to the wartime internment of more than 100,000 Japanese-Americans.• Nazi Germany did not cut customer goods or raise military production until after the first two years of the war. Total mobilization of the economy did not come until July 1944, which was too late to save Germany from defeat.• Wartime Japan was a highly mobilized society. Calls for sacrifice led some Japanese pilots, known as kamikazes, to serve in suicide missions against U.S. ships.• The bombing of cities by the Allied and Axis powers destroyed buildings and cost hundreds of thousands of lives including civilians.• U.S. President Harry Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, the Big Three, met at Yalta to plan the post-war world.• After the war, ideological conflict between the West and the Soviet Union resulted in the Cold War.
Chapter 26: Section 4, Home Front & Aftermath of War Mobilization of People USSR USA Germany Japan900-day siege caused The war was not fought directly on its June 1944, schools, theaters & cafes The Japanese territory. It made 6 ships per day and were closed. Women were not calledpeople to eat dogs. 1.5 96,000 planes per year. We call culture, as an island into the work force in Germany asmil. died. Entire these people, “the Greatest culture, was called they were in other fighting countries.factories were Generation” because they fought not Women were looked at differently. upon to make greatdismantled and moved for fame and recognition, but sacrifices. Toward There was also resistance within because it was the right thing to do.to keep making Movements of people around the Germany itself. The White Rose, a the end, young menweapons and to keep country to follow work and then their student youth movement which were called up to befactories out of the families following them caused a shift called for active opposition to Hitler’s suicide bombers, or in where the populations lived prior regime, have gone down in history ashands of Nazis. 60% of kamikaze (divine to the war. Boomtowns were a result of their leaflet campaignSoviet women worked created. 1 million African-Americans between June 1942 and February wind) Women didin factories, digging moved out of the south. This actually 1943. Similarly, Dietrich Bonheoffers not take onanti-tank trenches & air caused race riots in places like Confessing Church represented a additional roles in Detroit. significant form of Christianwardens. The Soviets ***Internment Camps*** the work force.even used women as opposition to the Nazi government. Instead, the Americans were so afraid of the The Nazis pursued resistance leaderssnipers. Japanese that they placed 110,000 in Japanese used camps. 65% of these people were relentlessly. If captured they would face certain death, with executions Chinese and born in the US. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/his widely publicized to cow the local Koreans laborers. tory/ population into submission. (See pictures on next slide)
In what ways were these camps the SAME as the German concentration camps?In what ways were they different?
Chapter 26: Section 4, Home Front & Aftermath of War Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of CitiesGreat Britain: Germany: Great Britain decided to bomb cities inSept. 1940 Germans began to retaliation. The first was May 1942. Bombings causedbomb London. These were food, clothing and fuel shortages, transportation andcivilian targets. ‘The Blitz’ housing issues. Incendiary bombs spread fire and(German air raids) caused were greatly feared, but the Germanssevere damage. Winston kept on fighting.Churchill decided to bomb Dresden,Germany in return. Germany may have lost 100,000 in February 13- 15, 1945. Many people burned due to the bombings from Great Britain Japan: Cities were being bombed prior to the dropping of the A- bomb. B-29 “superfortress” airplanes were attacking cities that were built with flimsy materials. Finally, atomic weapons were used Atomic weapon deaths: 60% immediately die from flash burns 30% falling debris & 10% from other causes. Months later, 15-20% die from radiation sickness, 20-30% die from burns & 50-60% from injuries & illness. The soldiers had named the bombs, “Little Boy” and “Fat Man”. The bombs were dropped by an airplane called the Enola Gay.
Chapter 26: Section 4, Home Front & Aftermath of War Tehran Conference: Nov. 1943. See where the The Big Three met to decide the Iron Curtain tactics of the war and agreed to would be? invade France and meet in a defeated Germany. The Yalta Conference: Feb. 1945. Roosevelt needed USSR to help defeat Japan (A-bomb was not created yet) so he agreed to the USSR taking possession of Sakhalin & Kuril islands near Manchuria. The United Nations was created and had its first meeting in SanGermany after the war would be divided into 4 sections Francisco in April 1945. It isgoverned by US, Great Britain, USSR and France. By now located in New York, NY.March of 1946 Winston Churchill had declared an “Iron The US also wanted freeCurtain” had descended across the continent dividing elections in Europe, Stalin didEurope into Communists & non-communist countries. not.