Feudalism & the european kingoms


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Feudalism & the european kingoms

  1. 1. Feudalism & theEuropean Kingdoms { 500 CE – 1100 CE
  2. 2.  In the 3rd century CE, the Germanic peoples began moving into the lands of the Roman Empire. The Visigoths occupied Spain and Italy until the Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the 5th century. By 500 CE, the Western Roman Empire had been replaced by a number of states ruled by German kings.New Germanic Kingdoms
  3. 3.  Although the Romans were defeated by the Germanic tribes, much of their government was retained, especially the structure. Roman influence weakened over time, as Germanic populations grew. Eventually, the Germanic tribes appointed kings (or created kings by defeating others in battle) and the Romans lost all influence and were prevented from holding power. In Britain, the Anglo-Saxons took over when the Romans abandoned Britain.New Germanic Kingdoms
  4. 4. Germanic Kingdoms, 500 CE
  5. 5.  The strongest and longest- lasting Germanic kingdom was the kingdom of the Franks who were ruled by king Clovis, a strong military leader. Clovis established power through the use of knights, heavily-armored soldiers who were able to defeat Roman armies. Clovis adopted Christianity sometime around 500 CE, which gained him the support of the Roman Catholic Church. By 510, Clovis had established a powerful new kingdom that stretched from the Pyrenees to the German lands in the East (modern day France & Germany).Frankish Kingdom & Clovis
  6. 6. Frankish Kingdom
  7. 7.  Germanic society centered around the family, especially the extended family of multiple generations. Property and possessions were owned by the extended family and passed down through generations. The family also provided protection, which was necessary in the violent times of the dark ages.Germanic Society
  8. 8.  Germanic law was deeply personal. An injury by one person against another could mean a blood feud, and the feud could lead to savage acts of revenge. To avoid bloodshed, a new system developed; a fine called wergild was the basis of the new system. Wergild was the amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person s/he has injured or killed. The literal translation of wergild is “money for a man”. The value of the wergild varied according to social status; the nobility was valued much higher than an ordinary person or a slave. One means of determining guild in Germanic law was the ordeal. The ordeal was based on the idea of divine intervention, or that God would intervene for those who were innocent. All ordeals involved a physical trial of some sort, like holding a red-hot iron, or being boiled alive, or other tests. An innocent person would come out unharmed, while the guilty would not. Germanic Law
  9. 9.  By the end of the 4th century, the Christian Church had developed a system of organization. Local communities were led by a parish priest, who reported to a bishop. The bishop was responsible for several parishes, called a bishopric or diocese and reported to an archbishop. The archbishop (usually representative of a country or territory) was responsible for several bishops. The archbishops reported to the Pope, the bishop of Rome, who led the church. PopeOrganization Archbishopsof the BishopsChurch Parish Priests
  10. 10.  Pope Gregory I was a strong pope who strengthened the power of the papacy (office of the pope). He served as the leader of Rome and the surrounding territories (called the Papal States).  Pope Gregory I worked to convert the Germans to Christianity. He did this through the monastic movement.Role of the Church
  11. 11.  A monk is a man who separates himself from ordinary human society to pursue a life of total dedication to God.  The practice of living the life of a monk is known as monasticism.  At first, monks lived like hermits, in isolation from other people. Later, monks founded communities that lived by basic rules.Monks & Monasticism
  12. 12.  Saint Benedict founded a community of monks called the Benedictines, who lived by a series of rules:  The day was divided into a series of activities, with primary emphasis on prayer and manual labor.  Physical work was required for all monks  Prayer several times a day was required; both individual and community prayer  Each monastery was led by an abbot, or father, who had complete authority over the monks  The monasteries owned lands that provided their food and sustained their animals Benedictine Monastery, GermanyBenedictine Monasteries
  13. 13.  Monks & monasteries came to represent the ideal Christian society in the dark and middle ages.  Monks were an important force in shaping European civilization  The monks dedication to God was considered an ideal  Monks were the social workers of their communities, providing education, hospitals, helping travelers, etc.  Monasteries were centers of learning  Monks copied bibles and other religious texts  Monks were missionaries – people who carry a religious message – to non-religious people, in an attempt to convert them to Christianity  Eventually, women began to lead a monastic life; these women were called nuns. They lived in convents run by abbesses, the “mothers” of the other nuns.Importance of Monasteries
  14. 14.  The Frankish kingdom began to decline in the 600s and 700s.  The kings eventually lost power to mayors of the palace, who were the chief officers in the kings household  One mayor, Pepin, assumed the kingship for himself. He was the son of Charles Martel, the leader who defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732  When Pepin died in 768, his son Charles inherited the throne  Charles became known as Charles the Great, or CharlemagneCharlemagne & the Carolingians
  15. 15.  Charlemagne ruled from 768 to 814  During his reign he expanded the territory of the Frankish kingdom, which came to be known as the Carolingian Empire  The Carolingian Empire covered most of western and central Europe   Charlemagne depended on nobles to act as his representative in local areas Charlemagne became the “Holy Roman Emperor” in 800 CE; as a Christian King, the Pope in Rome crowned Charlemagne, bringing together the { German, Roman, and Christian peoples Charlemagne promoted learning throughout his kingdom; this period was called the Carolingian Renaissance Monasteries played a central role in expanding learning throughout the empire  They established scriptoria, or writing rooms, where monks copied the Bible, Christian writers, and Latin classical authors Charlemagne
  16. 16.  After Charlemagne’s death in 814, the Carolingian Empire began to fall apart. By 30 years after his death, the empire was divided into three sections: the west Frankish lands, the eastern Frankish lands, and the Middle Kingdom; the west Frankish kingdom was ruled by Charles the Bald; The Middle Kingdom by Lothair I, and the east Frankish lands by Louis the German Invaders
  17. 17. In the 9th and 10th centuries, invasions occurred throughout the Carolingian Empire. The Magyars invaded from East Asia and moved into central Europe (yellow on the map). The Vikings sacked villages and towns throughout the 9th century; they were warriors and expert shipbuilders who were able to sail both European rivers and the ocean. In 911, the ruler of the west Frankish kingdom gave the Vikings land at the mouth of the Seine River, now known as Normandy (red on the map).Invaders Muslims attacked Spain and northern Africa, sending raiding parties into these regions (green on the map).
  18. 18.  With all the threats to people from invaders, it became important for people to work together to survive. For safety and for defense, people in the Middle Ages formed small communities around a central lord or master. Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farm land. These manors were isolated, with occasional visits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to the Crusades, or soldiers from other fiefdoms. In this "feudal" system, the king awarded land grants or "fiefs" to his most important nobles, his barons, and his bishops, in return for their contribution of soldiers for the kings armies. At the lowest echelon of society were the peasants, also called "serfs" or "villeins." In exchange for living and working on his land, known as the "demesne," the lord offered his peasants protection.Development of Feudalism
  19. 19.  The feudal system was based on the idea of vassalage, or loyalty and service. Warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leaders and fought for them. In turn, the leaders took care of the warriors needs. A man who served a nobleman in a military capacity was called a vassal. You probably know of vassals as knights, heavily armored and horse mounted soldiers who fought on behalf of a noble. Knights wore heavy armor usually made of mail (links or plates of armor), were armed with swords, spears, or lances. Knights had great social prestige and were the backbone of the European aristocracy. Because of the expense of armor, a horse, and weapons, knights were granted land by the noble in order to raise money to pay the expense to equip their knights. Feudal System: Knights
  20. 20.  Feudalism worked because each level of society participated in the Feudal Contract. At the top of society was the King, who owned most of the land. The king would grant large plots of land to Barons or other nobles, who were required to provide money (taxes) and knights for military service in exchange for their land. The nobles would then grant land to the knights, who would then provide protection and military service to the noble and/or king. The knights would grant land to serfs or villeins, who would farm the land and provide food to the knights, who would then pay tribute to the nobles. Some nobles would have large numbers of knights beneath them, while others may only have a few, depending on the size of the land grant from the king. Feudalism
  21. 21.  Feudalism worked because of an unwritten set of rules known as the feudal contract. This contract determined the relationship between the lord and his vassals. The major obligations of the vassal were:  Perform military service, usually for about 40 days per year  Appear at court when summoned to provide advice to the lord  Make financial payments to the lord  The lords were required to:  Grant land to the vassal that enabled them to live and afford their equipment  Protect the vassal, either through military means or in court, as requiredFeudal Contract
  22. 22.  European society in the Middle Ages was dominated by warfare. Communities needed to protect themselves from invaders like the Vikings, and kingdoms were constantly at war with other kingdoms. As a result, a class of nobles arose based on warfare and united by competition.  Nobles held tournaments so knights could demonstrateAt the top of European society was the Pope. their fighting skills; it alsoThe monarchs answered to the Pope. Beneath was an excellent way for thethe monarchs were nobles, who supported knights to train for war.knights, who supported the merchant class. Atthe bottom were the peasants and serfs.Nobility in the Middle Ages
  23. 23.  Knights believed in the code of chivalry. They promised to defend the weak, be courteous to all women, be loyal to their king, and serve God at all times. Knights were expected to be humble before others, especially their superiors. They were also expected to not "talk too much". In other words, they shouldnt boast. The code of chivalry demanded that a knight give mercy to a vanquished enemy. However, the very fact that knights were trained as men of war belied this code. Even though they came from rich families, many knights were not their families firstborn. They did not receive an inheritance. Thus they were little more than mercenaries. They plundered villages or cities that they captured, often defiling and destroying churches and other property. Also the code of chivalry did not extend to the peasants. The "weak" was widely interpreted as "noble women and children". They were often brutal to common folk without fear of reprisal, all because they were part of the upper class.Chivalry
  24. 24.  Aristocratic women could own property, but their property usually remained under the control of men, either their fathers or their husbands after their marriages.  Noblewomen had to manage large estates because their husbands were often off at war. Women handled the financial accounts and the management of the castle and estate.  Women were expected to be subservient to their husbands, but this was not always the case. There are many stories of strong, aristocratic women who dominated their husbands, like Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was married to King Henry II of England.Aristocratic Women