Chapter 27: Sec 1 Development of the Cold War• Section 1 Development of the Cold WarThe rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States was the focus of theCold War.• The U.S. Marshall Plan tried to make communism less attractive by providingbillions of dollars to help rebuild Western Europe.• Germany became divided into two states, with a divided city of Berlin inside EastGermany.• In 1949 Communists took control in China, and the Soviet detonation of anatomic bomb launched a U.S.-Soviet arms race.• Soviet and Western alliance systems spanned the globe.• The Cuban missile crisis presented the frightening prospect of nuclear war.• American policymakers perceived non-Communist South Vietnam as a dominothat must not be permitted to fall to communism.• Despite the eventual Communist victory, the “domino theory” proved to beunfounded.
The Cold War, often dated from 1947 to 1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the WesternBloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union alongwith the Warsaw Pact. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and theUS as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. A neutral faction arose with the Non-Aligned Movementfounded by Egypt, India, and Yugoslavia; this faction rejected association with either the US-led West or the Soviet-led East.The Cold War was so named because the two major powers—each possessing nuclear weapons and thereby threatened with mutualassured destruction—never met in direct military combat. Instead, in their struggle for global influence they engaged in ongoingpsychological warfare and in regular indirect confrontations through proxy wars.
Chapter 27: Sec 1 Development of the Cold WarRivalry inEuropeTrumanDoctrineMarshall Plan Division in GermanyEastern Europe wasan area physicallyclose to the SovietUnion, after theNazi’s had lost powerthe Soviet army wasin control and did notwant to leave. TheUSSR had Stalin asit’s leader andwanted EasternEurope to becommunistGREECE: communistsand anti-communistsfought to control thecountry. GreatBritain helped theanti-communists forawhile, but had toleave to supportthemselves.HarryTruman, thepresident of theUSA, said in1947 that theUS would givemoney tocountriesthreatened bycommunism, just as in Greece.The US felt thatcommunismwould spreadfaster as morecountries ‘fell’to communism.General GeorgeMarshall, the Secretaryor State, wrote theMarshall Plan to rebuildEurope. The thinkingwas that if communistsmoved into and rebuiltEuropeancountries, more wouldbecome communist.The Soviet countriesrefused to participateand saw this as anattempt by theAmericans to buysupport. Inresponse, they had theCOMECON By 1947 itwas clear that there wasgoing to be a battlebetween the ‘superpowers’ (militarystrength and politicalinfluence)Germany had been divided into 4 zones. 3 zones ofFrance, US and Great Britain were combined. TheUSSR opposed this and formed a ‘blockade’ againstANY supplies going into Berlin…The German citydivided in ½ and located inside of the East German(soviet) boarders. The US and Great Britain had a 10month long air liftof supplies flyinginto West Berlinto avoid war withthe USSR over theblockade. In Sept.1949 the blockadewas lifted.Confrontation of the Super Powers:
See: NATO vs. Warsaw PactWhichcountries ofEurope didnot chooseto be a partof eitherNATO or theWarsawpact?
Chapter 27: Sec 1 Development of the Cold WarNew Military Alliance Arms Race Wall in BerlinNATO: North American TreatyOrganization, April 1949, wasformed. Belgium, Luxemburg,France, Netherlands, Great Britain,Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal &Iceland all signed with the US andCanada. Eventually, West Germany,Turkey & Greece.Warsaw Pact: USSR, Albania,Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, EastGermany, Hungary, Poland &Romania formed this alliance.Alliances (Which caused WWI) weredividing the world again.Korean War: North (communist) vs.South (non-communist) brought USinto fighting to stop spread ofcommunism.Countries building up theirweapons supply and armies.Both sides believed that anarsenal of weapons wouldprevent war.Both countries had ICBMs:Intercontinental ballisticmissiles…bombs could goanywhere in the world fromwhere they were launched.1957: Sputnik I was launchedby USSR showing that theyhad the ability to get tospace. This caused new fears.Nikita Khrushchev: theSoviet leader, wantedto stop the flow ofpeople and goodsfrom West Berlin toEast Berlin. In1961, a wall was built as a barrier acrossthe city to stop this. Families wereseparated. Minefields, machine guntowers floodlights were all in place to stoppeople from going across.The Spread of the Cold War
Chapter 27: Sec 1 Development of the Cold WarWhich country in theWestern Hemispherewas/is communist?Whichcountries inASIA arecommunist?
Chapter 27: Sec 1 Development of the Cold WarThe Cuban Missile Crisis: World War III The Cuban Missile Crisis was atime in history when WWIIIalmost began. The Soviets weremad because the US hadmissiles near their border (inTurkey) and decided to movenuclear weapons near the USborder, in Cuba, which hadrecently become Communist.The leader of the USSR(Khrushchev) and the Presidentof the US (John Kennedy) wentback and forth in intensenegotiations during October1962. For 13 days the worldstood at the brink of nuclearwar, which would have been adisaster.
Chapter 27: Sec 2, The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe• Section 2 The Soviet Union and Eastern EuropeAfter World War II, Stalinist economic policies brought dramatic economicgrowth, but at a high cost.• Most of the growth was in heavy industry. Consumer goods remained hard tofind.• Stalins successor, Nikita Khrushchev, condemned Stalinist terror, increased theproduction of consumer goods, and loosened controls on writers, such asAleksandr Solzhenitsyn.• Khrushchevs rash decisions, such as the plan to place missiles in Cuba,convinced colleagues to remove him from office in 1964.• After World War II, Soviet forces had occupied all of Eastern Europe and part ofthe Balkans.• The occupied states now became Soviet satellites. Yugoslavia was theexception and developed into an independent Communist state.• In Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, attempts for reform threatened Sovietdomination. In each case, the Soviet Union crushed these reforms by usingthreats or military force.
The Hammer:Stands for theindustrialworking class.The sickle:Stands for theagriculturalworkers.The five-pointed red star is a symbol ofcommunism as well as broader socialismin general. It is sometimes understood torepresent the five fingers of the workershand.
The Rein of Stalin:The Good: Productionincreased to 40% of pre-warlevels, new power plants,canals, and factories werebuilt. The economyrecovered and excelled,The Bad: Housing shortages(most lived in apartmentsunder communism) He‘reigned’ as a totalitariandictator and ignored partyleaders. He was suspicious ofpeople around him,everything had to beapproved by the government.Books & movies werecensored by the government.The Ugly (Stalin): Estimates have Stalin‘killing’ 30-40 million people in manydifferent waysKhrushchev Era:1956 began the process of‘de-Stalinization’ which is theelimination of some of Stalin’sruthless policies. Heloosened some governmentcontrols on literature,allowing AlexanderSolzhenitsyn’s work to bepublished. He tried toincrease agriculture, butfailed. The industrial growthrate slowed under hiscommand.He placed missiles in Cuba,causing the Cuban MissileCrisis. In 1964 (afterKennedy’s death) he was onvacation and Soviet leadersvoted him out of power andforced him into retirement.
Chapter 27: Sec 2, The Soviet Union & Eastern EuropeEastern Europe: Behind the IRON CURTAIN!!!!Communist Patterns of Control Revolts AGAINST CommunismEast Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland & Hungarythe Communists held control after WWII.Czechoslovakia lost control to the Soviets in 1948.Albania became Communist, but were independentof the USSR. Yugoslavia, Jospi Broz (Tito) was theleader of a Yugoslav Communist government, but wasnot controlled by Stalin.The Soviets took advantage of Eastern Europe andexploited their resources and made living conditionsbad for them. (Playground bully) After Stalin’s deathmany tried to become independent of the USSR.Hungary: Nov 1st, 1956, Imre Nagy promised freeelections, BUT 3 days later, Khrushchev the Sovietarmy attacked and Nagy was executed 2 years later.Poland: October 1956 Wladyslaw Gomulka reformswere adopted, but remained loyal to the WarsawPact.Czechoslovakia: Antonin Novotny was in power andknown as ‘little Stalin’. Not until January 1968 whenAlexander Dubcek was elected did reform come., butonly lasted until August when the Soviet armyattacked and crushed the reforms.
Chapter 27: Sec 3 Western Europe & North AmericaSection 3 Western Europe and North America• The 1950s and 1960s were periods of dramatic economic growth in WesternEurope.• France and West Germany both experienced rapid economic recoveries.• In Great Britain, dire economic conditions forced Winston Churchill from power.The new Labor government set out to create a modern welfare state and began todismantle the British Empire.• The formation of the European Economic Community created a powerful newtrading bloc.• Canada emerged as an industrial economy.• In the United States, the New Deal had brought a long-term increase in the powerof the federal government.• Prosperity and Cold War suspicions defined the United States in the 1950s.• Civil rights and the expansion of the New Deal were defining issues of the 1960s.• Students protested U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Simultaneously, a varietyof issues sparked student revolts in Europe.• Women began to fight against inequalities between the sexes.
Chapter 27: Sec 3 Western Europe & North AmericaFrance West Germany Great BritainCharles de Gaulle lead the FrenchFourth Republic. Strongparliament and a weak presidency.Sadly, government was ineffective.In 1958 he drafted a newconstitution for the Fifth Republicgiving the president power toappoint a Prime Minister. He wasthe first president of the 5thRepublic. He invested heavily innuclear weapons. France’seconomy grew faster than the US.Federal Republic of Germany =West Germany (France, US andGreat Britain controlled) hadamazing economic recovery ascompared to after WWI. TheMarshall Plan was working.Unemployment went from 8% to.04%The leaders of the country werestill known as ‘chancellors’In the late 60’s there was aneconomic downturn and a socialistparty became powerful, butnothing like the NAZIs.Two party system: Labour andConservative: Churchill(Conservative) lost power after thewar. The people wanted anincreased welfare state, where thegovernment supports people inneed. National insurance andhealth systems were put into place.It cost so much money that Britainlost its world wide power becauseit had to spend money at home.Due to the financial problems, theConservatives were brought backinto power, but the changes hadbeen made.Western Europe: Recovery
Chapter 27: Sec 3 Western Europe & North America
Chapter 27: Sec 3 Western Europe & North AmericaUS in the 50’s US in the 60’s Developmentof CanadaEmergence of a newsocietyFDR’s New Deal had givenmore power to the FederalGovernment. SeveralDemocrat presidents wereelected. The economywas good. ‘Real Wages’increased every year by3%. Many children wereborn and became knownas the ‘Baby Boomer’generation because of thelarge increase in the birthrate following the war.Fear of communismspread Joseph McCarthyaccused people of beingcommunist and broughtthem to trial causing a ‘redscare’.Much has been written aboutthe social changes during the60’s. Kennedy was the youngestpresident elected. When hewas assassinated, LyndonJohnson took over. He wanteda welfare state as well. He didhelp pass civil rights legislationand the practice of ‘separatebut equal’ ended. Leaders likeMartin Luther King broughtthese issues to light. As the USentered Vietnam to stop thespread of communism, anti-warprotests began. The ‘babyboomers’ were teenagers and intheir 20’s and wanted adifferent world from theirparents.Just like GreatBritain, theycreated a welfarestate. Theyenacted anational socialsecurity systemand health plan.The Liberal Partywith LesterPearson as it sleader madethese changes.The middle class grew andadded new jobs. Consumersociety began were peoplewere purchasing more goodsnot for ‘need’, but for ‘want’.Smaller family size led towomen wanting to work afterexperiencing it during WWII,but women were paid less thanmen and still considered <lessthan…men.The 60’s in Europe and US wereknown for student protests onuniversity campuses.
Chapter 27: Sec 3 Western Europe & North AmericaHere is the BabyBoomer generationHere are many ofYOU!BOOM!