TAXONOMY FOR A KMSITE - WHY AND HOW?Janice KeelerManager, Knowledge ManagementNERA Economic ConsultingChair-Elect, SLA Taxonomy DivisionKM ChicagoOctober 9, 2012
2About Our FirmNERA Economic Consulting is a global firm of expertsdedicated to applying economic, finance, and quantitativeprinciples to complex business and legal challenges • For half a century, NERAs economists have been creating strategies, studies, reports, expert testimony, and policy recommendations for government authorities and the worlds leading law firms and corporations • We bring academic rigor, objectivity, and real world industry experience to bear on issues arising from competition, regulation, public policy, strategy, finance, and litigation • Clients value our ability to apply and communicate state-of-the-art approaches clearly and convincingly, our commitment to deliver unbiased findings, and our reputation for quality and independence • Our clients rely on the integrity and skills of our unparalleled team of economists and other experts backed by the resources and reliability of one of the worlds largest economic consultancies
3What about Google/Free Text Search?• Cardiac assist devices • Heart valves• Catheter • Insulin pumps• Defibrillator • Hypodermic products• Medical devices • Pacemakers• Medical equipment • Stent• Medical products• Medical supplies• Hospital supplies
4What is Taxonomy?• Taxonomy: A collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a hierarchical structure. • Taxonomy terms are: • Controlled – coherently structured with no random additions • Hierarchical – with defined broader and narrower terms. • Animals • Mammals • Cats • Dogs • Humans • Typically linked to all identified synonyms to facilitate searching  Guidelines for the Construction, Format and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005, p. 9.
5Controlled Vocabularies Guidelines for the Construction, Format and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005, p. 17. Ontologies are even more complex; with concepts related by explicitly named types of relationships. See Google Knowledge Graph
6Semantic relationships• Equivalency• Hierarchy – generic, instance, whole-part• Associative: • Cause/effect • Process/agent • Process/counteragent • Action/product • Action/property • Action/target • Concept or object/property • Concept or object/origins • Concept or object/measurement unit or mechanism • Raw material/product • Discipline or field/object or practitionerGuidelines for the Construction, Format and Management of Monolingual ControlledVocabularies, ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005, p. 53-56.
7Where are Taxonomies Used?• Navigation• Indexing• Search• Search refinements and suggestions• Dynamic population of web pages or RSS feeds
8Getting Started - Sponsor• Identify an executive sponsor• Determine taxonomy scope and purpose• Keep sponsor updated, revisit scope and purpose based on research• Get budget
9Discuss Business Requirements• What is the goal of the taxonomy? • Common language for improved search • Text analysis/discovery • Auto-populate website content pages or RSS feeds• What is the scope of the taxonomy?• How many platforms will use the taxonomy?• Are you going to go back and reclassify old documents?• Do you need to map any existing or specialized taxonomies to the new taxonomy?
10Getting Started - Research• Study organization’s information needs• Interview stakeholders• Do a content audit• Use text mining for terms if tools are available
13Taxonomy Project Plan• Identify Steering Committee and participants for taxonomy development – with all stakeholders represented• Taxonomy development or acquisition• Taxonomy tool identification/selection/integration• Taxonomy maintenance
14Taxonomies – Build or Buy• License (and potentially customize) existing taxonomies: • Taxonomy Warehouse - http://www.taxonomywarehouse.com • TaxoBank - http://www.taxobank.org• Build a taxonomy • Card Sorting • Focus Groups • Build draft and get reactions • Revise and consult
15Card Sorting Example• Outdoor dining sets• Propane grills• Fire pits• Snow blowers• Lawn mowers• Trimmers and edgers• Hot tubs• Hedge shears• Patio benches
16Actual CategorizationAs of Oct. 9, 2012 on company web sites: http://www.homedepot.com/ and http://www.lowes.com/
17Taxonomy Tools – What to Ask About • Taxonomy features of • Auto-categorization content management • Machine-Aided vs. system vs. standalone automated only tool • Rule-based vs. algorithms • Term management • Mapping of multiple options taxonomies • Polyhierarchy • Multilingual capabilities • Synonyms and Related • Standards compliance Terms • Import/Export options • Ability to create custom • Integration/Interoperability relationships • Users/security
18Appendix: Resource Lists• Blogs• Books• Groups
19Blogs• http://www.earley.com/blog (Seth Earley and staff)• http://www.greenchameleon.com (Patrick Lambe and Straits Knowledge Staff)• http://taxodiary.com (Margie Hlava, Jay Ven Eman and Access Innovations staff)• http://www.vocabcontrol.com (Fran Alexander)
20Books• The Accidental Taxonomist. Heather Hedden. Information Today, Inc., 2010.• Building Enterprise Taxonomies. Darin L. Stewart. Mokita Press, 2008.• Organising Knowledge: Taxonomies, Knowledge and Organisational Effectiveness. Patrick Lambe. London: Chandos Publishing, 2007.• Thesaurus Construction and Use: A Practical Manual. Jean Aitchison, Alan Gilchrist, David Bawden. 4th ed. London: Europa Publications, 2000.• Card Sorting: Designing Usable Categories. Donna Spencer. Brooklyn, NY: Rosenfeld Media, 2009.
21Groups• SLA Taxonomy Division: http://taxonomy.sla.org• Taxonomy Community of Practice: http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/TaxoCoP/