Photo Principles

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  • Photo Principles

    1. 1. Principles of Digital Photography Using Digital Cameras to Enhance Mine Training Ted Farrish Training Specialist Mine Safety and Health Administration
    2. 2. Evolution of Digital Cameras <ul><li>1960s-70s - digital imaging for space, military </li></ul><ul><li>1986 - 1.4 megapixel CCD sensor </li></ul><ul><li>1986 - commercial camera - 180K pixels, $3000 </li></ul><ul><li>1993 - webcam pointed at Cambridge coffee pot </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - 1.5 megapixel for $8000 </li></ul><ul><li>1995 - LCD preview screen </li></ul><ul><li>1996 - 300K pixels for $300 </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Sony Mavica </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 Megapixels </li></ul><ul><li>Media: 1.5 floppy disc </li></ul><ul><li>Set a new standard for storage, use and distribution </li></ul>
    4. 4. Evolution of Digital Cameras <ul><li>Camera sales for digital surpassed film in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>18 million sold worldwide in 2001 ($8 billion) </li></ul><ul><li>2 million sold in the US in Q2 of 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>300K pixel webcam for $30 </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 megapixel for $80 </li></ul><ul><li>14 megapixel for $3000 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Digital Photographs <ul><li>Digital photographs are actually mosaics of millions of tiny squares called pixels. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Digital Photographs <ul><li>Digital photographs are actually mosaics of millions of tiny squares called pixels. </li></ul><ul><li>Your computer and printer use these tiny pixels to display or print photographs . </li></ul>
    7. 7. Digital Photographs <ul><li>Digital photographs are actually mosaics of millions of tiny squares called pixels. </li></ul><ul><li>Your computer and printer use these tiny pixels to display or print photographs l ike </li></ul><ul><li>This process is comparable to the impressionist painters who painted scenes with small dabs of paint. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Georges-Pierre Seurat (December 2, 1859 – March 29, 1891) was a French painter and the founder of Neo-impressionism.
    9. 10. Seurat created this scene using tiny dots of different colors. Similarly, a digital camera’s imaging device uses pixels to create a photo.
    10. 11. Digital Cameras Pixels and Resolution <ul><li>Pixel - A pixel (short for pic ture el ement, using the common abbreviation &quot;pix&quot; for &quot;pictures&quot;) is a single point in a graphic image. </li></ul><ul><li>Pixelization - The stair-stepped appearance of a curved or angled line in digital imaging. The smaller the pixels, and the greater their number, the less apparent the &quot;pixelization&quot; of the image. Also known as the &quot;jaggies&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of a digital image depends in part on the number of pixels it contains referred to as resolution. </li></ul>
    11. 13. Resolution <ul><li>Resolution is the number of pixels used to capture an image. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent image resolution is achieved by a combination of pixel count and lens resolution . </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera resolution is measured in Megapixels. </li></ul><ul><li>One Megapixel is made of one million pixels/dots. </li></ul>
    12. 14. Resolution <ul><li>The more Megapixels - the higher the resolution the better quality of the photograph. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Resolution <ul><li>The more Megapixels - the higher the resolution the better quality of the photograph. </li></ul><ul><li>If the image sensor resolution is expressed as numbers such as 2048x1536, just multiply them out and divide by 1 million to get the resolution in megapixels. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, we get 3+ megapixels. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Megapixels and Resolution 2400 x 1800 = 4.3 mp 1600 x 1200 = 1.9 mp 640 x 480 = .3 mp
    15. 18. The smaller the pixels, and the greater their number, the less apparent the &quot;pixelization&quot; of the image. Also known as the &quot;jaggies&quot;.
    16. 20. Image Sensors Affect Resolution <ul><li>Two types of image sensors: </li></ul><ul><li>CCD - Charge-Coupled Device sensors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in high-end digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some users say quality is higher than CMOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less cost than CCD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some users say quality not as good as CCD </li></ul></ul>
    17. 21. Image Sensors Affect Resolution <ul><li>Two types of image sensors: </li></ul><ul><li>CCD - Charge-Coupled Device sensors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in high-end digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some users say quality is higher than CMOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less cost than CCD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some users say quality not as good as CCD </li></ul></ul>
    18. 22. Image Sensors Summary Different image sensors render colors differently, have different amounts of &quot;grain,&quot; different sensitivities to light, and so on. The only ways to evaluate these aspects are to examine some sample photographs from the camera or read reviews written by people you trust. Despite their differences, both types of sensors are capable of giving very good results and both types are used by major camera companies in both consumer and professional. Canon even uses CMOS sensors in their high-end digital SLRs.
    19. 23. Choosing a digital camera that fits your needs
    20. 24. Types of Digital Cameras <ul><li>Professional - 10 + megapixel, SLR design, interchangeable lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>High end consumer - 3-6 megapixel, manual override, powerful zoom. </li></ul><ul><li>Point-and-shoot - 1-3 megapixel, easy to use, compact. </li></ul>
    21. 25. Types of Digital Cameras <ul><li>Professional - 10 + megapixel, SLR design, interchangeable lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Nikon D200 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: 23.6 x 15.8 mm CCD </li></ul><ul><li>10.2 million effective pixels </li></ul><ul><li>Image size can be changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Media: SD Card </li></ul><ul><li>USB Connectivity to computer </li></ul>
    22. 26. Types of Digital Cameras <ul><li>High end consumer - 3-6 megapixel, manual override, powerful zoom. </li></ul><ul><li>Canon Powershot A95 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: CCD 5 Megapixels </li></ul><ul><li>Image size can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple shooting modes </li></ul><ul><li>Media: CF Card </li></ul><ul><li>Shoots video clips </li></ul>
    23. 27. Types of Digital Cameras <ul><li>Point-and-shoot - 1-3 megapixel, easy to use, compact. </li></ul><ul><li>Vivitar ViviCam 3720 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: CMOS </li></ul><ul><li>Image size 3 Megapixel </li></ul><ul><li>Standard point and shoot </li></ul><ul><li>8X digital zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Shoots video clips </li></ul>
    24. 28. Lenses
    25. 29. <ul><li>Aperture is expressed as F-stop , e.g. F2.8 or f/2.8. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the F-stop number (or f/value), the larger the lens (aperture). </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;fast&quot; lens is one that has a large maximum aperture (F2.4, F2.0 for current digital cameras; F1.4, F1.2 for 35mm film cameras). </li></ul><ul><li>[Note: Many camera user manuals today will refer to the aperture in terms of &quot;aperture value&quot; instead of f/value) </li></ul>Aperture
    26. 30. Quick Quiz Which lens has a larger opening (aperture): one with an aperture of F1.8 or one with an aperture of F2.8?
    27. 31. Quick Quiz Which lens has a larger opening (aperture): one with an aperture of F1.8 or one with an aperture of F2.8? ANSWER: F1.8
    28. 32. A Good Aperture Range F1.8 - F16 This tells us that the camera has an aperture range of F1.8 to F16; the maximum aperture is F1.8, and the minimum aperture is F16. There are 5 f-stops between the max and min aperture. If your camera's lens is currently set at an aperture of F5.6, closing it by 1 f-stop would mean selecting F8; opening it up by 1 f-stop would mean selecting F4. F16 F11 F8 F5.6 F4 F2.8 F1.8
    29. 33. Aperture Settings and Shutter Speed 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 F16 F11 F8 F5.6 F4 F2.8 F1.8
    30. 34. Tips for Shooting Rule of Thirds
    31. 36. Wide Angle -- Depth

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