Mysql Optimization


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Mysql Optimization

  1. 1. MySQL Optimization Optimization is a complex task because ultimately it requires understanding of the entire system to be optimized.
  2. 2. Why it was my topic? Because …
  3. 3. What is Query Optimizer? - attempts to determine the most efficient way to execute a given query by considering the possible query plans.
  4. 4. Topics 1.Data Types and Schema Design 2.Indexing 3.Query Optimization - These three go hand in hand to achieve high query performance.
  5. 5. Data Types and Schema Design Optimization Good logical and physical design is the cornerstone of high performance, and you must design your schema for the specific queries you will run.
  6. 6. Smaller is Usually Better. -Use the smallest data type that can correctly store and represent your data. Smaller data types are usually faster, because they use less space on the disk, in memory, and in the CPU cache. - For storage and computational purposes, INT(1) is identical to INT(20). - The “1” in INT(1) sometines is useless because it does not restrict the legal range of values, but simply specifies the number of characters MySQL’s interactive tools (such as the command-line client) will reserve for display purposes.
  7. 7. Simple is Good. ●  Integers are cheaper to compare than characters, because character sets and collations (sorting rules) make character comparisons compli- cated. ●  Use INT for dotted-quad representation of an IPv4 network address. ○  insert into user(ip) VALUE(INET_ATON("")); // will insert 2130706433 ○  select INET_NTOA(ip) from user; // will diplay
  8. 8. Simple is Good. -Use DATETIME and TIMESTAMP built- in mysql and time rather than VARCHAR. types for date
  9. 9. Avoid NULL if Possible. - It’s usually best to specify columns as NOT NULL unless you intend to store NULL in them. - It’s harder for MySQL to optimize queries that refer to nullable columns, because they make indexes, index statistics, and value comparisons more complicated. - The performance improvement from changing NULL columns to NOT NULL is usually small, so don’t make it a priority to find and change them on an existing schema unless you know they are causing problems. However, if you’re planning to index columns, avoid making them nullable if possible.
  10. 10. Schema Design Gotchas in MySQL 1. Too many columns Q. Storing the value 'hello' requires the same amount of space in a VARCHAR(5) and a VARCHAR(200) column. Is there any advantage to using the shorter column? A. The larger column can use much more memory, because MySQL often allocates fixed-size chunks of memory to hold values internally.
  11. 11. Schema Design Gotchas in MySQL 2. Too many joins o  Limit your join to dozen or fewer join. o  MySQL has a limitation of 61 tables per join. 3. Beware of overusing ENUM. 4. Other tips: o  If your not going to use negative numbers, use UNSIGNED. o  If your not sure about the lenght VARCHAR(100) is still much better than VARCHAR(255)
  12. 12. Index Optimization Indexes are critical for good performance, and become more important as your data grows larger. Index optimization is perhaps the most powerful way to improve query performance.
  13. 13. Basic Rule on choosing column for Indexes - Choose the fields most commonly used in your where clauses.
  14. 14. Index Table t key(b) SELECT * FROM t where b = 7; a b c key(b) a 1 10 3 2 4 2 7 7 6 5 3 15 4 7 2 a b c 4 2 12 9 6 2 7 7 5 6 4 10 1 6 9 7 7 15 6 15 7 b=7 POINT QUERIES 15 3 r e s u l t
  15. 15. Topics are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cardinality Selectivity Indexing Strategies for High Performance What are a bad index? ANALYZE TABLE command
  16. 16. Cardinality •  •  •  Number of unique data in a column. Higher cardinality = more unique values. If the column has high cardinality and this column is commonly used on where clause, then it can be a good index. col_cardinality = SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT(col_name)) FROM tbl_name
  17. 17. Selectivity - The state or quality of being selective. - Selectivity Formula S(I) = d/n * 100% S(I) = Selectivity d = cardinality n = number of records - Formula SELECT ( count(distinct(column_name)) / count(column_name) ) * 100%
  18. 18. Selectivity - Suppose you have a userbase of 10,000 users. You have an index on the country field and you want to do this query: SELECT * FROM users WHERE country="Netherlands"; you have a cardinality of 10 (there are 10 unique countries in your userbase) so the selectivity will be: selectivity = 10 / 10000 * 100% = 0.1% which is very low (i’ve seen much, much, much lower values though). So, there we are… MySQL has calculated the selectivity of an index he’s planning to use. At this point, it will decide whether or not this index is useful. With such a low selectivity, it’s GUESSING that there are so many duplicates records that it will probably be faster for him to skip browsing the index. This is part of the costbased optimizer. When it decides it’s too costly to browse an index (because of the low selectivity), it will never use this index.
  19. 19. Selectivity - When the selectivity percentage is less than 30%, it will decide to use table scan.
  20. 20. Rules on selectivity 1.  Put higher selectivity column on first condition on where clause. 2.  If the where clause contains an equality and a range condition, put the equality condition first. a.  Ex. SELECT col1, col2 FROM tbl_name where col1=2 and col2 > 5; 3.  If conditions consists of one or more unequality column, make first unequality columns in index as selective as possible. col2 >= 5 and col3 > 5
  21. 21. Isolating the Column MySQL generally can’t use indexes on columns unless the columns are isolated in the query. “Isolating” the column means it should not be part of an expression or be inside a function in the query. Wrong: mysql> SELECT actor_id FROM WHERE actor_id + 1 = 5; Correct: mysql> SELECT actor_id FROM WHERE actor_id = 4;
  22. 22. Prefix Indexes for Indexing text or blob column If you’re indexing BLOB or TEXT columns, or very long VARCHAR columns, you must define prefix indexes, because MySQL disallows indexing their full length. The trick is to choose a prefix that’s long enough to give good selectivity, but short enough to save space. The prefix should be long enough to make the index nearly as useful as it would be if you’d indexed the whole column. What is prefix indexes? Please Read….. :D
  23. 23. Prefix Indexing This allows you to specify how many bytes to index, which can reduce index size or allow you to index the larger data types (ie. BLOB/TEXT). Ex. CREATE INDEX part_of_address ON user_address(address(10));
  24. 24. Ways on how to make a good prefix index 1. Check the full selectivity of your column. Ex. 2. Check selectivity of several prefix lengths. Ex.
  25. 25. Index Optimization 3. Choose the prefix length having almost the same selectivity with the full column selectivity. In the example, prefix length 7 selectivity is almost the same with the full column selectivity so we will used it as the index. 4. Create prefix indexes.
  26. 26. Multicolumn Indexes - Common mistakes are to index many or all of the columns separately, or to index columns in the wrong order. - 16 columns only per index. The first mistake, indexing many columns separately.
  27. 27. Seperate Column Indexing Ex. CREATE TABLE t ( c1 INT, c2 INT, c3 INT, KEY(c1), KEY(c2), KEY(c3) );
  28. 28. Your query SELECT * FROM t where c1 = ? and c2 = ?; SELECT * FROM t where c1 = ?;
  29. 29. Clustering Index Every InnoDB table has a special index called the clustered index where the data for the rows is stored. Typically, the clustered index is synonymous with the primary key. A clustered index means that the records are physically stored in order (at least near each other), based on the index. Only one clustered index column on a table . TokuDB can have multiple clustering indexes.
  30. 30. SELECT name, birthday, address FROM user WHERE id = ? AND sex = ‘M’ ORDER BY name ASC LIMIT 10;
  31. 31. Create indexes for the query’s in WHERE clause is the basic rules right(Rule of the thumb)? Is it possible that we can index everything in our query?
  32. 32. Covering Index Indexes need to be designed for the whole query, not just the WHERE clause. Contains (or “covers”) all the data needed to satisfy a query.
  33. 33. Sample Query SELECT sum(value) FROM Table1 WHERE item_id=? AND category_id = ? GROUP BY customer_id; ALTER TABLE Table1 ADD INDEX t1_index(item_id,category_id,customer_id,v alue)
  34. 34. Check if used covering index mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT sum(value) FROM Table1 WHERE item_id=? AND category_id = ? GROUP BY customer_id; *************************** 1. row ***********! table: Table1 ….. possible_keys: t1_index This signs that query used key: t1_index covering index. …. Using index Extra: Using where;Using index
  35. 35. Check if used covering index mysql> explain select name from City where CountryCode = 'USA' and District = 'Alaska' and population > 10000G! *************************** 1. row ***********! table: City type: range possible_keys: cov1 key: cov1 key_len: 27 ref: NULL rows: 1 Using index Extra: Using where;Using index
  36. 36. Covering Index Star 3 Star What is the 3 stars on indexing? Please Read : Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers, by Tapio Lah- denmaki and Mike Leach (Wiley).
  37. 37. Column Order in Covering Index 1. Const or equality WHERE a = 5 2. Range WHERE a = 5 AND b > 5 3. Order or Group By WHERE a = 5 AND b > 5 GROUP BY c WHERE a = 5 AND b > 5 ORDER BY c DESC 4. Select count(d), sum(d)
  38. 38. What are Bad Indexes? Duplicate indexes: always bad. Redundant indexes: generally bad Low-cardinality indexes: depends Unused indexes: always bad Indexing all columns.
  39. 39. Do you know that? Key: key(item_id, person_id) Query: SELECT * from t1 where item_id=5 order by person_id asc; Sorting here is not operational.
  40. 40. Query optimization Fast Queries = Less Response Time
  41. 41. Slow Query Basics: Optimize Data Access The most basic reason a query doesn’t perform well is because it’s working with too much data.
  42. 42. Fetching more rows than needed. Ex. A select query that returns many rows while it needed only 10 to display on frontpage. Solution: Use LIMIT instead
  43. 43. Fetching all columns from a multitable join If you want to retrieve all actors who appear in the film Academy Dinosaur, don’t write the query this way: mysql> SELECT * FROM -> INNER JOIN sakila.film_actor USING(actor_id) -> INNER JOIN USING(film_id) -> WHERE = 'Academy Dinosaur'; That returns all columns from all three tables. Instead, write the query as follows: mysql> SELECT* FROM;
  44. 44. Fetching all columns Do you really need all columns? Probably not. Retrieving all columns can prevent optimizations such as covering indexes, as well as adding I/O, memory, and CPU overhead for the server. But its ok when you use caching system on your application.
  45. 45. Fetching the same data repeatedly Solution : Use caching application.
  46. 46. The Query Optimizer MySQL uses a cost-based optimizer, which means it tries to predict the cost of various execution plans and choose the least expensive.
  47. 47. The MYSQL Optimizer Choose: 1. Which index will be useful. 2. Which indexes should be avoided. 3. Which better index if there is more than one.
  48. 48. Book to Read High Performance MySQL, 3rd Edition Optimization, Backups, and Replication By Baron Schwartz, Peter Zaitsev, Vadim Tkachenko
  49. 49. Video to watch for Indexing v=AVNjqgf7zNw&list=FLUvfNgLXOkXVKfQyO5mQ6w&index=1
  50. 50. Slide to Read Webinar_2013_Advanced_Query_Tuning.pdf
  51. 51. Mysql Master If you read and understand all, you can be :
  52. 52. References : -High Performance MySQL, 3rd Edition By Baron Schwartz, Peter Zaitsev, Vadim Tkachenko - - -
  53. 53. End ThAnk YoU fOR ListENing poH. (bow) Hope you learn something.