Science (Bacteria)


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Science (Bacteria)

  1. 1. B.Ed Course 2010-11 Anjana Jha Roll No- 20 Microorganisms ( Bacteria) Std –VIII
  2. 3. Table Of Content Sr. No Topic 1. Introduction to Micro-organism 2. Kingdom Monera 3. Structures of Bacterial Cell 4. Photosynthesis of Bacteria 5. Harmful & Helpful Bacteria 6. Evaluation
  3. 4. Micro-organisms <ul><li>Too small to be seen with the naked eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregations or colonies can be seen without the aid of a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Are found almost anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Are more abundant than any other life form </li></ul><ul><li>They are forms on which all others depend. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>THE KINGDOM OF MICROORGANISMS </li></ul>
  5. 6. Kingdom Monera (Bacteria are prokaryotes) <ul><li>Pro -before </li></ul><ul><li>Karyon – nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>The simplest forms of life are prokaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s first cells were prokaryotes . </li></ul>
  6. 7. Lots of Them ! <ul><li>Prokaryotes are Earth’s most abundant life forms. </li></ul><ul><li>They can survive in many environments. </li></ul><ul><li>They can get energy from many different sources. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Prokaryote Review <ul><li>Mostly single-celled </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus or organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Circular chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce mostly asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic or aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic or autotrophic </li></ul>
  8. 9. 7 major structures of Bacterial cell <ul><li>Capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleoid </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Pilli </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul>
  9. 10. Structure of Bacteria <ul><li>Two part to bacteria structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul>
  10. 11. Arrangement <ul><li>Paired: Diplo </li></ul><ul><li>Grape like structures: Staphylo </li></ul><ul><li>Chains: Srepto </li></ul>
  11. 12. Shapes <ul><li>Rod: Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>Spheres: coccus </li></ul><ul><li>Spirals: spirillum </li></ul>
  12. 13. Photosynthesis of Bacteria <ul><li>Bacteria can be Autotrophs or Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs: - They are either photosynthetic obtaining energy from sunlight or chemosynthetic, breaking down inorganic substances for energy. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Cyanobacteria </li></ul>
  13. 14. Photosynthesis of Bacteria Cont… <ul><li>Heterotrophs : - They derive energy from breaking down complex organic compounds in the environment. This includes saprobes, bacteria that feed on decaying material and organic wastage as those that live on parasites, absorbing nutrients from living organisms. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Harmful Bacteria <ul><li>Some bacteria cause diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Animals can pass diseases to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Communicable Disease: </li></ul><ul><li>Disease passed from one organism to another </li></ul><ul><li>This can happen in several ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water that contains bacteria </li></ul>
  15. 16. Harmful Bacteria <ul><li>Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Helpful Bacteria <ul><li>Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay </li></ul><ul><li>Most are used to make antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Some bacteria help make insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Used to make industrial chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Some bacteria live on the roots of other plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Helpful Bacteria <ul><li>E. coli in small intestines </li></ul>
  18. 19. Helpful Bacteria <ul><li>Used to treat sewage            </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk are made from bacteria that grows in milk </li></ul>
  19. 20. Questions <ul><li>Which Kingdom does bacteria belong to? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the scientific name of grapes like structure found in Bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>Name any one examples of Autotrophs and Heterotroph Bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the two ways in which bacteria reproduce? </li></ul><ul><li>Are E.Coli bacteria helpful or harmful Bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the three ways to control Bacteria? </li></ul>
  20. 21. Which Kingdom does Bacteria belong to? <ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Monera </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>What is the scientific name of grapes like structure found in Bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>Diplococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Stephylococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Tetracoccus </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Where are E.Coli found? </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Lung </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Large Intestines </li></ul>
  23. 24. Answers <ul><li>Monera Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs- Cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs- Saprobes </li></ul><ul><li>Binary fission and Asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Canning, Pasteurization, Dehyration </li></ul>