Human Digestive System(Science)


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Human Digestive System(Science)

  1. 1. Aarti Pandey Bed 2010-2011 Roll no.90 Subject: Science Topic: Human Digestive System
  2. 2. Definitions and Concepts <ul><li>Organ—a structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function than can any tissue alone </li></ul><ul><li>Organ system—a group of organs arranged in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function than can any organ alone </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Digestive System
  4. 4. How is food digested? <ul><li>Digestion involves: </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking down of food into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>The mixing of food </li></ul><ul><li>Movement through the digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller molecules </li></ul>
  5. 6. Organs of Digestion and there Functions <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth bite off and chew food into a soft pulp that is easy to swallow. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing mixes the food with saliva, from salivary glands around the mouth and face, to make it moist and easy to swallow. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Mouth <ul><li>Enzymes in the saliva begin digestion of carbohydrates. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>The esophagus is a </li></ul><ul><li>muscular </li></ul><ul><li>tube. It takes food from </li></ul><ul><li>the throat and pushes </li></ul><ul><li>it down through the neck, </li></ul><ul><li>and into the stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>It moves food by waves </li></ul><ul><li>of muscle contraction called </li></ul><ul><li>peristalsis. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Stomach <ul><li>The stomach has thick muscles in its wall. These contract to mash the food into a water soup called chyme. </li></ul><ul><li>The stomach lining produces strong digestive juices. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Stomach <ul><li>These create chemical reactions in the stomach, breaking down and dissolving its nutrients. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Small Intestine <ul><li>This part of the digestive tract is narrow, but very long - about 20 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes continue </li></ul><ul><li>the chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>on the food. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Small Intestine <ul><li>The nutrients are broken down small enough to pass through the lining of the small intestine, and into the blood (diffusion). </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients are carried away to the liver and other body parts to be processed, stored and distributed. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Large Intestine <ul><li>Useful substances that were not absorbed in the small intestine, such as spare water and body minerals, are absorbed through the walls of the large intestine, back into the blood </li></ul><ul><li>The remains are </li></ul><ul><li>formed into brown, </li></ul><ul><li>semi-solid feces, ready </li></ul><ul><li>to be removed from the body </li></ul>
  13. 14. Rectum and Anus <ul><li>The end of the large intestine and the next part of the tract, the rectum, store the feces. </li></ul><ul><li>Feces are finally squeezed through a ring of muscle, the anus, and out of the body. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Pancreas <ul><li>The pancreas, like the stomach, makes digestive juices called enzymes which help to digest food further as it enters the small intestines. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Gall Bladder <ul><li>A small baglike part under </li></ul><ul><li>the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>It stores a fluid called bile, </li></ul><ul><li>which is made in the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>As food from a meal enters </li></ul><ul><li>the small intestine, bile flows </li></ul><ul><li>from the gall bladder along the bile </li></ul><ul><li>duct into the intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to digest fatty foods and also contains wastes for removal. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Liver <ul><li>Blood from the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>enters to the liver, carrying </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients, vitamins and </li></ul><ul><li>minerals, and other products </li></ul><ul><li>from digestion. </li></ul><ul><li>The liver is like a food-processing </li></ul><ul><li>factory with more than 200 different jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>It stores some nutrients, changes them from one form to another, and releases them into the blood according to the activities and needs of the body. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Identify the organs of digestive system
  18. 19. <ul><li>Q.1.Name some organ system in the human </li></ul><ul><li>body </li></ul><ul><li>Q.2. Name the organs of the digestive </li></ul><ul><li>system. </li></ul><ul><li>Q.3. Match the following: </li></ul>Coil like part Part with bulges on the outside Bag like part Stomach Small intestine Large intestine shape of digestive organs Digestive system
  19. 20. Nasal Passage Bronchiole Alveoli Pharynx Trachea Bronchi Human Respiratory System Diagram
  20. 21. Oxygen Cell Hi I am O 2 ,you can call me oxygen, and I will be your guide today. I advise you keep all feet and hands inside the ride at all times. JH
  21. 22. Respiratory Intro You may be asking, what is the Respiratory system? Well, the Respiratory system is the system that helps you breath in and out, so oxygen (0 2 ) can be pumped through your body and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can be removed from the blood stream. You must remember that the Respiratory system is made up of many different organs. JH
  22. 23. Where are we? Here We Go!!! JH Nasal Passage Bronchi Tubes Alveoli (air-sacs) Thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries Very thin cells line the alveoli so that O 2 and CO 2 can pass in and out of the blood. Bronchioles pass air to and from your alveoli. The Trachea is held open by partial rings of cartilage. Tongue Pharynx
  23. 24. Picture Intro Here is a overview picture of the Respiratory System . Just go to the next slide to see it. MB
  24. 25. Respiratory Overview Picture MB Nasal Cavity Nose Mouth Bronchus Bronchiole Alveolus Diaphragm Throat (pharynx) Windpipe (Trachea) Left lungs Ribs
  25. 26. Welcome The Respiratory System Now we will begin our tour. Welcome to… MB
  26. 27. The Nose and Mouth This is where it all begins. This is where the oxygen first enters your body and also where Carbon Dioxide leaves. MB
  27. 28. The Nose and Mouth When the air comes into your nose it gets filtered by tiny hairs and it is moistened by the mucus that is in your nose. Your sinuses also help out with your Respiratory System . They help to moisten and heat the air that you breath. Air can also get into your body through your mouth/oral cavity but air is not filtered as much when it enters in through your mouth . MB
  28. 29. Nose and Mouth Picture Nasal Cavity Nostril Oral Cavity Pharynx Here is a picture of your nasal and oral cavity . MB
  29. 30. The Pharynx and Trachea Next we will head down to your pharynx (throat) and your trachea (windpipe) . This is where the air passes from your nose to your bronchi tubes and lungs . MB
  30. 31. The Bronchi Tubes and Bronchiole These bronchi tubes split up, like tree branches, and get smaller and smaller inside your lungs. The air flows past your bronchi tubes and into your bronchiole . These tubes keep getting smaller and smaller until they finally end with small air sacs (called alveoli ). But we will go there later… MB
  31. 32. The Pharynx and Trachea Your pharynx (throat) gathers air after it passes through your nose and then the air is passed down to your trachea (windpipe) . Your trachea is held open by “incomplete rings of cartilage.” Without these rings your trachea might close off and air would not be able to get to and from your lungs . MB Pharynx (Throat) Mouth Trachea
  32. 33. The Bronchi Tubes and Bronchiole Intro Your trachea (windpipe) splits up into two bronchi tubes . These two tubes keep splitting up and form your bronchiole . MB
  33. 34. Alveoli and Bronchi Picture Trachea Bronchi Tubes Bronchiole Alveoli MB
  34. 35. The Alveoli and Capillary Network Your alveoli are tiny air sacs that fill up with air/oxygen when you breath in. Your alveoli are surrounded by many tiny blood vessels called capillaries . The walls of your alveoli (and capillaries ) are so thin that the oxygen or carbon dioxide can pass through them, traveling right into, or out of your blood stream. MB
  35. 36. Alveoli Picture Here is a close up picture of your Alveoli and a Capillary surrounding it. MB Capillary Red Blood Cell Oxygen is picked up Carbon Dioxide is dropped off Wall of the air sac
  36. 37. Alveolus Bronchiole Respiratory Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Alveolar Sac Capillaries Alveolus JH
  37. 38. Intro to Diaphragm Now we will look at the Diaphragm . You might be wondering, what does the Diaphragm do? The Diaphragm is an important factor in breathing. JH
  38. 39. Diagram of Diaphragm JH
  39. 40. Experiment Instructions 1 st you need a bottle that you can sacrifice to cut up. 2 nd you cut the bottom of the bottle and put a big balloon on the bottom. 3 rd get a rubber cork ( make sure it blocks the hole)and put a hole through it ( top to bottom). Insert a thin tube into the cork and place a balloon on the bottom of the tube. 4 th make sure the thing is airtight. JH
  40. 41. Diaphragm Experiment Here is an experiment that you can try. JH
  41. 42. <ul><li>Q.1. Which organs help in the function of </li></ul><ul><li>respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>Q.2. Find the odd-man-out: </li></ul><ul><li>diaphragm, pancreas, alveoli, trachea. </li></ul>
  42. 43. THANK YOU