Safeguarding children sam


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An introduction to child abuse

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Safeguarding children sam

  1. 1. Safeguarding Children<br />‘The sad history of where child protection has failed is littered with examples of different agencies having different procedures and different thresholds for intervention’ <br />Peter Clarke (All Wales Child Protection Procedures 2008)<br />
  2. 2. Definition of child abuse and neglect<br />A child is abused or neglected when somebody inflicts harm, or fails to act to prevent harm.<br />Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger.<br />A child or young person up to the age of 18 years can suffer abuse or neglect and require protection via an inter-agency child protection plan.<br /> (All Wales Child Protection Procedures 2008)<br />
  3. 3. Definition of child abuse and neglect<br /> <br />Making a child feel unwanted, ugly, worthless, guilty, unloved<br />Being physically violent to a child<br />Exploiting a child sexually<br />Failing to provide the things needed for a child to grow<br />Child abuse is not usually one single incident but part of a pattern of behaviour; it takes place over a period of time and its effects add up…….. abusers come from all social, economic, ethnic, racial and religious groups.<br /> (KIDSCAPE)<br />
  4. 4. Physical abuse<br />May involve:<br />hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning <br />scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.<br />physical harm may also be caused when a parent or caregiver fabricates or induces illness in a child whom they are looking after<br />
  5. 5. Emotional abuse<br />Persistent emotional ill treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. <br />It may involve:<br />conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, <br /> that they are inadequate or valued only in so far as they meet the needs of another person<br />age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children<br />causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger e.g.<br /> witnessing domestic abuse within the home<br />being bullied<br />exploitation or corruption of children<br />Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill treatment of a child, though it may occur alone<br />
  6. 6. Sexual abuse<br />Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.<br /> It may involve:<br />physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts<br />non contact activities, such as involving children in<br />looking at, or in the production of, pornographic material or watching sexual activities<br />encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.<br />
  7. 7. Neglect<br />Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. <br />It may involve:<br />a parent or caregiver failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing<br />failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger<br />the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment<br />neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs<br />may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance misuse<br />
  8. 8. Fabricated or induced illness<br />The term FII (Fabricated/Factitious/Induced Illness) should be reserved for parents who are causing the child harm, or risk of harm, as a result of deliberate fabrication/induction of illness. Cases may vary from very mild to severe and life threatening.<br />It may include:<br />exaggerating real illness and symptoms<br />fabrication of symptoms - sleep apnoea, seizures, asthma attacks and allergy;<br />falsifying signs, tests and records, for example addition of blood or sugar<br /> to urine, false temperature records<br />inducing physical illness, for example poisoning, suffocation, starvation or<br /> inappropriate diet<br />sudden unexpected death of infant or child<br />false allegations of abuse;<br />encouraging or requiring the child to appear disabled, including learning<br /> disability and/or obtaining unnecessary specialist treatments or equipment for the child.<br />
  9. 9. Accidental injuries<br />Usually found on:<br />forehead<br />nose<br />chin<br />bony spine<br />elbows<br />forearm<br />hip<br />knees<br />shin <br />Usually caused by: tripping, falling, slipping, playing, walking into things<br />
  10. 10. Non-accidental injuries<br />Usually found on:<br />eyes – bruising (particularly both eyes)<br />cheek, side of face – bruising finger marks<br />mouth – torn frenulum<br />shoulders – bruising, grasping marks<br />genitals – bruising<br />knees – grasp marks<br />skull – fracture, bruising<br />ears – pinch, slap marks<br />chest – bruising<br />back / buttocks / thighs – linear bruising, outline of belt / buckle, scalds, burns<br />bite marks – note size of bite impression<br />
  11. 11. Other signs<br />aggressive behaviour<br />withdrawn, timid behaviour<br />failure to make / or maintain relationships<br />low self-esteem<br />lack of self-confidence<br />school phobia<br />inappropriate sexual knowledge<br />poor health and hygiene<br />inadequate clothing for the weather conditions<br />lack of protection and supervision<br />
  12. 12. What everyone should do<br />Every person in contact with or working with children, young people and their families........should:<br />understand their role and responsibilities to safeguard and promote the welfare of children;<br />be familiar with and follow their organisation’s procedures and protocols for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and know who to contact in their organisation to express concerns about a child’s welfare;<br />be alert to indicators of abuse and neglect;<br />have access to and comply with the All Wales Child Protection Procedures;<br />understand the principles and practice contained in Safeguarding Children: Working Together under the Children Act 2004<br />
  13. 13. If any person has knowledge, concerns or suspicions that a child is suffering, has suffered or is likely to be at risk of harm,<br /> it is their responsibility to ensure that the concerns are referred to social services or the police, who have statutory duties and<br /> powers to make enquiries and intervene when necessary<br />
  14. 14. What to do if a child tells you that they or another young person is being abused<br />show the child that you have heard what they are saying, and that you take their allegations seriously;<br />encourage the child to talk, but do not prompt or ask leading questions;<br />don’t interrupt when the child is recalling significant events. <br />don’t make the child repeat their account;<br />explain what actions you must take, in a way that is appropriate to the age and understanding of the child;<br />do not promise to keep what you have been told secret or confidential, as you have a responsibility to disclose information to those who need to know. Reporting concerns is not a betrayal of trust;<br />write down as soon as you can and no later than 24 hours what you have been told, using the exact words if possible;<br />
  15. 15. report your concerns to your line manager or (if appropriate) the member of staff in your organisation with designated responsibility for child protection;<br />ensure that your concerns are immediately reported to the duty social worker at the local office. Do not delay;<br />do not confront the alleged abuser;<br />do not worry that you may be mistaken. You will always be taken seriously by social services. It is better to have discussed it with somebody with the experience and responsibility to make an assessment;<br />make a note of the date, time, place and people who were present at the discussion.<br />
  16. 16. How to behave if a child tells you they are being abused<br />listen – accept what is being said<br /> don’t express verbally or non-verbally <br /> how it makes you feel<br />reassure – disclosing abuse is a very hard thing <br /> for a child to do<br /> don’t make false promises<br />react – make it clear to the child what you have<br /> to do next and who you have to talk to<br />write – write up your notes in as full a way as <br /> possible<br />follow – the procedures in the setting<br />talk – to a senior member of staff (remembering <br /> confidentiality)<br />