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Mariusz Luterek: E-government as a research field

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V Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa Nauka o informacji (informacja naukowa) w okresie zmian Innowacyjne usługi informacyjne. Wydział Dziennikarstwa, Informacji i Bibliologii Katedra Informatologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warszawa, 15 – 16 maja 2017

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Mariusz Luterek: E-government as a research field

  1. 1. eGovernment as a research field Mariusz Luterek m.luterek@uw.edu.pl
  2. 2. Talking points 1. What is e-government? 2. Scope of e-Government research 3. e-Government reference library 4. Conclusions
  3. 3. What is e-government?
  4. 4. Evolving definition of e-government Source Definition 2001 Benchmarking E-government: A Global Perspective (UNDESA, 2001) E-government is ‘a tool for information and service provision to citizens’ United Nations Global E-Government Readiness Report 2004: Towards Access for Opportunity (UNDESA, 2004) E-government is what enhances the capacity of public administration through the use of ICTs to increase the supply of public value (i.e., to deliver the things that people want). United Nations E-Government Survey 2008: From E-Government to Connected Governance (UNDESA, 2008) E-government is the continuous innovation in the delivery of services, public participation and governance through the transformation of external and internal relationships by the use of information technology, especially the Internet.
  5. 5. Evolving definition of e-government (2) Source Definition UN E-Government Survey 2014: E- Government for the Future We Want (UNDESA, 2014) E-government can be referred to as the use and application of information technologies in public administration to streamline and integrate workflows and processes, to effectively manage data and information, enhance public service delivery, as well as expand communication channels for engagement and empowerment of people.
  6. 6. eGovernment development waves Supply driven Citizen centric Coproduction Singh, S.; Castelnovo, W.: e-Government:A time for critical reflection and more? [In:] Singh, S.; Castelnovo, W. (eds.): Leading issues in e-Governmen Research vol. 2.
  7. 7. Scope of e-Government research Previous approach Previous approach • „how to use the information and technology to support and improve provision of public services” Current approach Current approach • „how to use the information and technology to support and improve public policies and government operations, engage citizens, and provide comprehensive and timely government services”
  8. 8. e-Government Concepts Digial government Mobile government Ubiquitous government Transformational government eDemocracy Networked government Smart government Open government eGovernment
  9. 9. E-Government as a research field spans across the boundaries of many existing disciplines • public administration, political sciences, organizational sciences, information science, computer science, information systems research, sociology, library science, statistics, law and ethics should be established as a multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary • With this approach e- government research would concentrate on “what government can properly and successfully do with information and information technology”, as well as on “how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or energy”
  10. 10. Types of papers Category Description Descriptive Describes a phenomenon in its appearance without the any use of theory Philosophical Reflects upon a phenomenon without data or reference to any theory Theoretical Reflects upon phenomenon based on some theory but without empirical data or with only anecdotal and particular such Theory generating Attempts to analyse/interpret quantitative or qualitative data in systematic manner for the purpose of model building Theory testing Attempts to test a theory using quantitative or qualitative data in a systematic manner, i.e. not just strict theory testing Gronlund, A.; Andersson, A.: E-Gov Research Quality Improvemetns Since 2003: More Rigor, but Research (Perhaps) Redefined. [In:] Wimmer, M. (ed.): Electronic Government, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2006, pp. 1-12.
  11. 11. EGOV Conference Category 2003 2005 Descriptive 57 (61%) 54 (68%) Philosophical 3 (3%) 0 (0%) Theoretical 12 (13%) 1 (1%) Theory generating 12 (13%) 14 (18 %) Theory testing 10 (11%) 11 (14%) 1. The share of descriptive research has increased 2. Theoretical research has decreased to the point of extinction Gronlund, A.; Andersson, A.: E-Gov Research Quality Improvemetns Since 2003: More Rigor, but Research (Perhaps) Redefined. [In:] Wimmer, M. (ed.): Electronic Government, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2006, pp. 1-12.
  12. 12. Indicators and dimensions of what defines a discipline Criteria e-Government Research Formal definition of the discipline/field A widely accepted formal definition of EGR exists A common base of knowledge The accumulated knowledge on the subjects of EGR is rapidly growing (EGRL, publicly funded projects) A unique cluster of research problems EGR uniquely intersects advanced IS- and IT- and government – related research problems, widely unaddressed before Unifying theories Theoretical contributions have neither created a grand or unifying theory, nor a set of competing theories An accepted set of procedures and methods Large range of procedures and methods representing very different fields and epistemic paradigms are being used Shared vision of the discipline/field’s impact Under development Scholl, H.: Is e-Government Research a Flash in the Pan or Here for the Long Shot? [In:] Wimmer, M. (ed.): Electronic Government,Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2006, pp. 13-24.
  13. 13. Native theories in e-government Theory Some predictions/propositions arising from the theory Informatization public administration will be changed in various ways by ICT Infocracy changes in work processes and organisations resulting from ICT Theories of surveillance will change the relationship between the citizen and the state New forms of steering ICT will lead to new forms and modes of leadership Over government government intrusion and regulatory expansion will be driven by ICTs Theories about transparency greater transparency does not lead to greater trust Virtual organisations emergence of new forms of government organisations and networks Frank Bannister , Regina Connolly: The great theory hunt: Does e-government really have a problem? Government Information Quarterly 32 (2015) 1–11
  14. 14. Criteria for inclusion in the EGRL At minimum a paper or article must: • Have passed an academic peer review process • Be published in the proceedings of an academic conference or in an academic journal • Be published in English (or, if published in another language, an English-language translation must be publicly available) • Be of at least seven pages (or equivalently, 3,700 words) in length (including references) for a non- technical article • Be of at least four pages (2,250 words) in length (including references) for a technical article At minimum a paper or article must: • Have passed an academic peer review process • Be published in the proceedings of an academic conference or in an academic journal • Be published in English (or, if published in another language, an English-language translation must be publicly available) • Be of at least seven pages (or equivalently, 3,700 words) in length (including references) for a non- technical article • Be of at least four pages (2,250 words) in length (including references) for a technical article The E-Government ReferenceLibrary. http://faculty.washington.edu/jscholl/egrl/index.php
  15. 15. Criteria for inclusion in the EGRL (2) Core Journals • Government Information Quarterly (GIQ) • Information Polity (IP) • International Journal of Electronic Government Research (IJEGR) • International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age (IJPADA) • Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy (TGPPP) • Journal of Information Technology & Politics (JITP) • Electronic Government, an International Journal (EGaIJ) • Electronic Journal of Electronic Government (EJEG) Core Conferences • HICSS (Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - e-Gov track) • IFIP EGOV (International Federation for Information Processing) • dg.o (Digital Government Society of North America) • ICEGOV (International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance) • CeDEM (International Conference for E- Democracy and Open Government ) The E-Government ReferenceLibrary. http://faculty.washington.edu/jscholl/egrl/index.php
  16. 16. Number of publications referenced in EGRL 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 X 2005 VII 2006 I 2008 VIII 2008 IV 2009 V 2009 I 2010 XII 2010 III 2011 XII 2011 VI 2012 XII 2012 VI 2013 XII 2013 III 2014 VI 2014 I 2015 VII 2015 XII 2015 VII 2016 III 2017 „We estimate that the references contained in EGRL represent more than 90 percent of the extant peer- reviewed, English-language literature in EG.” The E-Government ReferenceLibrary. http://faculty.washington.edu/jscholl/egrl/index.php
  17. 17. Source of references % 1 2 JOURNALS 46,2 Core Journals 23,6 Electronic Government, An International Journal Government Information Quarterly Other Journals 22,5 Conferences 44,2 Core conferences 30,14 IFIP EGOV HICSS Other conferences 14,06
  18. 18. Main topics in e-government research cloud computing crisis management cybersecurity and government digital divide e-campaigning e-democracy e-participation e-politics e-rulemaking e-services e-voting infrastructure internet of things interoperability information systems mobile and government open government open data big data PMIS (Public Management Information Systems) smart government social media The E-Government ReferenceLibrary. http://faculty.washington.edu/jscholl/egrl/index.php
  19. 19. Conclusions Organization, management, and transformation emerged as the dominant focal area of EGR EGR is underdeveloped in terms of foundations and standards of inquiry The core group of active EG researchers is relatively small and accounts for under 10 percent of the EG author population Information science as a discipline is underrepresented in EGR, however iSchool from the University of Washington is a major player

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