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Emmanuelle Chevry Pébayle:Towards Open Innovation of Services Using Social Media: The case of French academic libraries


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V Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa Nauka o informacji (informacja naukowa) w okresie zmian Innowacyjne usługi informacyjne. Wydział Dziennikarstwa, Informacji i Bibliologii Katedra Informatologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warszawa, 15 – 16 maja 2017

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Emmanuelle Chevry Pébayle:Towards Open Innovation of Services Using Social Media: The case of French academic libraries

  1. 1. Towards open innovation of services using social media : the case of French academic libraries Emmanuelle CHEVRY PÉBAYLE lecturer, (LISEC EA 2310, F-67000 Strasbourg, University of Strasbourg) Maher SLOUMA post-doctor, (Laboratoire Techné EA 6316, University of Poitiers, France) The 4th International Scientific Conference Information Science in the Age of Change
  2. 2. 1. Introduction • Why social media? – Predominant place in various organizations – Recognized worldwide (Chu & Nalani-Meulemans, 2008). – To promote their library holdings, maintain a link with their users (Chu & Du, 2013) – Create online communities (Boyd & Ellison, 2007) and involve users in their processes of innovation
  3. 3. 1. Introduction • Task : How the presence of academic libraries on social media promotes the emergence of innovative services?
  4. 4. Plan 1. Introduction 2. State of the art 3. Hypothetis 4. Methodology 5. Results 6. Discussion 7. Conclusion
  5. 5. 2. State of the art • Innovation is "the ability to respond creatively to an identified need, creating value and ensuring appropriation by its recipients. In this respect, innovation is more than invention, which does not imply acceptance, whereas innovation incorporates use value, value of esteem and exchange value [...] ". (Groff, 2012).
  6. 6. 2. State of the art • Few literature on innovation and academic libraries. • Important assets for academic libraries (Kenchakkanavar, 2015), in particular to promote them (O’Dell, 2010 ; Chu & Du, 2013) or facilitate collaboration between librarians (Graham, 2009). • Chu et al. (2010) show the advantage of Facebook in comparison to other social media. • Chen et al. (2011) seek to identify the performance of Facebook as an interaction tool between libraries and their users. • Connell underlines the complexity of studying the users’ and the librarians’ behavior on social media. • Open innovation in academic libraries (Scupola & Nicolajsen,
  7. 7. Chesbrough Von Hippel Scupola & Nicolajsen Coutant et al State of the art Innovation
  8. 8. Definition of open innovation Chesbrough (2006) • « The Open Innovation paradigm can be understood as the antithesis of the traditional vertical integration model where internal research and development activities lead to internally developed products that are then distributed by the firm […]. Open Innovation is the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively. Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as they look to advance their technology (Chesbrough, 2006, p. 1) ».
  9. 9. Von Hippel (2001) • Von Hippel (2001) encourages users to be truly free to innovate, to take their ideas and suggestions into account, to accept the mistakes of others and to enrich their ideas with recognition and consideration. • Users' proposals could be enriched in an iterative way. They can create a first design, make a prototype, test it and evaluate it to improve it until it achieves a satisfactory result.
  10. 10. Coutant et al., 2012 • The work of (Coutant et al., 2012) on sociotechnical devices is consistent with this logic, which considers that users are essential actors of innovation • 2 problems : – Confidentiality of the internal data – Intellectual property on ideas
  11. 11. The singularity of this study 1. Provide relevant data on open innovation of library services from the users’ and the professionals’ point of view. 2. Enrich the literature on the topic.
  12. 12. 3. Hypothesis The presence of libraries on digital social networks promotes open innovation in the sense of Chesbrough (2003).
  13. 13. 4. Methodology Semi-structured interviews • with librarians in charge of communication of the first three most popular academic libraries on Facebook and Twitter in France : • University of Aix-Marseille (8679 subscribers) • University of Strasbourg (8275 abonnés) => U2/U3 library (1956 subscribers) • National and university library of Strasbourg (BNU) (6910 subscribers) • Students from the same libraries 1 questionnaire : 137 users have responded • 4 themes: (1) social link in the library on the social media, (2) motivations of a presence on Facebook, (3) transformations imposed on the librarian's profession and (4) digital mediation strategies.
  15. 15. Why did you subscribe to the Facebook page of the academic library°? (137 results) => 5.1. Identified needs 3% 7% 7% 10% 11% 12% 19% 19% 20% 28% 38% 54% 65% Stay in contact with users Inquire remotely by the online Q & A service (Ubib ...) Ask questions to professionnals Communicate with librarians Consult the catalogue Others Make a return on the animations Follow open discussions with users Exercise a watch in my field Have fun (quizzes, games, riddles, unusual publications, backstage) Be part of the academic library community Maintaining a link with the academic library Check the opening and closing hours
  16. 16. 5.2. A NEW FORM OF COMMUNICATION • To achieve these goals, institutional communication should make way for a form of communication that is completely new to librarians, both in terms of form and content. One of the professionals explains the importance of “opening one's bowels, daring to use the ‘I’, coming down off one's pedestal, accepting to put one's personality forward, accepting the FB language, accepting to talk about it without the fear of being judged, being able to convince colleagues to spread information on their personal social media accounts (viral communication)” [interview 2]. In order to progress, “we would have to bring a group of users into our house so they feel honored. Offering them a life that they can share [...] not to limit themselves to institutional information, creating a community [...]” [interview 2]. • Adopting the FB language requires acquiring new skills that are not part of the librarian's basic skills, but the ones of the transformations imposed by the social media and the digital in general. The interviews reveal that professionals are keen on having the necessary skills to create a social link with their users via the social media and are ready to make efforts.
  17. 17. Explain why you feel part of a community by following your academic library on Facebook (69 answers) => 5.3. Interests of this new form of communication 7% 7% 16% 27% 46% 51% Others It shows that I am a frequent visitor My needs are taken into account (emotional attachment) My questions are answered and information is provided It enables to have a follow-up of the daily events It creates a group that belongs to a place
  18. 18. 7. DISCUSSION • 2 ways to innovate. "The first is to offer new services [...]; the second is to modify the servuction, which can be defined as the modalities of offering a service.” • Innovation can be simply inventing new ways of doing things. Gilbert (2011, p. 34), • Results of the study : Facebook do not create new services but rather renew the way it presents them to users.
  19. 19. 7. Discussion • Entertainment and the use of play information => a prominent place in the activities of librarians • True innovation according to Groff (2012) – it responds creatively to a need of users as shown in fig. 1. – Appropriation : ¾ of respondents consider that Facebook and digital social networks favor the social bond because • more interactions (62%) and more exchanges (52%). • create a sense of belonging (51%) and • lead to more entertainment (26%). • Users’ satisfaction (88%) of the communication of their academic library on Facebook (fig. 3).
  20. 20. How Facebook and digital social networks favor social bond°? 2% 26% 52% 51% 51% 62% Ohers More entertainment More exchange More collaborations Create a sens of belonging More interactions
  21. 21. Do you consider that the community manager of your academic library Facebook page post messages regularl, uses a light tone, shows his personality, uses the Facebook language, takes live events? "
  22. 22. 6. Discussion Consequences • Put the user at the core of their interests. • A change in image of the librarian career. – New skills required
  23. 23. Conclusion • Social media facilitate exchanges between librarians and users. – lesser institutional aspect – Comments and suggestions of ideas to librarians more easily • Some services and functions can only exist through these means of communication • Not radical innovations but • Development of some services that cannot be done elsewhere. • Ultimate tool to generate ideas by the users
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention.