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Mate Toth: Digitisation and creative re-use of cultural content #blokexpertu


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Slides for the lecture given at Department of Library and Information Studies. // Slajdy k přednášce pro předmět Blok expertů na KISKu (

Making cultural content available for everyone via mass digitisation is still a challenge for the European ALM (Archives, libraries and museums) sector. Most European memory institutions intend to digitise their whole collection and develop projects for the attractive presentation of their online available electronic content.
The creative industry expects content that is ready for remix and reuse even for business purposes. Based on the experiences of the meetings of Member States Expert Group on Digitisation and Digital Preservation the lecture will summarize the main factors that challenge the realization of this aim and outline possible solutions.
I will present the business needs (what creative reuse means), the legal barriers (how existing copyright rules make creative reuse difficult), the memory institutions’ perspective and some landmark projects from all over Europe that makes it clear that there is a light at the end of the tunnel!

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Mate Toth: Digitisation and creative re-use of cultural content #blokexpertu

  1. 1. Digitisation and creative re-use of cultural content Máté Tóth University of Pécs
  2. 2. Introduction 1. Today’s agenda: 1.Introduction 2.EU policies on digitisation and digital preservation 3.Digitisation figures 4.Reuse of content 5.Practices from Europe 6.Open discussion
  3. 3. Introduction My city and my university About digitisation in general
  4. 4. Pécs 4
  5. 5. • Year of foundation : 1367  It is one of the oldest universities in Europe, established by the Anjou king Louis the Great • Number of students : 34 000  Foreign students : 1 800 • Number of employees : 10 000 • 10 faculties  Adult Education and Human Resources Development  Library and Information Science Department  Faculty of Humanities, Arts, Law, Medicine, Technology, Economics etc. University of Pécs
  6. 6. Why students love us? • Modern and friendly environment • Close student-teacher relationship • Practice-oriented education • Good infrastructure • Active Student life • Educational scholarships (domestic and international) 7
  7. 7. Introduction Digitisation is easy! • YES! If you mean scanning a few pages of books. • It is the general view on digitisation by the public. • „The Hungarian cultural heritage can be digitised within no more than 2 weeks!” (by anonymous politician)
  8. 8. Introduction What is not as easy? - Finding out what to do exactly! - What to digitise? - How to digitise? - Who digitise? - For what purpose? - For which target group? - Ensuring sustainability
  9. 9. Introduction “Digitisation” means different things in different sectors:  In the AV & film community, digitisation is an urgent challenge of conversion from unstable formats  In the library community, success equates to mass- digitisation, distributed access and discovery  In the museum community, success is about boutique digitisation, curated content & end-user experiences  In the archive community, success tends to be about management, preservation, discovery and connection.
  10. 10. European Union policies MSEG on Digitisation and Digital Preservation Core ideas
  11. 11. EU policies MSEG on Digitisation and Digital Preservation 1. To monitor progress on the implementation of the Commission Recommendation of October 2011, on digitisation and digital preservation. 2. To exchange information and good practices of Member States’ policies and strategies on the digitisation and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation. 3. To assist the Commission in monitoring developments regarding the way cultural digital resources can be innovatively re-used to offer economic opportunities to the cultural and creative industries.
  12. 12. EU policies Some core ideas: 1. Making available the European cultural heritage 2. Joint efforts 3. Creating a sustainable information ecosystem
  13. 13. EU policies Making the European cultural heritage available 1. Digitising as much as possible 2. Preservation and service 3. Overcoming legal constraints  Public Domain  Orphan works  Out of commerce works
  14. 14. EU policies Joint efforts 1. Europeana  „an internet portal that acts as an interface to millions of books, paintings, films, museum objects and archival records that have been digitised throughout Europe.” (Wikipedia)  Building a European identity.  Satellite projects: 1914-1918, Historiana, Inventing Europe 2. Joint projects  Digitisation projects (e.g. European Film Gateway)  Aggregation projects (ATHENA, TEL)  Metadata projects (Linked Heritage)  Research projects (Enumerate)
  15. 15. EU policies Creating a sustainable information ecosystem 1. Considering the needs of different user groups:  users,  cultural heritage sector,  creative industries 2. Sustainability – catering needs (public and business)  Use and Re-use  Partner sectors:  Education, Tourism, Research, Creative industry
  16. 16. Digitisation figures ENUMERATE project Current data from Europe
  17. 17. Digitisation in figures ENUMERATE project (2011-2014) • Objectives:  Community  Methodology  Coordinated surveys  Normalized data and intelligence • 1 qualitative and 2 quantitative surveys all over Europe • 2015 – the 3rd survey began.
  18. 18. Digitisation figures
  19. 19. Digitisation figures
  20. 20. Digitisation figures
  21. 21. Digitisation figures
  22. 22. Digitisation figures
  23. 23. Digitisation figures
  24. 24. Digitisation figures
  25. 25. Use and Re-use Creative Industry Europeana
  26. 26. Use and reuse of digitised content • The key for sustainability is identifying the needs and catering them. • Clear arguments are needed for maintenance.  Why do we need digitised cultural heritage. Maybe it is clear for us, but is clear for all? • Europeana lives on:  Member states’ contribution: 1/3 (of which 37% from The Netherlands)  European Commission grant: 2/3 – this amount will miss soon…  Very little amount from the business sector.
  27. 27. Use and reuse of digitised content • Use  direct use (education, entertainment, research) • Reuse  Creating something new  New interpretations  New contexts • Creative industry
  28. 28. Use and reuse of digitised content An example: Europeana defined its target groups in the following fields: • End user services; • Data partner services; • Re user services.
  29. 29. Use and reuse of digitised content
  30. 30. Examples Examples from Europe Map of needs
  31. 31. Use and reuse of digitised content • Reuse in a „mobilized context” – apps!  Cultural tour at the sights of Géza Ottlik: Rooftops at Dawn novel.  Museum guide for a Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi. „Who am I?”  Latvian fairy tales iPasakas app.  Latvian folk song app. For joint singing.
  32. 32. Use and reuse of digitised content • Examples for reuse (educational purpose) • Inventing Europe  European Technology Museums’ cooperation  Curatorship, guided tours  Space for collaboration. • Historiana  Discussing the past on a European level  Field for expressing new ideas.
  33. 33. Use and reuse of digitised content • Entertainment  BL Labs: Publishing free images on FlickR  Users can reuse them for various purposes  From Puzzle to video games  Competitions  Extreme numbers of use since its start of 2013.   Ajapaik  Geotagging game in Estonia  Gamified crowdsourcing  Socially validated data
  34. 34. Use and reuse of digitised content • Reinterpretations of art works, masterpieces  Van Go Yourself 
  35. 35. Use and reuse of digitised content • Offline reuse • Jackie Storer: Hidden Stories of the First World War. London, British Library, 2014.  Collecting memories via Europeana network  Storytelling  Publishing a book „reusing” the stories. • Certamen Europeana  A Spanish essay writing competition for secondary school students
  36. 36. Use and reuse of digitised content • 3D developments for reuse  Cyprus: collecting the images taken at historical sites  Reconstructing buildings virtually in 3D  Crowdsourcing of the documentation of built heritage.  Selfies „again”
  37. 37. Use and reuse of digitised content • What you get: • Users:  Cool services • Creative industry:  Content for making money • Cultural heritage sector:  Sustainability • What you give: • Users:  Activity • Creative industry:  Creativity • Cultural heritage sector  Content for free The more you give, the more you get?
  38. 38. Use and reuse of digitised content • What is needed for this development? • A more business-oriented approach  Culture is not financed just because it is culture;  A clear value proposition should be developed to all stakeholders. • Huge amount of free content  The use of copyright protected material is depending on its author. But what about public domain?  If a cultural heritage institution don’t want or not capable of making money from its content let it to others. • Higher level of engagement of  User community  Creative industry  CH sector
  39. 39. Conclusion, summary • Presently digitisation is not sustainable  New business models are needed! • Exploring its context and the value of the product is necesarry! • Use and reuse in different contexts, • Engagement of the community (activity and creativity)
  40. 40. Thank you for your attention! Questions and comments are warmly welcome Máté Tóth University of Pécs