2. Nuclear power is the fourth -largest source
of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and
renewable sources of electricity. As of March 2017,
India has 22 nuclear reactors
a: a fundamental form of energy
observable in positive and negative
forms that occurs naturally (as in
lightning) or is produced (as in a
generator) and that is expressed in
terms of the movement and interaction
b:any phenomenon associated with st
ationary or moving electrons,
ions, or other charged particles
ELECTRICAL PANEL OR LOAD CENTER
An electrical panel is also called a load center. It is
a metal electrical service box that accepts the
main power to the home & distributes electrical
current to the various circuits within the home.
Electric energy is to the kinetic energy
of moving electrons, the negatively
charged particles in atoms. The
potential energy is the energy stored
from the charged particles.
Current same as electricity or flow
of electron. The amount of current
flowing in a circuit can be
measured in ampere (I)
4. Electrical energy, after being produced
at generating stations is transmitted to the
consumers for utilization. This is due to the fact
that generating stations are usually situated
away from the load centers. The network that
transmits and delivers power from the producers
to the consumers is called the transmission
system. This energy can be transmitted in AC or
Generation – The production of electric
energy. Fossil fuels, wind turbines, solar
panels, and other technologies are used to
6. Energy flow through a typical substation
Typical residential service drop
Domestic electricity supply usually effected through distribution system and describe as
single and three phases. Normally small buildings are supplied with electricity by two wires, one
phase wire and the other neutral.
This is known as single phase supply and gives a voltage for the premises of 240 volts.
• In three phases, four wire bring 420/ 240 volts, 50 cycle per second. The voltage. The voltage
between any two of the phases wires is 415 Volts.
8. A TRANSFORMER is used to bring voltage
up or down in an AC electrical circuit.
A transformer can be used to convert AC
power to DC power.
A transformer is a passive electrical device
that transfers electrical energy from one
electrical circuit to one or more circuits
An OVERHEAD POWER LINE is a structure used in electric power
transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy across
large distances. It consists of one or more conductors
(commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles
FUSES are the protectors, these are the safety devices which are used
to protect the home appliances like televisions, refrigerators,
computers with damage by high voltage. The fuse is made up of thin
strip or strand of metal, whenever the heavy amount of current or an
excessive current flow is there in an electrical circuit, the fuse melts and
it opens the circuit and disconnects it from the power supply.Circuit Breakers
MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
(MCBS) are electromechanical devices
which are used to protect an electrical
circuit from an overcurrent. The lead
reasons for an overcurrent could be a
short circuit or overload.
9. GUIDELINES FOR SUBSTATION AND POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OF BUILDINGS- CPWD 2019
In India commercial use of electricity started in 1891 though it
picked up after independence due to large number of thermal and
hydro power stations set up in the public sector.
The power generation capacity in India has increased from 1362
MW in 1947 to more than 4, 00,000 MW in 2018.
Electricity has become essential for modern life. Practically,
like air and water, electricity has become a basic requirement. We
require it to run our houses, water supply, lights, fans,
domestic appliances, lifts, TV, internet, communication,
transportation, hospitals, offices, schools, colleges, industries,
infact everything connected with day to day life.
In our country, this is subject to frequent interruptions due to
various factors i.e. inadequate supply, inefficient/overloaded power
distribution, over loading, use of obsolete technology,
inefficient maintenance etc.
Indoor Substations and Underground Cable power distribution
i) Outdoor substations are subject to dust, rain, storm, extreme heat and theft
leading to breakdowns and higher maintenance. During winds, cyclones and
storms, the entire distribution system including poles, and conductors collapse
taking long time to restore the power supply.
ii) The indoor substations work at much lower ambient, say at 28 Degree C,
when the outside temperature may be above 40 degree C. Similarly the UG
cable of power distribution is far superior to overhead system.
Busbar trunking is a
system, designed to carry
and distribute electricity.
General contruction is of,
insulated aluminium or
copper conductors which
complies with standards,
covered by metal housing.
NATIONAL BUILDING CODE-INDIA BUILDING
Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations This Code
(Part 8/Section 2) covers the essential requirements for
electrical installations in buildings to ensure efficient use
of electricity including safety from fire and shock.
11. THREE PHASE AC SUPPLY
Three phase system consists of three conductors unlike single
conductor in single phase system excluding neutral conductor.
In addition to the three phases, additional neutral conductor is
required for three-phase four wire system.
The power distributed through single
and three phase sub-meters
AN ELECTRIC METER, or energy
meter, is a device that measures the
amount of electric energy consumed
by a building, tenant space, or
electrically powered equipment.
Electric utilities use electric meters
installed at customers' premises to
measure electric energy delivered to
their customers for billing purposes.
12. EARTHING is the process of
creating an alternative path for the
flow of fault/excessive currents
safely into the ground in the
presence of minimal resistance
THE GROUNDING provides the return path for
the leakage current and hence protect the power
system equipment from damage.
The length of embedded electrodes in the soil
reduces earth resistance to a desired value.
Strip/ Wire Earthing
This type of earthing has strip electrodes of cross-section not
less than 25mm x 1.6mm in case of copper and 25mm x
4mm of Galvanized Iron buried into a horizontal pit of a
minimum depth of 0.5 m.
This type of Earthing is best in rocky soil as in these places it
is difficult to do plate type earthing.
A galvanized steel and a perforated pipe of
approved length and diameter is placed vertically in
a wet soil in this kind of system of earthing. It is the
most common system of earthing.
The earthing discharges the leakage current to
the earth and hence avoid the personnel from the
electric shock. It also protects the equipment
from lightning strokes and provides the discharge
path for the surge arrester
Earthing Electrode or Earth Plate
A metallic electrode or plate which is
buried in the earth (underground)
A metallic plate, pipe or rode can be
used as an earth electrode which has
very low resistance and carry the fault
current safely towards ground (earth).
13. TYPE OF DISTRIBUTION
The vertical supply system (rising mains).
The horizontal supply (distribution at each floor level).
HIGH RISE BUILDING WITH HIGH LOAD CONCENTRATION
Individual Floor supplyGrouped supply Ring main supply Double feed supply
17. Electrical Wiring is a process of
connecting cables and wires to the
related devices such as fuse, switches,
sockets, lights, fans etc to the main
Electric wiring on cleats or insulated
supports which are mounted on a wall or
other surface, leaving the wiring exposed;
conduits or raceways are not used.
Casing and Capping wiring
In this cable is run through a wood casing
having grooves. The wood casing is prepared
in such a way that it is of a required fixed length
with parallel grooves that accommodates the
cables. The wooden casing is fixed to the walls
or ceiling with screws.
PVC sheath wiring
insulated wires are run through the
straight teak wooden battens. The
wooden battens are fixed on the ceilings
or walls by plugs and screws.
Lead sheath wiring.
A thermoplastic-sheathed cable consists of a toughened
outer sheath of polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic,
covering one or more individual annealed copper
conductors, themselves insulated with PVC.
18. Surface Conduit Wiring
If conduits installed on roof or wall, It is
known as surface conduit wiring. in this
wiring method, they make holes on the
surface of wall on equal distances and
conduit is installed then with the help of
Concealed Conduit wiring
If the conduits is hidden inside the wall slots with the help
of plastering, it is called concealed conduit wiring. In other
words, the electrical wiring system inside wall, roof or floor
with the help of plastic or metallic piping is called
concealed conduit wiring. obliviously, It is the most
popular, beautiful, stronger and common electrical
wiring system nowadays.
20. a lightning rod is a single component of the
system. The lightning rod requires a
connection to earth to perform its
protective function. Lightning rods come in
many different forms, including hollow,
solid, pointed, rounded, flat strips or even
A lightning rod or lightning
conductor is a metal rod or
metallic object mounted on
top of an elevated structure,
such as a building, a ship, or
even a tree, electrically
bonded using a wire or
electrical conductor to
interface with ground or
"earth" through an electrode,
engineered to protect the
structure in the event of