Fertility

293 views

Published on

haseeb

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
293
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fertility

  1. 1. Fertility
  2. 2. Women of Childbearing Age andWorldwide Fertility 3 6 5 Children per woman 2.0 2.0 2 4 1.8Billions 3 1.3 1 0.9 2 0.6 1 0 0 1950-1955 1970-1975 1990-1995 2010-2015 2030-2035 2045-2050 Women 15 to 49 Average number of children per womanSource: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.
  3. 3. Notes on Women of Childbearing Age and Fertility• The number of women in their childbearing years hasincreased since the 1950s and is projected to continue toincrease to 2050.• The number of children per woman has declined sincethe 1950s and is projected to continue to decline.• Even though women have on average fewer childrenthan their mothers, the absolute number of babies beingborn continues to increase because of the increases in thetotal number of women of childbearing age.© 2006 Population Reference Bureau
  4. 4. Diverging Trends in Fertility Reduction 8.5 Average number of children per woman 6.4 6.4 6.2 5.7 5.4 5.3 5.2 4.3 3.3 3.1 2.4 2.5 2.1 Egypt India Indonesia Iran Pakistan Turkey Yemen 1970-1975 2000-2005Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, 2005.
  5. 5. Migration• 1. Types of Migration – What are the major forms of migration?• 2. Selective Migration – Why migration can be considered as a selective process?• 3. Brain Drain – What is the extent of movements of skilled labor?
  6. 6. Types of Migration • Emigration and immigration – Change in residence. A Problems or – Relative to origin and benefits? destination.Emigrant • Requires information – People and conditions. – Two different places. – Two different times. • DurationImmigrant – Permanent. Problems or – Seasonal / Temporary. B benefits? • Choice / constraint – Improve one’s life. – Leave inconvenient / threatening conditions.
  7. 7. Types of Migration • Gross migration Gross migration – Total number of people coming in and out of an area. – Level of population turnover.Immigration • Net Migration Emigration – Difference between immigration (in-migration) and emigration (out-migration). – Positive value: • More people coming in. • Population growth. – 44% of North America and 88% of Europe. – Negative value: • More people coming out. • Population decline. Net migration
  8. 8. Annual Net International Migration by Continent, 1990-95 Oceania North America Latin America and Carribean Europe Asia Africa -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000
  9. 9. Net Migration, 2000-053,000Net Migration (1,000s)NANegative net migrationPositive net migration
  10. 10. Types of Migration• International Migration – Emigration is an indicator of economic and/or social failures of a society. – Crossing of a national boundary. – Easier to control and monitor. – Laws to control / inhibit these movements. – Between 2 million and 3 million people emigrate each year. – Between 1965 and 2000, 175 million people have migrated: • 3% of the global population.
  11. 11. Migration Policies and Global Migration PatternsPeriod Policies PatternBefore 1914 Open policies (“showing up”). From developed (Europe) to developing Immigration as a source of labor and countries (Americas, Africa, Australia). development. Immigration from Europe between 1880 and 1910 was exceeded 25 million.1920s and “Closed door” linked with the Limited migration.1930s economic depression. Deportation of immigrants.After 1945 More open policies. Reconstruction Beginning to shift from developing to in Europe (12% of labor force) and developed countries (12%). economic growth in America.After 1973 Relatively open policies, but with From developing to developed countries more stringent requirements. Growth (88%). 3 million illegal immigrants of refugees and illegal immigration. entering the US per year.
  12. 12. World Migration Routes Since 1700 European African (slaves) Indian Chinese Japanese Majority of population descended from immigrants
  13. 13. Major International Migration Patterns, 1990sNANegative net migrationPositive net migration
  14. 14. International Migration: Main Destination Countries, 1997 Immigration, 1997 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 France Canada Britain % Foreign population Immigration, 1997 Japan GermanyUnited States 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 % of foreign population
  15. 15. Region of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 2000 . Not Reported Northern America Latin America Africa Asia Europe 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
  16. 16. Types of Migration • Local Migration – No state boundaries are crossed. – Buying a new house in the same town or city.Central City – Difficult to research since they are usually missed in census data. – Based on change of income Suburb or lifestyle. – Often very high levels of local migration. – Americans change residence every 5 to 7 years.
  17. 17. Types of Migration• Voluntary migration – The migrant makes the decision to move. – Most migration is voluntary.• Involuntary – Forced migration in which the mover has no role in the decision-making process. – Slavery: • About 11 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between 1519 and 1867. • In 1860, there were close to 4 million slaves in the United States.
  18. 18. Types of MigrationType CharacteristicsInternational Crossing a boundary; easier to control; regulated; difference in income; 2-3 million per year.National Between states or provinces; little control; employment opportunities; education; retirement.Local Within a city/region; change of income or lifestyle.Voluntary The outcome of a choice.Involuntary The outcome of a constraint.
  19. 19. Population Pyramid of Native and Foreign Born Population,Europe Native 2000 (in %) Foreign Born Male Female Age Male Female 85+ 80- 84 75- 79 70- 74 65- 69 60- 64 55- 59 50- 54 45- 49 40- 44 35- 39 30- 34 25- 29 20- 24 15- 19 10- 14 5- 9 0- 48 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 Percent Percent
  20. 20. Brain Drain• Definition – Relates to educationally specific selective migrations. – Some countries are losing the most educated segment of their population. – Can be both a benefit for the receiving country and a problem to the country of origin.• Receiving country – Getting highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right away.
  21. 21. World Urban Population, 1950-2000 with Projections to 2020 (in billions) 4.5 Developing countries 4 Developed countries 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
  22. 22. Annual Growth of World andUrban Populations, 1950-2030 (in millions) 100 World 90 Urban 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1950- 1955- 1960- 1965- 1970- 1975- 1980- 1985- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2005- 2010- 2015- 2020- 2025- 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

×