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The Geological Time Scale.ppt

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The Geological Time Scale.ppt

  1. 1. Falcon Focus • What is the saying for Natural Selection? • Essential Question: • How would you explain the connections between eons, eras, periods, and epochs?
  2. 2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • WHAT HAPPENS TO ANIMALS THAT DO NOT ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENTS.
  3. 3. FALCON FOCU TIME
  4. 4. QUESTION #1 • NAME 3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INTRUSIVE AND EXTRUSIVE ROCKS.
  5. 5. QUESTION #2 • ALL ROCKS GO THROUGH WHAT PROCESS AND WHEN THEY GO THROUGH THAT PROCESS, THEY CAN BE BROKEN DOWN INTO WHAT?
  6. 6. QUESTION #3 •NAME THE THREE TYPES OF ROCKS AND WHERE THEY ARE FOUND?
  7. 7. QUESTION #4 •NAME THE PROCESSES OF THE 3 TYPES OF ROCKS.
  8. 8. QUESTION #5 •FOSSILS ARE NORMALLY FOUND IN WHAT TYPE OF ROCK?
  9. 9. Summary Lesson • What did you learn from this lab? • How did this lab relate to adaptation? • Which apparatus/bird beak did the best? • Which apparatus/bird beak did the worst? • What would happen to the bird that did the worst and what would happen to the bird that did the best?
  10. 10. Essential Question • WHAT IS THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE?
  11. 11. FALCON FOCUS QUESTIONS •WHICH LAYER IS THE ONLY LIQUID LAYER?
  12. 12. QUESTION #2 • WHICH LAYER HAS THE MOST MASS? WHY?
  13. 13. QUESTION #3 •WHICH LAYERS ARE NOT MADE UP OF ROCK? WHAT ARE THEY MADE UP OF?
  14. 14. QUESTION #4 •WHICH LAYER DEALS WITH THE MAGNETIC FIELD?
  15. 15. QUESTION #5 • WHICH LAYER LIES BETWEEN THE CRUST AND THE UPPER MANTLE?
  16. 16. QUESTION #6 • WHICH LAYER DO THE TECTONIC PLATES FLOATS ON TOP OF? WHAT CAUSES THE PLATES TO FLOW?
  17. 17. The Geological Time Scale 8-2.4 Recognize the relationship among the units—era, epoch, and period—into which the geologic time scale is divided.
  18. 18. Objective • FF • EQ • Informational text reading • Take Notes on Geologic Time Scale • Learn How to Read a Geologic Time Scale • Geologic Time Scale Activity • Closure
  19. 19. Informational Text Questions • 1. Name the divisions of the geologic scale from the largest to the smallest. • 2. What does the Phanerozoic Eon represent? • 3. How many major divisions are in Precambrian Time? • 4.. Name the divisions the Phanerozoic Eon is subdivided into. • 5. What does the suffix zoic means? • 6. What does the prefix Paleo, Meso, and Cen means? • 7. Name what each era has been referred to. (Age of ….)
  20. 20. What is the Earth’s time scale? • The Geological time scale is a record of the life forms and geological events in Earth’s history. • Scientists developed the time scale by studying rock layers and fossils world wide.
  21. 21. Reading and About the geologic time scale divisions • The geologic history of the Earth is broken up into hierarchical chunks of time. From largest to smallest, this hierarchy includes EONS, ERAS, PERIODS, AND EPOCHS. All of these are displayed in the portion of the geologic time scale shown below.
  22. 22. • The Phanerozoic Eon is subdivided into three major divisions: the PALEOZOIC, MESOZOIC, AND CENOZOIC Eras. The "-zoic" suffix comes from the root "zoo," which means animal. • • Cen-" means __RECENT_, "Meso-" means _MIDDLE__, and "Paleo-" means ___ANCIENT_.
  23. 23. • The geologic time scale divides Earth’s long history into units of time: There are 4 major subdivisions of Geologic Time • Eons which subdivides into eras • Eras which subdivides into periods • Periods which subdivides into epochs Eons Eras Periods Epochs BIG E = E + P = EP
  24. 24. Turn to Page 100 in the text book Make sure that the chart is correct and if not make corrections.
  25. 25. GEOLOGIC TIME QUESTIONS 1. Name the divisions in order from the largest to the smallest? • EONS, ERAS, PERIODS, & EPOCH 2. Name the divisions in order from the smallest to the largest? • EPOCH, PERIODS, ERAS, & EONS 3. Name the 3 Eras. • PALEOZOIC, MESOZOIC, & CENOZOIC
  26. 26. 4. What is the present day or modern day Eon, Era, Period, and EPOCH we live in? •EON: PHANEROZOIC •ERA: CENOZOIC •PERIOD: QUARTNERY •EPOCH: HOLOCENE 5.Triassic is a __PERIOD_____. • 6. Precambrian has _3_ Eons. •
  27. 27. 7. Name the 1st period and which Era do it belong to? CAMBRIAN, PALEOZOIC ERA 8. _CENOZOIC_ is the only Era that contains epochs. • 9. All Eras end with the suffix __ZOIC_. 10. All epochs end with the suffix __OCENE__.
  28. 28. ESSENTIAL QUESTION •WHAT DID OUR EARTH LOOK LIKE IN THE PRECAMBRIAN TIME?
  29. 29. FALCON FOCUS TIME
  30. 30. QUESTION 1 • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A RIFT AND A RIDGE?
  31. 31. QUESTION 2 • NAME 4 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC CRUST.
  32. 32. QUESTION 3 • WHICH BOUNDARY DEALS WITH THE SUBDUCTION ZONE?
  33. 33. QUESTION 4 • NAME THE STRESSES THAT GOES ALONG WITH EACH BOUNDARY
  34. 34. QUESTION 5 • NAME THE FAULTS THAT GOES ALONG WITH EACH BOUNDARY.
  35. 35. QUESTION 6 •TELL HOW EACH BOUDARY PLATES MOVE.
  36. 36. VOCABULARY WORDS • ADAPTATION • TRAIT • VARIATION • NATURAL SELECTION • EVOLUTION • EON • ERA • PERIOD • EPOCH • GEOLOGIC TIME
  37. 37. Review • 1. Name the divisions of the geologic scale from the largest to the smallest. • 2. What does the Phanerozoic Eon represent? • 3. How many major divisions are in Precambrian Time? • 4.. Name the divisions the Phanerozoic Eon is subdivided into. • 5. What does the suffix zoic means? • 6. What does the prefix Paleo, Meso, and Cen means? • 7. Name what each era has been referred to. (Age of ….)
  38. 38. • Cambrian being the first period is important. • With a more complete fossil record available, the periods of the Cenozoic era are subdivided further into epochs. • Present day Earth is in the Cenozoic era and the Quaternary period in the Holocene epoch. • Geologic time has not ended.
  39. 39. Term Prefix Meaning Phanerozoic Phanero Visible or Apparent Paleozoic Paleo Ancient or old Mesozoic Meso Middle Cenozoic Ceno Recent The suffix Zoic means life forms or zoo.
  40. 40. Major information found on the geologic time scale includes: • Precambrian is the name given to the earliest span of time in Earth history. • Geologists divide the time between Precambrian and the present into three long units called eras (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic). • The names of the eras are important, as is the order from oldest era to most recent.
  41. 41. GET OUT A SHEET OF PAPER AND DIVIDE INTO 4 AREAS PRECAMBRIAN TIME PALEOZOIC ERA MESOZOIC ERA CENOZOIC ERA
  42. 42. ARTICLE
  43. 43. PRECAMBRIAN TIME VIDEOS • What do you notice about the diversity of our planet? • • When does diversity increase? • • Why do you think that is?
  44. 44. Major information found on the geologic time scale includes: • During the first billion years of Earth’s history, the land was covered with volcanoes. Over the next 3 billion years, simple life-forms began to live in oceans.
  45. 45. The Precambrian Time! By Kahli Veys
  46. 46. Divisions of Geologic Time • Geological time begins with Precambrian Time. Precambrian time covers approximately 88% of Earth’s history.
  47. 47. • Why do you think the Precambrian lasted for the longest time? • • What do you think happened that caused the first single celled organism to appear? • • What do you think our earth would be like today if it wasn’t for the single celled organism?
  48. 48. Precambrian Timeframe • 4.5 billion to 544 million years ago
  49. 49. Precambrian Facts • Is the longest part of Earth’s history
  50. 50. What Happened During the Precambrian Era? • Earth formed • Life arose • First tectonic plates arose and began to move • Eukaryotic cells evolved • Atmosphere became enriched in oxygen • And, just before the end of the Precambrian, complex multicellular organisms, including the first animals, evolved.
  51. 51. Precambrian Animals • Most organisms had soft bodies which looked like modern jellyfish and worms • Stromatolites: layered mats formed by colonies or groups of cyanobacteria (blue- green algae thought to be one of the earliest life forms on Earth.) • Invertebrates (animals with no backbone) appeared near the end of the Precambrian Time • Many Precambrian fossils are Trace fossils
  52. 52. Precambrian Land Features • Primarily covered by the ocean
  53. 53. MASS EXTINCTION • MASS EXTINCTION IS THE EVENT THAT ENDED PRECAMBRIAN TIME. • * glaciation event • Precambrian time were marked by a prolonged global ice age. This may have led to widespread extinctions.
  54. 54. • WHy do we have separations of eons and eras? • • What do you think happens to organisms after a mass extinction?
  55. 55. Relay Race • Precambrian Time was mostly covered by what?
  56. 56. • Precambrian Time was the ______ part of the Earth’s history
  57. 57. • What types of animals lived during Precambrian time?
  58. 58. • Precambrian Time is known as a ________ because it contains 3 eons.
  59. 59. • What caused the mass extinction of Precambrian Time?
  60. 60. • Name the 3 eons that formed during Precambrian Time.
  61. 61. • Life first appeared during which eon?
  62. 62. Homework • STUDY FOR VOCAB QUIZ
  63. 63. Standard • 8-2.3 Explain how Earth’s history has been influenced by catastrophes (including the impact of an asteroid or comet, climatic changes, and volcanic activity) that have affected the conditions on Earth and the diversity of its life-forms.
  64. 64. • Along with the study of the geologic time scale, the changes in life forms, additions and extinctions, are often accompanied by changes in environmental conditions on Earth. These environmental changes have been influenced by the impact of an asteroid or comet, climatic changes, and volcanic activity.
  65. 65. Volcanic activity • From the earliest days while Earth was forming to present day, volcanic activity has been part of the nature of this changing planet. • During the Precambrian time volcanic activity was one of the most natural events, but lava flows, ash clouds in the atmosphere, and heat made conditions for life forms extremely difficult.
  66. 66. • • The eras of Earth history can be studied in light of conditions on Earth, the effect of those conditions on life-forms, and the possibilities of rapid changes to both (environmental conditions and life forms) due to catastrophes.
  67. 67. Paleozoic Era Timeframe • 544 million to 248 million years ago
  68. 68. Falcon Focus • Which type of rock do scientist study to determine the relative age of a rock layer? • • A. igneous • B. metamorphic • C. sedimentary • D. igneous and metamorphic
  69. 69. Essential Question • Why was the Hadean Eon not considered to be geologic time period?
  70. 70. Note check • 1. Name the 3 eons that occurred during Precambrian Time. • 2. Name 3 important events that occurred during Precambrian Time. • 3. Because Precambrian consisted of 3 eons, what was the informal name for it? • 4. What caused the mass extinction of the Precambrian Time?
  71. 71. Important Facts • This division is known as ancient life. • • During most of the Era, warm shallow seas covered much of the planet. • • At the end of this era, more than 90% of all ocean species and 70% of all land species died • Pangea was forming during this era as far as coming together
  72. 72. Animals • Animals had shells and other hard body parts began to appear • Began with invertebrates, such as Trilobites and brachiopods which lived during this era • Vertebrates (animals with backbones) arose during this era such as fish amphibians, then arachnids and insects • The earliest vertebrates were fishlike creatures without jaws and had lungs instead of gills. • some vertebrates adapted on land • Near the end of this era reptiles became dominant • Amphibians (reptiles) species developed the ability to lay eggs
  73. 73. Land Features • By the Devonian Period, forests began to grow on land and • Early land plants included simple mosses, ferns, and then cone-bearing plants. • By the end of the era, seed plants were common. • The mass extinction that ended the era caused most marine invertebrates as well as amphibians to disappear.
  74. 74. FOUR Eras… • PRE-CAMBRIAN – 88% of earth’s history • Paleozoic (ancient life) – 544 million years ago…lasted 300 million yrs • Mesozoic (middle life) – 245 million years ago…lasted 180 million yrs • Cenozoic (recent life) – 65 million years ago…continues through present day
  75. 75. Today… • Today we are in the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period of the Cenozoic Era. Which unit is the largest? Which unit is the smallest?
  76. 76. Today… • Today we are in the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period of the Cenozoic Era. Which unit is the largest? Which unit is the smallest?
  77. 77. Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life) • The Cambrian period is the 1st period of the Paleozoic Era. “Age of the Trilobites” • Explosion of life in the oceans began during this era. • Most of the continents were covered in warm, shallow seas. – Invertebrates were dominate - Trilobites – Fish emerged during this time – Fish led to the arrival of amphibians • The end of the Paleozoic era is called the “Age of Amphibians” – Early land plants including mosses, ferns and cone-bearing plants. – The early coal forming forests were also formed during this time.
  78. 78. Paleozoic Era • Much of the limestone quarried for building and industrial purposes, as well as the coal deposits of western Europe and the eastern United States, were formed during the Paleozoic. • The Cambrian (beginning) opened with the breakup of the world-continent Rodinia and closed with the formation of Pangaea, as the Earth's continents came together once again. – This event is thought to have caused the climate changes that led to mass extinction event. • The Appalachian mountains were formed during this time.
  79. 79. Paleozoic Era • At the end of the Paleozoic, the largest mass extinction in history wiped out approximately 90% of all marine animal species and 70% of land animals. – Possible causes of this Mass Extinction Event • Lowering of sea levels when the continents were rejoined as Pangaea (convergent boundary) • Increased volcanic activity (ash and dust) • Climate changes – cooler climate
  80. 80. Trilobites • Lived in Earth’s ancient seas • Extinct before the dinosaurs came into existence • Cambrian Period is know as the “Age of the Trilobites” (put in on table)
  81. 81. Brachiopods • Marine animals that resemble clams.
  82. 82. Early Fish Early fish did not have jaws. Some species of sharks were in existence at this time.
  83. 83. Frilled Shark that was found in Japan in January 2007. This shark was considered a “living fossil”
  84. 84. Early Land Plants Cone bearing plants Ferns Mosses
  85. 85. Mesozoic Era – Middle Life • At the beginning of this era the continents were joined as Pangaea. • Pangaea broke up around the middle of this era. • Reptiles became the most abundant animals because of their ability to adapt to the drier climate of the Mesozoic Era. – Skin maintains body fluids – Embryos live in shells
  86. 86. • At the beginning of this era Pangaea formed and during the Triassic Period, Pangaea began to break up ( Pangaea _split__ into 2) • • Ended when most of the land and ocean species became extinct when an asteroid collided with Earth •
  87. 87. • Known as the Age of _Dinosaurs____ or the Age of _Reptiles___ •
  88. 88. • _Dinosaurs______ lived during this era. Throughout this era, some dinosaurs became extinct as others adapted. • • ___Reptiles__ became the most abundant animals in this era
  89. 89. • During the Triassic Period, a tiny, mouse like animal was the first _mammal____ to appear (Small mammals and birds appeared during this era) • •
  90. 90. • life diversified rapidly and giant reptiles and dinosaurs roamed the Earth. • • Modern _bird_ appeared
  91. 91. • Gymnosperms dominated the land. • • __Gymnosperms____are plants that produce seeds in cones like pine cones • • _Angiosperms____ are flowering plants which first appeared during at the end of this era
  92. 92. • Time marked by rapid movements of plates
  93. 93. • Scientists hypothesize that possibly a large _asteroids__ or _comets__ impacted with Earth.
  94. 94. Mesozoic Era • Dinosaurs were also very active in this era. – First small dinosaurs appeared in the Triassic Period. – Larger and more abundant dinosaurs appeared in the Jurassic Period. • Small mammals and birds also appeared during this era. – The mammals were small, warm-blooded animals. Hair covering their bodies. • These characteristics help them survive in changing environments.
  95. 95. Mesozoic Era • The main plant life of this time were Gymnosperms or plants that produce seeds, but no flowers. – Pine Trees • Angiosperms are Flowering plants that during the END of this era.
  96. 96. Mesozoic Era • This era ended with a mass extinction event about 65 million years ago. – Many groups of animals, including the dinosaurs disappeared suddenly at this time. • Many scientists believe that this event was caused by a comet or asteroid colliding with the Earth.
  97. 97. Mesozoic Era – Mass Extinction Event • Asteroid or Comet collides with Earth. – Huge cloud of smoke and dust fills the air – Blocks out sunlight – Plants die – Animals that eat plants die – Animals that eat plant-eaters die. • However, not all forms of life died during this event. Many animals that you see today are descendants from the survivors of this extinction event.
  98. 98. Dinosaurs
  99. 99. Mesozoic Reptiles
  100. 100. Mesozoic Mammals
  101. 101. Mesozoic Plants Flowering plants evolved towards the end of the Mesozoic Era.
  102. 102. • ABC brainstorming
  103. 103. Falcon Focus • What does the law of superposition states? • Essential Question: • What information in the geologic record might lead scientists to infer that shallow seas covered much of the Earth during the Paleozoic Era?
  104. 104. Cenozoic Era – Recent Life • Began about 65 million years ago and continues today!!!!! – Climate was warm and mild. – Marine animals such as whales and dolphins evolved. • Mammals began to increase and evolve adaptations that allowed them to live in many different environments – land, air and the sea. – Grasses increased and provided a food source for grazing animals • Many mountain ranges formed during the Cenozoic Era – Alps in Europe and Himalayas in India; Rocky Mountains in the USA
  105. 105. Cenozoic Era • Growth of these mountains may have helped to cool down the climate – Ice Ages occurred late in the Cenozoic Era (Quaternary Period). • As the climate changed, the animals had to adapt to the rise and fall of the oceans caused by melting glaciers. • This era is sometimes called the “Age of Mammals”
  106. 106. Cenozoic Era • Marine animal examples: – Algae, Mollusks, Fish and Mammals • Land animal examples: – Bats, Cats, Dogs, Cattle and Humans – Humans are thought to have appeared around 3.5 million years ago (during the most recent period – Quaternary). • Flowering plants were now the most common plant life.
  107. 107. Cenozoic Mammals
  108. 108. Flowering Plants were common during the Cenozoic Era
  109. 109. Falcon Focus • Which two eras of Earth's history ended with major extinctions of species due to a catastrophic event such as an asteroid or comet? • • A. Precambrian and Paleozoic • B. Paleozoic and Mesozoic • C. Paleozoic and Cenozoic • D. Mesozoic and Cenozoic
  110. 110. Essential Question • How would you explain how the Earth's history has been influenced by climatic changes?
  111. 111. Falcon Focus • What caused the mass extinction during Precambrian Time? • Essential Question: What things first appeared in the Precambrian Time and became dominant during the Paleozoic Era?
  112. 112. 5 Question Quiz 1. Which era is the age of dinosaurs? 2. Which era is the age of trilobites? 3. Which era is the age of mammals? 4. What is the connection between periods, eons, eras, and epochs? 5. Give 2 facts about the Precambrian Time.
  113. 113. Standard • 8-2.3 Explain how Earth’s history has been influenced by catastrophes (including the impact of an asteroid or comet, climatic changes, and volcanic activity) that have affected the conditions on Earth and the diversity of its life-forms.
  114. 114. Impact of an asteroid or comet • What is the difference between asteroids and comets? The main difference between asteroids and comets is what they are made of. Asteroids are made up of metals and rocky material, while comets are made up of ice, dust and rocky material. Both asteroids and comets were formed early in the history of the solar system about 4.5 billion years ago.
  115. 115. • Asteroids formed much closer to the sun, where it was too warm for ices to remain solid. Comets formed farther from the sun where ices would not melt. Comets which approach the sun loose material with each orbit because some of their ice melts and vaporizes to form a tail.
  116. 116. Impact of an asteroid or comet • Earth’s atmosphere protects the planet from many of the meteors that enter it, resulting in their burning up before striking the surface. • At the end of the Mesozoic Era, when reptiles, early birds and mammals thrived, many groups of animals disappeared suddenly.
  117. 117. • Scientists hypothesize that possibly a large asteroid or comet impacted with Earth. • This impact caused dust and smoke to rise into the atmosphere and cause climatic changes, as well as the dying of many forms of plant life and animals that depended on those plants for food. • A major life form that disappeared at this time was the dinosaur.
  118. 118. Climatic changes • Earth’s environments have many different climates even today. Climate is an ever-changing condition on Earth. • Earliest life forms were influenced by the climates produced by the forming atmosphere and oceans of Earth. •
  119. 119. • • Life on land developed and flourished in the tropical climates and warm shallow seas during the Paleozoic Era. Throughout this era as different land environments formed and sea levels changed, new life forms developed. Other life forms that could not adapt or find suitable conditions, especially many marine species, disappeared.
  120. 120. • During the Mesozoic era, many climate changes occurred due to plate tectonics and the movement of landmasses. Plants and animals that survived through this time had structures and systems that allowed for greater adaptations, such as seed coverings for plant seeds and protective body coverings or constant internal temperature for animals.
  121. 121. • During the present Cenozoic era, climate conditions continue to change. Major ice ages caused the climate to become much cooler as ice sheets and glaciers covered many areas of Earth. Many mountain ranges formed causing climate differences due to elevation and due to location near those ranges. •
  122. 122. Volcanic activity • From the earliest days while Earth was forming to present day, volcanic activity has been part of the nature of this changing planet. • During the Precambrian time volcanic activity was one of the most natural events, but lava flows, ash clouds in the atmosphere, and heat made conditions for life forms extremely difficult.
  123. 123. • As continent collided and mountains built up due to plate tectonics, volcanoes also formed. What type of boundary , stress, and fault is this? __________________________________
  124. 124. • Volcanic activity continued to be common in the Paleozoic era. During the rapid movement of plates in the Mesozoic era, collisions and subduction produced extensive volcanic activity around plate boundaries. • Plate boundaries are still the location of much of Earth’s volcanic activity.
  125. 125. • Very explosive volcanic activity can send ash and dust high into the atmosphere where it is carried great distances around the Earth. The Sun can be blocked for long periods of time. This violent type of activity can disrupt many of Earth’s processes and ultimately the life forms that depend on those processes.
  126. 126. • • The eras of Earth history can be studied in light of conditions on Earth, the effect of those conditions on life-forms, and the possibilities of rapid changes to both (environmental conditions and life forms) due to catastrophes.
  127. 127. Life forms found in each Era • On your worksheet,: - List Geologic Events found in each Era. - List Life forms found in each Era. - Draw pictures of Life Forms… USE COLOR! Make sure you are putting them in the correct block!!

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