Realism and reconstruction702


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Realism and reconstruction702

  1. 1. REALISM & RECONSTRUCTION Post Civil War America in Art and Culture
  2. 2. Definition: <ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Literary composition that aims at an interpretation of the actualities of any aspect of life, free from subjective prejudice, idealism, or romantic color. </li></ul><ul><li>A reaction against romanticism, an interest in scientific method, the systematizing of the study of documentary history, and the influence of rational philosophy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions: <ul><li>Meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Realism in American Literature spanned from 1865-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Generally concerned with the affairs of the middle and lower classes (Agriculture, Industry, Survival) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis was on character, daily life and commonplace rather than romantic plots and the unusual </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes: <ul><li>Rapid growth in U.S. after Civil War lead to expanding industrialism and urbanization, an increase in population base due to immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in increasing rates of democracy and literacy providing a fertile literary environment for readers interested in understanding these rapid shifts in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Leaded to a reaction against romanticism, an interest in scientific method, the study of documentary history, and the influence of rational philosophy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effects: <ul><li>Authors such as: William Dean Howells, Rebecca Harding Davis, Henry James, Stephen Crane, Mark Twain, and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts. </li></ul>&quot;The Bowery at Night&quot; by William Louis Sonntag - 1895
  6. 6. Definition: <ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>In reference to the entire nation in the period 1865-1877 following the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>The reconstruction of state and society in the former Confederacy, from 1863 to 1877, as well as the addition of amendments 13, 14, and 15 to the U.S. Constitution. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Important points: <ul><li>Started in 1863 when Lincoln announced a proposal called the &quot;ten percent plan.&quot; Under this plan, former states would be readmitted into the Union if ten percent of white voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The addressing of how the eleven seceding states would regain self-government and be reseated in Congress, the civil status of the former leaders of the Confederacy, and the Constitutional and legal status of freedmen </li></ul>
  8. 8. Details: <ul><li>Amendment 13 – outlaw of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment 14- all born/naturalized in U.S. are citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment 15 – All citizens have the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction Acts of 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>all were readmitted between 1868 and 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Each state had to accept the 14 th or, if readmitted after its passage, the 15 th Constitutional Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Resented by most southerners </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 <ul><li>Everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in &quot;public accommodations“ </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced by Union Army and Freedman's Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>Hampered by Andrew Jackson </li></ul>
  10. 10. Black Codes <ul><li>laws that placed severe restrictions on freed slaves such as prohibiting their right to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Forbidding them to sit on juries and limiting their right to testify against white men </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibiting carrying weapons in public places and working in certain occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Labor contracts – Blacks working as serfs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>Loosely organized group of political and social terrorists during the Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Fought for political defeat of the Republican Party and the maintenance of absolute white supremacy after the Civil War. </li></ul>The Lost Cause Worse Than Slavery Thomas Nast - 1874
  12. 12. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>Passage of the Military Reconstruction Acts in March 1867, and the prospect of freedmen voting in the South, the Klan became a political organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized terrorism began most notably on March 31, 1868, when Republican organizer George Ashburn was murdered in Columbus, Georgia </li></ul>
  13. 13. Positive Racial Changes <ul><li>Despite complaints of government spending enrollment numbers in South Carolina jumped from zero to 70,000 Black children in 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>Two Black Senators and Twenty Black Congressmen held office in 1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson (1896 ) - Separate but equal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Positive Industrial and Technological Changes <ul><li>The United States became a world leader in applied technology. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1860 to 1890, 500,000 patents were issued for new inventions—over ten times the number issued in the previous seventy years </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Welding, Refrigeration, Microphone -1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Light Bulb, Cash Register -1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Medical advances </li></ul><ul><li>Rockefeller, Morgan, Carnegie, Vanderbilt, Hopkins </li></ul>
  15. 15. Positive Government Changes <ul><li>A more equitable tax system. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of State Railroad systems </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted physical reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Increased public services </li></ul><ul><li>Created a lasting public school system. </li></ul><ul><li>First National Weather Bureau was created </li></ul><ul><li>Dept of Justice was established </li></ul>
  16. 16. Backwards Progress <ul><li>1883 - U.S. Supreme Court holds that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 allowing equal privileges for all to public places is unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Rampant government corruption </li></ul><ul><li>1877 - President Rutherford B. Hayes abandoned the idea of federal intervention to protect the rights of black citizens in the South, essentially leaving their fate in the hands of local whites </li></ul><ul><li>1901 Last Black Congressman until 1929 </li></ul>
  17. 17. America Grows Up <ul><li>Newly reunified and slave free nation takes it’s place on the world stage </li></ul><ul><li>Continual rapid expansion West brings railroads, mining, immigrants, government and more </li></ul><ul><li>Most changes of the Reconstruction Era benefit the North and Whites </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Growing pains for America </li></ul><ul><li>Complex multifaceted blend of positives and negatives for the nation and it’s people </li></ul><ul><li>America becomes major nation on the global stage in nearly all aspects of business, industrialism, art, and culture </li></ul>