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Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations

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Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations

  1. 1. Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations Kelsey Ermels Iowa State University
  2. 3. Background: What are Genetically Modified Organisms? <ul><li>GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of organisms such as animals, plants, or bacteria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique is called recombinant DNA technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resulting organism is said to be &quot;genetically modified&quot; &quot;genetically engineered,&quot; or &quot;transgenic.&quot; </li></ul>U.S. Department of Energy. Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms. August 2008. Available at: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
  3. 4. Background: Applications of GMOs in Developing Countries <ul><li>Enhance food security </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing food production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the use of pesticides and herbicides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize need to cultivate new land </li></ul></ul>Source: American Dietetic Association. 2006. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Agricultural and food biotechnology. J Amer. Diet. Assoc. 106(2):285-293.
  4. 5. The Developing World is Hungry <ul><li>The World Bank has estimated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>982 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1 a day or less </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chen, Shaohua and Martin Ravallion (2004) “ How Have the World’s Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s? ” </li></ul>
  5. 6. Developing Countries and GMOs: Environmental Implications <ul><li>Proposed Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Drought, Herbicide and Pest-resistant crops </li></ul><ul><li>Increased agricultural efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased food production per acre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Agrochemical Use </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Biodiversity  monocultures </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate resistance to insecticides and herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>“ Better Dirt Key to Solving Food Crisis.” CBS News. May 9, 2008. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/tech/printable4082773.shtml . Accessed 23 September 2008.
  6. 7. Developing Countries and GMOs: Societal and Economic Implications <ul><li>Increases Rural Inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketed by transnational companies to wealthy farmers, neglect needs of resource-poor small farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May reduce need for manual labor by poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GMO Ownership and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patenting of GM seeds by transnational corporations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require to purchase new seeds each season (no seed sharing, saving) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer dependence on private corps. For seeds and agricultural necessities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing vs developed countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution remains a problem </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The world has the technology -- either available or well-advanced in the research pipeline -- to feed 10 billion people.&quot; He asked, &quot;Will the world's farmers and ranchers be permitted to use new technology to benefit mankind?“ </li></ul><ul><li>– Norman Borlaug </li></ul>Gonzalez, Carmen. “Trade liberalization, food security, and the environment: the neoliberal threat to sustainable rural development.” Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems. (Fall 2004): p419(80). (40960 words). Schuff, Sally. “Meeting addresses hunger in developing countries.” Feedstuffs. (June 30, 2003): 1(2). Academic One File. Gale. Iowa State University Library. 4 Nov. 2008 <http://find.galegroup.com.proxy.lib.iastate.edu:2048/itx/start.do?prodId=AONE>.
  7. 8. Ethical Implications: Can GMOs end world hunger? <ul><li>Ethical Theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorical imperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical Principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Maleficence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The Future of GMOs: Special Needs of Developing Countries <ul><li>Policies/Integrating programs focused on: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Strategies that Foster biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize renewable and locally available inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Build on farmer knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Give farmers greater control over the production process </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing loss of environmental resources </li></ul><ul><li>Enacting laws that enforce equality, not economic disparity </li></ul>Gonzalez, Carmen. “Trade liberalization, food security, and the environment: the neoliberal threat to sustainable rural development.” Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems. (Fall 2004): p419(80). (40960 words). Schuff, Sally. “Meeting addresses hunger in developing countries.” Feedstuffs. (June 30, 2003): 1(2). Academic One File. Gale. Iowa State University Library. 4 Nov. 2008 <http://find.galegroup.com.proxy.lib.iastate.edu:2048/itx/start.do?prodId=AONE>.
  9. 10. References <ul><li>1. American Dietetic Association. 2006. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Agricultural and food biotechnology. J Amer. Diet. Assoc. 106(2):285-293. </li></ul><ul><li>2. “Better Dirt Key to Solving Food Crisis.” CBS News. May 9, 2008. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/tech/printable4082773.shtml . Accessed 23 September 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chen, Shaohua and Martin Ravallion (2004) “ How Have the World’s Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s? ” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Gonzalez, Carmen. “Trade liberalization, food security, and the environment: the neoliberal threat to sustainable rural development.” </li></ul><ul><li>Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems. (Fall 2004): p419(80). (40960 words). </li></ul><ul><li>5. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA).Communicating Biotechnology: Pocket K No. 33. 2007. Available at: http:// www.isaaa.org/kc/default.asp </li></ul><ul><li>6. Schuff, Sally. “Meeting addresses hunger in developing countries.” Feedstuffs. (June 30, 2003): 1(2). Academic One File. Gale. Iowa State University Library. 4 Nov. 2008 <http://find.galegroup.com.proxy.lib.iastate.edu:2048/itx/start.do?prodId=AONE>. </li></ul><ul><li>7. U.S. Department of Energy. “Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms.” August 2008. Available at: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml </li></ul>

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