An emperor conquered Sicily, which had been a Greek province in 211 BC – he brought back many sculptures and items that related to the Greek culture to Rome. Begins a period of Greek ideas into Roman civilization
One of the oldest temples in the city of Rome.Portunus – god of Harbors. Temple dedicated to the protection of harbors. Small temple, not a major piece of architecture, but depicts the ancient Greek concepts in architecture. Tablature, pediments, columns, etc. This period of Greek art is considered eclecticism – combination of both Greek and Etruscan artforms
Pseudo-peripteral – more of a decorative application of columns, not an actual structure. Etruscan influence – raised high.
Significance of the arch in the development of the Etruscan period. The Romans carried the arch to the highest point of importance. They recognized the advantages of using an arch – allows for more stability in structures. Their willingness to use the arch was one of the reasons why the Romans were able to expand their territory and buildings so easily. The Pont-du-Gard was constructed as an aquaduct. This system of aquaduct and roadways was responsible for carrying Rome to other places
The practical advantages of arches. It extends to form a vault to extend the arch laterally in one direction. Groin vault allows for much more open space. The different types allows for different types of more grand designs
The system of seats is only on half of the circle. And ampitheater is where the seats encircle the entire complex. The colosseum combines both arches and vaults that are built using concrete – advantage that the Romans are famous for. Concrete is a combination of different materials to mix with a lighter medium. Rome used a fine volcanic dust that is found throughout the area – pozzolana. Allows for light construction, built taller, larger, and faster. The entire structure was originally enclosed to create a shade over the theater.
Underneath, there were chambers. Gladiator and animal fights took place here. It was possible to flood the amphitheater to have sea battles fought. Also a place where the emperor could present himself. A place of political presentation.
Shows eclecticism – combination of Greek and Roman architecture. Contains three levels, includes tablature. The column order shows a Doric order at the bottom, and a Corinthian order at the top, and Ionic in the middle. Columns more of an aesthetic device rather than a structural device.
Circus – where horse races could be held – shown here with the oval gate surrounding. The Forum was nearby – this was a public marketplace.
The Forum of Trajan is the largest surviving Forum. Refers to a house of a King – this was essentially a temple dedicated to the Roman emperor himself. First instance of a Roman emperor considering himself a god. The bascilica is where the statue of the emperor would have been set up. In addition to public areas in the Forum, private areas are set up as well.
A Spiral system of reliefs depicts the Emperor Trajan’s battle victories, with his statue on the top. Today, the still surviving spiral depicts St. Peter’s Statue.
Marketplace. Apollodorus was an expert in constructing vaulted space using concrete. Advantages: very large open space; above – a system of cast concrete. Also allows a creation of large arches for more light to be let inside. Also, many stories could be built due to the stable construction.
The greatest surviving example of Roman architecture – because it was transformed into a Christian church. First built as a temple to all the Greek and Roman gods. It was built using geometric concepts that emphasize the eclecticism of Greek and Roman ideals.
At the top there is an oculus – symbolizing the eye of heaven, of the gods.
Construction is based on geometric concepts. The floor plan and elevation is a perfect circle. Geometry was seen as a connection to perfection, to the gods. This was especially so in a temple dedicated to the gods. Lighter types of stone was uses as the dome went up.
A system of ribs is formed in the dome’s construction, called coffers. Romans wanted to cover up the system of support, to conceal to suggest that it’s not even there. Gold and other decorative forms were added to the surface of the system of concrete
Some of the largest complexes in the Roman empire, built after the 2nd and 3rd century. The public bath was where all Romans, rich or poor would gather. Places to socialize, work out, wash oneself, and relax were all included.
Complex system of rooms – swimming pool area: caldarium. Frigidarium – and area of cold water.
Surviving baths of today – depicting the grandeur of the bathing building. Transformed by Michelangelo in the renaissance to a Christian church. Marble decoration was applied.
Timeline:<br />April 21, 753 BC: legendary foundation of Rome<br />753-509 BC: Monarchy (Etruscan kings)<br />509-27 BC: Republic<br />(up to Julius Caesar)<br />27 BC-96 CE: Early Empire<br />(Augustus and Flavian dynasty)<br />96-192 CE: High Empire<br />(Trajan, Hadrian & Antonine dynasty)<br />193-337 CE: Late Empire<br />(Severan dynasty and soldier emperors up to Constantine I)<br />Model of ancient Rome<br />
Rome, Temple of Portunus, ca. 75 BCE,<br />pseudo-peripteral<br />
Athens, Parthenon, 5th cent. BC<br />Rome, Temple of Portunus, ca. 75 BC<br />Pseudo-peripteral<br />Model of a typical 6th-century BC Etruscan house<br />
Pont-du-Gard, Nimes, Fance, ca. 16 BC<br />Aquaduct<br />