2011 survey late_rome2


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  • There is a change is Roman burial customs, ties into the gradual Christianization in the society. Along with Christianity, there is a rise of other religions. Before this, Romans were creamated, this changes along with a stronger belief in the afterlife. Coffins called sarcophagus. It becomes fashionable for pagans to be buried as well. The images that are on pagan coffins are classical mythology images. This one displays the myth of Orestes, famous for slaying his mother and her lover. Images stand for righteousness and justice. There are several scenes – the murder of the mother, the lover, and a scene with a god. Associated with pattern books. There are two types of sarcophagus design: eastern and western. Western is Roman, carved on three side.
  • Eastern was carved on four sides because it would be placed in the center of the room so all sides could be seen. Images are an imitation of classical architectural design. Depiction of gods – center is Venus, and Helen of Troy. This sarcophagus is of a Greek woman – her image is on top of the sarcophagus. These types of tombs would be of the wealthy that would have many extended family visitors to their tombs.
  • Over time, style changes.
  • Egypt was also part of the Roman empire, the mummy types of burials still exist. Later types of mummy cases show more paintings and images of the deceased on the front. This was an upper class burial. The people are usually young that are depicted. The technique of painting is called encaustic – where colored pigment is mixed with hot wax.
  • These portraits are the way all Roman figures are painted throughout the Roman empire.
  • Much more detail seen in the development of Roman art. There was art created in PaxRomana, declared in 13 BC, established the rule of emperors in Rome. After the PaxRomana begins to crumple, there is discomfort among Romans, so emperors end up only reining for as short as a few months. The individualized portraits reflect the struggles of this period, shows a sense of concern, or suspicion. Each time a new emperor is established, there are new images created that would be set up around Rome. The great number of different emperor images created at this time explains the emphasis on the individualistic qualities in the face.
  • Halves that have a system of government – there was a ruler of the area, called the Augustus, and the two rulers underneath were called Caesars. There was a push to have the daughter of the Caesar marry the Augustus to solidify the ties of ruling. There were four larger areas, ruled by Tetrarchs.
  • With the political change, came large changes in art, there were images set up around Rome of the four tetrarchs. These images would have been placed on public buildings.
  • The difference in the faces of the figures shows the Augustus as older with a beard, and the Caesar as younger without a beard. Otherwise, they are exactly the same in height and clothing style. It is a period of somewhat abolishing all past traditions and styles.
  • After Diocletian retired from being emperor, he built a palace, resembling a Roman military defensive castle. There is a central courtyard, decorated with pediment.
  • Emphasis of displaying the Roman emperor as a super human figure.
  • Civil war erupts between the tetrarchs, and Constantine comes to power – becomes one of the most powerful Roman emperors. He initiated a building project, and created coinage that depicted Constantine himself. Behind him, was a god that he believed in – thought of as religious authority.
  • This was one of the first monuments erected. This was a triumphant arch. Images show his victory at the Milevian bridge – the night before the battle, a sign of the cross appeared to Constantine in a dream, from then on he would adopt Christianity alone. This was controversial because no other Roman emperor adopted Christianity.
  • Constantine’s arch was built to celebrate his victory over other contenders to be emperor of Rome
  • Images from classical mythology – of Hercules slaying a lion. Figures shows in a variety of views, including profile views
  • In the center is Constantine, head broken off over time, flanked by images of his court and the Roman population. This was a popular image shown of an emperor just coming to power. Unatural movements of bodies.
  • 2011 survey late_rome2

    1. 1. Rome: Late Empire<br />
    2. 2. Timeline:<br />April 21, 753 BC: legendary foundation of Rome<br />753-509 BC: Monarchy (Etruscan kings)<br />509-27 BC: Republic<br />(up to Julius Caesar)<br />27 BC-96 CE: Early Empire<br />(Augustus and Flavian dynasty)<br />96-192 CE: High Empire<br />(Trajan, Hadrian & Antonine dynasty)<br />193-337 CE: Late Empire<br />(Severan dynasty and soldier emperors up to Constantine I)<br />Model of ancient Rome<br />
    3. 3. Orestes myth Sarcophagus, mid-2nd cent. CE<br />Burial customs<br />
    4. 4. Orestes myth Sarcophagus, mid-2nd cent. CE<br />Asiatic sarcophagus from Melfi, Italy, late 2nd cent.<br />
    5. 5. Asiatic sarcophagus from Melfi, Italy, late 2nd cent.<br />
    6. 6. 2nd cent. Mummy portraits, Fayum, Egypt, encaustic on wood<br />
    7. 7. 2nd cent. Mummy portrait, Fayum, Egypt<br />Encaustic on wood, 1’4” high<br />Pompeii, 4th Style portrait of a married couple, 1stcent CE<br />
    8. 8. 3rd-century imperial portraiture<br />Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 215 CE<br /> Portrait of Trajan Decius, ca. 250 CE<br />
    9. 9. Tetrarchy under Diocletian, 284 to 305<br />
    10. 10. Church of San Marco, Venice<br /> Statue group of the Tetrarchs, <br /> today displayed at San Marco<br /> Porphyry, 4’3” high<br />
    11. 11. Reconstruction showing how the statues were set up at the Philadelphion in Constantinople. <br />
    12. 12. Palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia<br />Ca. 300 CE<br />
    13. 13. Palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia<br />Ca. 300 CE<br />
    14. 14. Asiatic sarcophagus from Melfi, Italy, late 2nd cent.<br />Palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia<br />
    15. 15. Tetrarchy under Diocletian, 284 to 305,<br />And the rise of Constantine<br />Coin of Constantine I<br />
    16. 16. Rome, Arch of Constantine, 312-315<br />
    17. 17. Arch of Titus, Rome, 81 CE<br />Rome, Arch of Constantine, 312-315<br />
    18. 18. Diagram of the Arch of Constantine. The colors indicate the dating of the decorative elements.<br />
    19. 19. Rome, Arch of Constantine, detail<br />
    20. 20. Frieze from the arch of Constantine: Constantine distributing largesse <br />
    21. 21. Rome, Arch of Constantine, detail<br />