Greece: Late Classical period and Hellenistic period<br />
Late Classical period events:<br /><ul><li>Defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC (Peloponnesian War)
Founding of Athenian schools of philosophy by Plato and Aristotle in the 4th cent. BC</li></ul>Greece: Late Classical peri...
Hellenistic period events:<br /><ul><li>Defeat of Athens and other Greek city-states by Phillip II of Macedon in 338 BC an...
Rise of Rome and gradual fall of successor states to the Empire of Alexander the Great. Death of Cleopatra in 30 BC</li></...
Temple of Aphaia (early 5th cent. BC: Late Archaic/Early Classic period)<br />Parthenon (late 5th cent. BC: High Classical...
Archaic<br />High Classic<br />Late Classic<br />
Praxiteles, Hermes and infant Dionysos, ca. 340 BC<br />
Praxiteles, Hermes and infant Dionysos, ca. 340 BC<br />Polykleitos, Doryphoros, 450 BC<br />
Head of Alexander the Great. Pella, Greece, 3rd cent. BC<br />
Battle of Issus. Original ca. 330-310 BC (1st cent. BC Roman copy from Pompeii, Italy), mosaic<br />
Battle of Issus mosaic reconstruction<br />Restorer working on a reconstruction of the mosaic depicting the Battle of Issu...
Polykleitus the Younger, Theater at Epidauros, Greece, 350 BC<br />
Erectheion, Acropolis, Athens, 421-405 BC<br />
Polykleitus the Younger, Corinthian capital, Greece, 350 BC<br />
Doric, Ionic and Corinthianorders<br />
Dying Gaul. Roman marblecopy of a bronze original of ca. 230 BC<br />Hellenistic Period <br />
Temple of Aphaia,<br />Aegina, warrior from west pediment (late 6th cent. BC)<br />Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, warrior from ...
Dying Gaul. Roman marblecopy of a bronze original of ca. 230 BC<br />Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, warrior from east pediment ...
Athanadoros. Laocoon and his sons, 1st c. CE<br />
Nike of Samothrace, 190 BC<br />
Sleeping satyr (Barbarini Faun), 190 BC<br />Aphrodite (Venus de Milo) by Alexandros of Antioch, , 150 BC<br />
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2011 survey late_classical_and_hellenistic_periods

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  • Motion becomes extremely important in the Hellenistic periodForeshortening techniques used – the depiction of images that were not in profile view, creates a three dimensional sense in a 2 dimensional work of artSculpture is mostly what survived
  • Mosaics were created by large pieces of individual stones createdThe art of mosaic was highly valuedShows chaos and disarray and motion
  • The Greeks were famed for their plays and many theaters of great proportion and elegance were created for performanceSet up in landscape that were chosen for the ideal geography for the sitesGreat deal of emphasis on acoustics – because there were no microphonesThe sound had to reach the entire amphitheatre
  • High emphasis on the determination of the appropriate slope to produce the sounds of the voices created during a performanceThe shape of the theater helps carry one’s voice to the back of the theatre Theatres were intimately connected with religion – part of what was termed as the mysteries – religious cultsThe most famous was the Dionysus religious cultThere were public rituals associated with the cultsPerformed in the theatres – days, sometimes weeks longAn altar was set up where the cultic action took place
  • Changes in the form of architectureCorinthian order – combination of the Ionic order, the spirals are placed on the corner of the curved surface so they can be seem from all sidesCombined with leaf-like designs, the acanthus plantIt was a symbolic tomb of the grave, often found growing near themCorinthian order is the most slender and tallest
  • The term Hellenistic comes from what the Greeks called themselves: the HelleneunsHellenistic means Greek art spreading beyond Greece 
  • In sculpture – there was an intensified depiction of emotion, also eroticism and sexualityDying Gaul shows a defeated barbarian – associated with Northern Europe: FranceGaul is what France was called during the Roman periodOften engaged in battles with GreeceFigures depict a heightened sense of naturalismThe barbarian was shown with wild hair and a mustacheMustache is an indentifying factor that points out his foreign quality; Greeks did not have mustachesBefore now, all figures were seemingly expressionless
  • Now, facial qualities show emotionSculptures become well known by the names of the artist themselves
  • Laocoon – a figure associated with the Trojan wars, warned not to bring the Trojan horse into the cityFor his warning, he was punished by the gods by an attack of serpentsThis sculpture in particular shows movement and action of this seen, and the agony in the faces of his children, who are also depictedNewfound interest in dynamic emotion
  • Also associated with female forms; the most famous was Nike of Samothrace, 190 BCThe goddess of victory, shown in a dramatic movement, she has just landed from the heavens on the bow of a shipHer garments are windswept
  • Aphrodite – venus de milo: very famousEroticism: her garments are slipping off herSatyr – a figure associated with the Dionysian mysteriesShown in a state of drunkennessEmphasizes the erotic nature of his body
  • Human qualities are emphasized in statuesIdealistic traits of the human body, the perfect formSpiritual qualitiy of the human figureTransformed in the hellensistic period to what was the ideal form of society at the time ( polyeuktos)Production of a famous orator, well known for lamenting the stories of famous battle defeats of Rome over othersEmotions expressed in the facial features of the characterReference to the dignity of this human figure, and he carries a scroll in his hand – a figure of literature Other than ideal forms, there are depictions of the commoners, the old womanFar removed from the type of idealism 
  • 2011 survey late_classical_and_hellenistic_periods

    1. 1. Greece: Late Classical period and Hellenistic period<br />
    2. 2. Late Classical period events:<br /><ul><li>Defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC (Peloponnesian War)
    3. 3. Founding of Athenian schools of philosophy by Plato and Aristotle in the 4th cent. BC</li></ul>Greece: Late Classical period (ca. 400-323 BC)<br />and Hellenistic period (ca. 323-31 BC)<br />
    4. 4. Hellenistic period events:<br /><ul><li>Defeat of Athens and other Greek city-states by Phillip II of Macedon in 338 BC and rise of Empire of Alexander the Great (died 323 BC)
    5. 5. Rise of Rome and gradual fall of successor states to the Empire of Alexander the Great. Death of Cleopatra in 30 BC</li></li></ul><li>Late Classical Period<br />Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos. Ca. 350-340 BC. (Roman copy)<br />
    6. 6. Temple of Aphaia (early 5th cent. BC: Late Archaic/Early Classic period)<br />Parthenon (late 5th cent. BC: High Classical period)<br />Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos. Ca. 350-340 BC<br />(Roman copy)<br />
    7. 7. Archaic<br />High Classic<br />Late Classic<br />
    8. 8. Praxiteles, Hermes and infant Dionysos, ca. 340 BC<br />
    9. 9. Praxiteles, Hermes and infant Dionysos, ca. 340 BC<br />Polykleitos, Doryphoros, 450 BC<br />
    10. 10. Head of Alexander the Great. Pella, Greece, 3rd cent. BC<br />
    11. 11. Battle of Issus. Original ca. 330-310 BC (1st cent. BC Roman copy from Pompeii, Italy), mosaic<br />
    12. 12. Battle of Issus mosaic reconstruction<br />Restorer working on a reconstruction of the mosaic depicting the Battle of Issus between the forces of Alexander the Great and the Persian Emperor Darius III. The mosaic was found in the ruins of Pompeii, near Naples, Italy. The original is kept in the archaeological museum in Naples, but this copy was installed in Pompeii in 2005. The reconstruction took 22 months and used around 2 million mosaic tiles (tesserae). <br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Polykleitus the Younger, Theater at Epidauros, Greece, 350 BC<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Erectheion, Acropolis, Athens, 421-405 BC<br />
    18. 18. Polykleitus the Younger, Corinthian capital, Greece, 350 BC<br />
    19. 19. Doric, Ionic and Corinthianorders<br />
    20. 20. Dying Gaul. Roman marblecopy of a bronze original of ca. 230 BC<br />Hellenistic Period <br />
    21. 21. Temple of Aphaia,<br />Aegina, warrior from west pediment (late 6th cent. BC)<br />Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, warrior from east pediment (early 5th cent. BC)<br />
    22. 22. Dying Gaul. Roman marblecopy of a bronze original of ca. 230 BC<br />Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, warrior from east pediment (early 5th cent. BC)<br />
    23. 23. Athanadoros. Laocoon and his sons, 1st c. CE<br />
    24. 24. Nike of Samothrace, 190 BC<br />
    25. 25.
    26. 26. Sleeping satyr (Barbarini Faun), 190 BC<br />Aphrodite (Venus de Milo) by Alexandros of Antioch, , 150 BC<br />
    27. 27. Polyeuktos. Demosthenes, ca. 280 BC<br />Old Woman, ca. 150 BC<br />

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