The State Of Food Insecurity In The World 2005

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Published in 2005 by the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The designations employed and the presentation of material in the maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers. The mention or omission of specific companies, their products or brand names does not imply any endorsement or judgement by FAO. All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for education or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org .

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ISBN 92-5-105384-7

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Photographs : From left to right on cover: FAO/19682/G. Bizzarri; FAO/17617/G. Diana; FAO/22784/G. Diana.-----http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0200e/a0200e00.htm

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The State Of Food Insecurity In The World 2005

  1. 1. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 Eradicating world hunger – key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals
  2. 2. Acknowledgements The following FAO staff provided The key estimates on food consumption technical contributions: Josef and undernourishment used in The The State of Food Insecurity in the Schmidhuber, Global Perspective State of Food Insecurity in the World World 2005 was prepared as a Studies Unit (ES); Jakob Skoet, Office of 2005 were produced by the Basic Food collaborative effort within FAO led by the the Assistant Director-General (ES); and Agriculture Statistics Service and Economic and Social Department (ES). Haluk Kasnakoglu, Ricardo Sibrian, the Socio-Economic Statistics and Amanda Gordon, Cinzia Cerri and Analysis Service of the FAO Statistics Overall leadership was provided by Seevalingum Ramasawmy, Statistics Division, respectively. Hartwig de Haen, Assistant Director- Division (ES); Gero Carletto, Marcella General, ES, assisted by Prakash Shetty, Vigneri and Carlo Azzarri, Agricultural The Publishing Management Service of Chief of the Nutrition Planning, and Development Economics Division the General Affairs and Information Assessment and Evaluation Service (ES); Gina Kennedy and Frank Martinez- Department (GI) provided editorial, (ESNA), who served as chair of the core Nocito, Food and Nutrition Division (ES); language editing, graphic and technical team. Valuable conceptual and Mark Smulders, FIVIMS Coordination production services. Translations were editorial assistance was provided by Unit (ES); Alexander Sarris, Henri provided by the Meeting Programming Andrew Marx. Josserand and Harmon Thomas, and Documentation Service of GI. Commodities and Trade Division (ES); Other members of the core technical Marcela Villareal, Gabriel Rugalema and team in the ES Department were: Yianna Lambrou, Gender and Population Kostas Stamoulis, Agricultural and Division (Sustainable Development Development Economics Division; Ali Department [SD]); Lavinia Gasperini, Arslan Gurkan, Commodities and Trade Mirella Salvatore and Jeff Tschirley, Division; Jorge Mernies, Statistics Research, Extension and Training Division. Division (SD). Published in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The designations employed and the presentation of material in the maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers. The mention or omission of specific companies, their products or brand names does not imply any endorsement or judgement by FAO. All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for education or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from Copies of FAO publications the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this can be requested from: information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. SALES AND MARKETING GROUP Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Information Division Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to Food and Agriculture Organization of copyright@fao.org. the United Nations © FAO 2005 E-mail: publications-sales@fao.org ISBN 92-5-105384-7 Fax: (+39) 06 57053360 Printed in Italy Web site: Photographs http://www.fao.org/icatalog/inter-e.htm From left to right on cover: FAO/19682/G. Bizzarri; FAO/17617/G. Diana; FAO/22784/G. Diana.
  3. 3. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 Eradicating world hunger – key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals
  4. 4. About this report A s the international community an essential condition for achieving highlighting ways that hunger reviews progress towards the the other MDGs. holds back development and hunger Millennium Development The first section of the report reduction could accelerate Goals (MDGs) and prepares for the analyses long-term trends in progress. mid-term review of the World Food reducing undernourishment and Tables (pp. 30–35) provide: FAO’s Summit (WFS), The State of Food explores the impact of economic latest estimates of undernourishment Insecurity in the World 2005 focuses growth, governance and natural and of progress towards the WFS on the critical importance of disasters. and MDG targets for reducing reducing hunger, both as the explicit The second section examines hunger; and key indicators for the target of the WFS and MDG 1 and as each of the MDGs separately, other MDGs. The Millennium Development Goals and links to reducing hunger MDGs Selected targets Links to reducing hunger 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than US$1 a day • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people • Hunger perpetuates poverty by reducing productivity • Poverty prevents people from producing who suffer from hunger or acquiring the food they need 2 Achieve universal primary education • Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling • Hunger reduces school attendance and impairs learning capacity • Lack of education reduces earning capacity and increases the risk of hunger 3 Promote gender equality and empower women • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 • Hunger reduces school attendance more for girls than for boys • Gender inequality perpetuates the cycle in which undernourished women give birth to low-birth weight children 4 Reduce child mortality • Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate • More than half of all child deaths are caused directly or indirectly by hunger and malnutrition 5 Improve maternal health • Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio • Undernourishment and micronutrient deficiencies greatly increase the risk of maternal death 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases • Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS • Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse the incidence • Hunger spurs risky behaviour that accelerates the spread of HIV/AIDS • Undernourished children are more than of malaria and other major diseases twice as likely to die of malaria 7 Ensure environmental sustainability • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources • Hunger leads to unsustainable use of resources • Restoring and improving ecosystem • Halve the proportion of people without sustainable functions are key to reducing hunger access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation among the rural poor 8 Develop a global partnership for development • Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system • Address the special needs of the least developed countries • Subsidies and tariffs in developed countries hamper hunger-reducing rural and agricultural development • Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries 2 The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005
  5. 5. Contents Foreword 4 Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goal targets: food comes first Undernourishment around the world 6 Counting the hungry: long-term trends in the developing world 8 Economic growth and hunger reduction 10 The role of governance in hunger reduction 12 Hunger hot spots: the complex impact of natural disasters Towards the Summit commitments 14 Education and undernourishment: the virtuous cycle of feeding bodies and minds 16 Gender equality and the empowerment of women: keys to progress in reducing poverty and hunger 18 Reducing hunger, saving children’s lives 20 Improving maternal health and breaking the cycle of poverty, hunger and malnutrition 22 Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis: the role of undernutrition as both symptom and cause 24 Improving environmental sustainability and food security by empowering the rural poor 26 Increased aid and more equitable trade: keys to forging a global partnership for development 28 The way ahead: shifting into forward gear on the twin-track approach to the WFS and MDG goals 30 Tables 36 Sources The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 3
  6. 6. Foreword Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goal targets: food comes first “We pledge our political will and our common and national commitment to achieving food • As the underlying cause of more security for all and to an ongoing effort to eradicate hunger in all countries, with an than half of all child deaths, immediate view to reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present hunger and malnutrition are the level no later than 2015.” (Rome Declaration, 1996) greatest obstacle to reducing child mortality (MDG 4). “We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and • Hunger and malnutrition increase dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty …”. (Millennium Declaration, 2000) both the incidence and the fatality rate of conditions that cause a majority of maternal deaths during O nly ten years now remain before Food comes first pregnancy and childbirth (MDG 5). the 2015 deadline by which • Hunger and poverty compromise world leaders have pledged to As this report documents, hunger and people’s immune systems, force reduce hunger and extreme poverty by malnutrition are major causes of the them to adopt risky survival half and to make substantial gains in deprivation and suffering targeted by strategies, and greatly increase education, health, social equity, all of the other MDGs (see diagram, the risk of infection and death environmental sustainability and facing page): from HIV/AIDS, malaria and other international solidarity. Without • Hungry children start school infectious diseases (MDG 6). stronger commitment and more rapid later, if at all, drop out sooner and • Under the burden of chronic progress, most of those goals will not learn less while they do attend, poverty and hunger, livestock be met. stalling progress towards herders, subsistence farmers, If each of the developing regions universal primary and secondary forest dwellers and fisherfolk may continues to reduce hunger at the education (MDG 2). use their natural environment in current pace, only South America • Poor nutrition for women is one of unsustainable ways, leading to and the Caribbean will reach the the most damaging outcomes of further deterioration of their Millennium Development Goal (MDG) gender inequality. It undermines livelihood conditions. Empowering target of cutting the proportion of women’s health, stunts their the poor and hungry as custodians hungry people by half. None will opportunities for education and of land, waters, forests and reach the more ambitious World employment and impedes progress biodiversity can advance both food Food Summit (WFS) goal of halving towards gender equality and security and environmental the number of hungry people. empowerment of women (MDG 3). sustainability (MDG 7). Progress towards the other MDG targets has also lagged, particularly in the countries and regions where efforts to reduce hunger have Progress towards the MDG targets by subregion stalled, as the accompanying graph clearly illustrates. Number of MDG targets (out of 20 selected targets) Most, if not all, of the WFS and 15 MDG targets can still be reached. On track, low risk Progress lagging, moderate risk But only if efforts are redoubled and 12 No change or worsening, high risk refocused. And only by recognizing and acting on two key points: 9 1. without rapid progress in reducing 6 hunger, achieving all of the other MDGs will be difficult, if not 3 impossible; and 0 2. the fight to eliminate hunger and North East Southeast Latin Western Oceania SouthSub- reach the other MDGs will be won Africa Asia Asia America/ Asia Asia Saharan Caribbean Africa or lost in the rural areas where Hunger reduction on track Hunger reduction lagging or worsening the vast majority of the world’s Source: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs hungry people live. 4 The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005
  7. 7. Giving priority to rural areas Running in reverse: persistent hunger slows progress towards other Millennium Development Goals Given the importance of hunger as a cause of poverty, illiteracy, disease and mortality, given the fact that 75 percent of the world’s hungry people live in rural areas, it is hardly MDG 8 …reduced capacity surprising that these same rural to access markets areas are home to the vast majority and resources… of the 121 million children who do 2 DG MDG 7 not attend school, of the nearly …unsustainable …reduced 11 million children who die before use of natural resources... M school attendance, learning capacity... reaching the age of five, of the 530 000 women who die during MDG 1 pregnancy and childbirth, of the 300 million cases of acute malaria and more than 1 million malaria deaths each year. Clearly, to bring …risky survival G6 these numbers down, to reach the strategies, Hunger and malnutrition …less education MD MDG targets, priority must be given spread of lead to… and employment to rural areas and to agriculture as HIV/AIDS, MD MDG for women malaria, other …poverty and... and girls... G3 the mainstay of rural livelihoods, diseases... 3 through sustainable and secure systems of production that provide employment and income to the poor, MD G4 MD thus improving their access to food. …impaired …weakened MD Yet, in recent decades, agriculture maternal immune systems, G5 G5 and infant rising child and rural development have lost health... mortality... ground on the development agenda. Over the past 20 years, resources for these sectors have declined by more Source: FAO than 50 percent. That must change. And we can be encouraged by signs that it is indeed changing, that both national governments and “the global epicenter of extreme mortality, empowers women, lowers international donors are recognizing poverty is the smallholder farmer”. the incidence and mortality rates of the critical importance of rural areas If increased recognition leads to HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, as the location and agriculture as the scaled-up action, the MDGs can still and helps reverse the degradation of engine for reaching the MDGs. be reached. soil and water resources, the After years of dwindling support For far too long, hunger and destruction of forests and the loss of to agriculture, the countries of the poverty have driven an infernal biodiversity. African Union have committed engine of deprivation and suffering It can be done. themselves to increasing the share (see diagram). The time and the of their national budgets allocated to opportunity have finally come to agriculture and rural development throw that engine into forward gear to 10 percent within five years. The – to turn hunger reduction into the Commission for Africa has driving force for progress and hope, emphasized that “agriculture is key as improved nutrition fuels better to Africa”. The United Nations health, increases school attendance, Jacques Diouf Millennium Project has stated that reduces child and maternal FAO Director-General The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 5
  8. 8. Undernourishment around the world Counting the hungry: long-term trends in the developing world B oth the World Food Summit is reduced by half, nearly 600 million the rising trend experienced in the in 1996 and the Millennium people in the developing world will past decade. Summit in 2000 set goals for still suffer from chronic hunger. To In sub-Saharan Africa, the reducing hunger by half between a reach the WFS target of 400 million, prevalence of undernourishment has baseline period (c. 1990) and the the proportion of the population who been decreasing very slowly, year 2015. The target date is are undernourished would need to although the speed of progress drawing near, but the targets be reduced not by half, but by two- improved in the 1990s. The region themselves are not. thirds. will need to step up the pace Although significant progress has dramatically to reach the MDG target. been made towards achieving the Regional-level Progress towards the WFS goal MDG target of halving the proportion progress uneven has been even slower and more of the population who are uneven. Global gains in the 1980s undernourished, the pace will need Among developing regions, only were owed entirely to progress in to be accelerated if the goal is to be Latin America and the Caribbean Asia. In all other developing regions, reached by 2015. has been reducing the prevalence of the number of hungry people Achieving the WFS goal of hunger quickly enough since 1990 to actually increased. reducing the absolute number of reach the MDG target by maintaining Since the WFS baseline period, hungry people from about 800 its current pace. The Asia–Pacific progress has slowed significantly in million to 400 million will prove region also stands a good chance of Asia and stalled completely more challenging, requiring much reaching the MDG target if it can worldwide. Only Latin America and more rapid progress (see graphs, accelerate progress slightly over the the Caribbean reversed the negative below). The world population is next few years. trend of the 1980s to register expected to grow by approximately In the Near East and North Africa, progress in the 1990s, although two billion between the baseline on the other hand, the prevalence of sub-Saharan Africa did succeed period (1990–92) and 2015. So, even hunger is low, but it is increasing, significantly in slowing the rise in if the proportion of that larger rather than decreasing. To reach the the number of undernourished population who are undernourished target, the region needs to reverse people. Long-term trends in the proportion and number of undernourished by region, 1980–82 to 2000–02 Proportion undernourished (%) Number of undernourished (millions) 40 1 000 35 800 30 25 600 20 15 400 10 200 5 0 0 1980–82 1990–92 2000–02 2015 (MDG) 1980–82 1990–92 2000–02 2015 (WFS) Developing world Sub-Saharan Africa Asia/Pacific Latin America/Caribbean Near East/North Africa Source: FAO 6 The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005
  9. 9. MDG 1 Country progress towards step up the pace to reach it by 2015. increasing or effectively unchanged the MDG target 23 countries have seen little change, in the other 12 countries in this and in 14 countries the prevalence of group, where hunger will remain a To gauge progress towards hunger has been increasing. major problem even if the goal is achieving the MDG target at the To put these numbers in reached. national level, it is useful to look at perspective, it is important to take Most of the countries in all other the ratio of the prevalence of hunger account of levels of hunger in these groups have succeeded in reducing in 2000–02 to the prevalence in the countries. If countries are divided hunger, including two-thirds of baseline period, 1990–92. into groups based on the current countries in the group where Hunger is not a problem in six prevalence of undernourishment, it between 20 and 34 percent of the developing countries where fewer becomes apparent that progress has population are undernourished. than 2.5 percent of the population been most difficult where hunger is None of the countries in this group are undernourished. Another seven most widespread. has yet reached the target, however. countries have already effectively Only 4 of the 16 countries where At the other end of the spectrum, 15 reached the MDG target by reducing more than 35 percent of the of the 23 countries where fewer than the proportion of hungry people in population are undernourished are 10 percent of the population are their population by at least half. making progress towards achieving undernourished are making More than 40 other countries are the MDG target. None has yet progress in reducing hunger, making progress towards achieving reached it. The prevalence of including five countries that have the target, although many will need to undernourishment is either already reached the MDG target. Progress and setbacks: ratio of prevalence of undernourishment in 2000–02 to prevalence in 1990–92 Countries grouped by prevalence of undernourishment in 2000–02 (MDG target = 0.5) ≥ 35% undernourished 20–34% undernourished 2.5 Already reached MDG 2 Progressing 1.5 Little change Worsening 1 0.5 0 Congo Angola Haiti Mozambique Rwanda Central African Rep. Zimbabwe Zambia Yemen Madagascar Sierra Leone United Rep. of Tanzania Liberia Burundi Dem. People’s Rep. of Korea Dem. Rep. of the Congo Namibia Chad Thailand Guinea Malawi Lao People’s Dem. Rep. Pakistan Bolivia Sri Lanka Cameroon Togo Sudan Mongolia Cambodia Kenya Niger India Philippines Dominican Rep. Nicaragua Bangladesh Honduras Senegal Mali Panama Gambia Botswana Guatemala 10–19% undernourished 5–9% undernourished 2.5–4% undernourished 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Ghana Peru Viet Nam Mauritania China Lesotho Benin Jamaica Suriname Colombia Côte d’Ivoire Paraguay Nepal Uganda El Salvador Trinidad and Tobago Burkina Faso Swaziland Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela Kuwait Islamic Rep. Guyana Myanmar Gabon Indonesia Brazil Nigeria Mauritius Algeria Mexico Morocco Jordan Cuba Chile Ecuador Uruguay Costa Rica Syrian Arab Rep. Egypt Saudi Arabia of Iran Lebanon Turkey The graph does not include countries where the prevalence of undernourishment is less than 2.5 percent and those for which there are insufficient data, including Afghanistan, Iraq, Papua New Guinea and Somalia. Ethiopia and Eritrea are not included because they were not separate entities in 1990–92. Source: FAO The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 7
  10. 10. Undernourishment around the world Economic growth and hunger reduction L ogic suggests, and ample according to progress in reducing economic growth and hunger evidence confirms, that hunger, no clear pattern emerges reduction are indeed related. If sustained economic growth (see graph). As might be expected, progress towards the MDG target is leading to increased productivity and the group of countries where hunger plotted for countries that registered prosperity at the national level will increased during the 1990s also positive economic growth during result in reduced hunger (see graph, registered the worst economic both the 1980s and 1990s, the below). That being the case, it is performance. Far from growing, trendline is clearly steeper, tempting to conclude that countries their per capita gross domestic indicating a stronger correlation need only speed up economic growth product (GDP) shrank at an average between the pace of economic to reach the hunger reduction rate of 1.4 percent per year. Every growth maintained over a longer targets of the MDGs and the WFS. other group recorded gains. period and the rate of progress in Cross-country analyses Among these other groups, there reducing hunger. conducted across the developing is no evident correlation between This trend suggests that sustained world suggest, however, that the pace of economic growth and the growth may have a cumulative and economic growth alone, in the rate of progress in reducing hunger. stronger impact on hunger reduction. absence of specific measures to Paradoxically, the group that made It could also be interpreted as combat hunger, may leave large the most rapid progress in reducing evidence that the impact of economic numbers of hungry people behind hunger registered relatively slow growth on hunger only becomes for a long time, particularly in rural economic growth. evident over time. An FAO study found areas. These analyses have also Similarly, if changes in GDP for that it takes longer for economic shown that economic growth has a individual countries during the growth to have an impact on hunger far greater impact on hunger when it 1990s are plotted against progress reduction than for improved nutrition occurs in rural areas and in towards the MDG target of reducing to stimulate economic growth. countries that have already created the proportion of people who suffer Certainly the relationship between fertile conditions through rural and from hunger by half, the trendline is economic growth and hunger human resource development. almost flat (see graph). Examining reduction flows in both directions. An If rates of economic growth are changes over a longer period, examination of the costs of hunger in compared for countries grouped however, reveals evidence that The State of Food Insecurity in the GDP in the 1990s and GDP growth in the 1990s Economic growth and prevalence of and hunger reduction by hunger reduction undernourishment in 2000 quintile Log of average per capita GDP, 1990s Average growth in per capita GDP (%) Change in undernourishment, 1990s 8.0 2.0 10 7.5 1.5 0 7.0 -10 1.0 6.5 0.5 -20 6.0 -30 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5.5 Average growth in per capita GDP (%) 5.0 -0.5 Countries’ progress in reducing hunger Countries with growth in 1980s and 0.0 by quintile, 1990–92 to 2000–02 1990s <5 5–9 10–19 20–35 > 35 Countries with growth only in 1990s Prevalence of undernourishment Worsening Slow Progressing Fitted for growth in 1980s and 1990s for country group, 2000 progress rapidly Fitted for growth only in 1990s Source: FAO; World Bank Source: FAO; World Bank Source: FAO; World Bank 8 The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005
  11. 11. MDG 1 World 2004 concluded that the Economic growth and the reduction of hunger in Botswana and Peru, present discounted value of the loss 1990–2000 of productivity over the lifetimes of people whose physical and cognitive capacities are impaired by low birth Both Botswana and Peru registered strong the HIV/AIDS pandemic, for example, with weight, protein-energy malnutrition economic growth during the 1990s. But in more than 35 percent of the adult and shortages of essential vitamins terms of reducing the prevalence of hunger, population infected. In Peru, the infection and minerals adds up to 5 to 10 the two countries parted ways. Peru reduced rate is less than 1 percent. percent of GDP in the developing the prevalence of hunger by almost world. Another FAO study analysed 70 percent to reach the MDG target 15 years Economic growth and hunger the relationship between nutrition ahead of schedule. In Botswana, on the other reduction in Botswana and Peru intake and economic growth in Sri hand, the prevalence of hunger increased in the 1990s Lanka. It found that GDP growth even as the national economy surged ahead. Botswana GDP per capita responds quickly to improvements in Tellingly, the agricultural GDP in Peru Agricultural nutrition, with a 1 percent increase in grew even faster than the rest of the GDP per capita Proportion protein intake yielding a 0.49 percent economy, fueled in part by diversification undernourished increase in GDP in the long run. into value-added, non-traditional exports Peru that boosted farm incomes and created GDP per capita The key role of agricultural growth processing jobs. The agricultural GDP in Agricultural GDP per capita Botswana fell by almost 40 percent. Proportion undernourished Numerous studies have provided Many other factors contributed to the -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 evidence that the impact of disparity between Botswana and Peru. Change 1990–2000 (%) economic growth on reducing Botswana has been hit extremely hard by Source: FAO; World Bank hunger and poverty depends as much on the nature of the growth as on its scale and speed. A World Bank analysis of data from India, for areas and in the agriculture sector when the national GDP took off and example, found that growth in rural had a much greater impact on agricultural growth stumbled. A reducing poverty than did urban and similar link between agriculture industrial growth. sector growth and hunger reduction Analysis of the relationship can be seen when comparing Agricultural GDP growth between growth and reductions in Botswana and Peru – countries that in the 1990s and progress hunger reveals a similar pattern. If both boasted rapid growth in GDP in towards the MDG target countries are grouped based on the 1990s, but with different impacts their success in reducing hunger on hunger (see box). Average growth of agricultural GDP (%/year) during the 1990s, the group that These and other examples tend to 0.6 made progress towards the MDG support the conclusions that economic 0.3 hunger reduction target was the only growth alone is important, but not 0.0 one where the agriculture sector sufficient to reduce hunger, and that grew (see graph). growth in the agriculture sector of -0.3 Comparisons within and between developing countries has a much -0.6 countries yield further evidence that greater impact in reducing hunger -0.9 the composition of growth matters. than do urban and industrial growth. In India, for example, the prevalence Furthermore, progress also hinges -1.2 of hunger decreased sharply during on many other factors, including -1.5 the 1980s, while the agriculture rates of HIV infection, trade openness Worsening Stagnant Progressing sector thrived and the national and political stability, control of Countries grouped by progress economy stagnated. But progress in corruption and other features often towards the MDG hunger target reducing hunger stalled during the grouped under the rubric of Source: FAO; World Bank second half of the 1990s, precisely “governance” (see pages 10–11). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 9
  12. 12. Undernourishment around the world The role of governance in hunger reduction A nalysis of the impact of effectiveness, rule of law and control decreasing undernourishment. As a economic growth on hunger of corruption – it is possible to group, only the countries where and poverty suggests that differentiate accurately for two- hunger remained unchanged scored initial conditions make a big thirds of the countries, without positive marks on the World Bank difference (see pages 8–9). Poverty referring to any other factors that governance indicators. falls significantly faster and farther are known to be important for This analysis suggests that the when growth occurs in places where hunger reduction, such as economic absence of these aspects of good the political situation is stable, and agricultural growth (see pages governance can be a major obstacle corruption is rare and farm 8–9), education levels and the to hunger reduction but that productivity and literacy rates are degree of inequality in access to achieving progress depends on high. Many of these favourable initial food. many other factors. conditions can be regarded as These governance indicators are indicators of what is often called far less successful, however, in Delivering essential public goods “good governance”. differentiating between countries Definitions and measures of that made progress in reducing Many of these other factors are governance vary considerably. The hunger during the 1990s and those included among the “public goods” World Bank defines it as “the set of where the prevalence of cited by IFPRI as responsibilities and traditions and institutions by which undernourishment has remained indicators of good governance. authority in a country is exercised” unchanged or has increased (see Internal peace, rule of law, rural and gathers more than 350 variables graph). infrastructure and agricultural to compile six aggregate indicators. As might be expected, countries research, for example, are all Other development agencies, where food security deteriorated essential for increasing agricultural such as the International Food were also the least stable politically, production and reducing hunger and Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), had the weakest rule of law and had poverty in the rural areas that are have argued that good governance the most rampant corruption. Many home to three-quarters of the extends to providing essential were countries where conflict had world’s hungry people. “public goods”, ranging from peace shredded the political and legal When governments cannot and security to roads and electricity fabric of governance. But these preserve internal peace, violent in rural areas. Advocates of a same governance indicators were conflict disrupts agricultural “rights-based” approach to also slightly negative for the group production and access to food. In development maintain that good of countries that succeeded in Africa, per capita food production governance must also include support for essential human rights, including the right to food. Governance indicators, food security and hunger reduction All three of these dimensions of in the 1990s governance are important to reducing hunger and achieving food Indicator average for country group Indicator average for country group security. 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.0 World Bank indicators 0.3 0.2 -0.3 0.1 Economic analysis confirms that the 0.0 -0.6 World Bank’s governance indicators -0.1 -0.2 -0.9 can be used to differentiate, with -0.3 -1.2 considerable accuracy, between -0.4 those developing countries that have -0.5 -1.5 More food secure Food insecure Progress No change Worsening achieved relatively low levels of (≤ 15% (≥ 15% undernourished) undernourished) Progress in reducing hunger 1991–2001 hunger and those that have not. Political stability Government effectiveness Rule of law Control of corruption Using just four of the indicators Source: World Bank; FAO – political stability, government 10 The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005
  13. 13. MDG 1 has dropped by an average of budget expenditures invested in lunches in all of the country’s 12.4 percent during times of conflict. agriculture in proportion to the schools. Both nutrition and school Weak rule of law also erodes importance of agriculture to the attendance have improved agricultural productivity and food national economy falls far below the dramatically where the programme security by making land tenure and scale of investment in countries has been implemented, particularly contracts precarious and investment where the incidence of hunger is among girls. Given the critical role unattractive. Failure to develop lower (see graph). of maternal nutrition and education roads, electricity and in breaking the cycle of hunger and communication links in rural areas Governance and the right to food poverty, the benefits will be felt for makes it difficult and expensive for generations to come (see pages 16 farmers to get their produce to The affirmation at the World Food and 20). market and to obtain fertilizer and Summit of the “fundamental right of other agricultural inputs. everyone to be free from hunger” Studies in China and India have highlighted another dimension of Rural road density in selected identified building roads as “the good governance – the obligation of African countries, early 1990s single most effective public goods states to respect human rights and investment in terms of poverty fundamental freedoms. And the reduction” (see graph). Evidence adoption in 2004 of “Voluntary Côte d’Ivoire suggests that it has a similar impact guidelines to support the Ghana on reducing hunger. When China progressive realization of the right to introduced secure household land adequate food in the context of Mozambique contracts and started investing national food security” by the FAO heavily in rural infrastructure and Council provided a practical tool to Nigeria agricultural research in the late assist national efforts to fulfil that United Rep. 1970s, agricultural production obligation. of Tanzania soared and hunger fell rapidly. Over The impact on governance and 100 300 500 700 the next two decades, total grain food security can be seen in several Road density (km/1 000 km2) output increased by 65 percent and countries that have already Existing the prevalence of hunger was recognized a “justiciable” right to Required to match India in 1950 (adjusted for population density) reduced by almost two-thirds. food. In India, for example, the Source: Spencer Tellingly, rural infrastructure Supreme Court mandated cooked tends to be least developed in countries and regions with the highest levels of hunger. Road Rural public investment and Commitment to agriculture for density in Africa in the early 1990s, poverty reduction in India countries grouped by prevalence for example, was less than of undernourishment one-sixth the density in India around the time of independence, Roads % of population undernourished in 1950 (see graph). Agricultural R&D Another way of gauging ≤4 Education governance is to consider how well Rural 5–19 government investment in development agriculture and agricultural Soil and water 20–34 conservation research corresponds with the Health sector’s importance to the national ≥ 35 economy and well-being. In the Irrigation 0 10 20 30 countries with the highest levels of 0 30 60 90 120 Agricultural orientation index* hunger, where an average of about Number of poor lifted out of * The share of agriculture in public-sector expenditure poverty per 1 million rupees divided by the share of agriculture in GDP. 70 percent of the population depend Source: Fan et al. Source: FAO on agriculture, the share of public The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 11

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